Orion RAN Slicing for a Flexible and CostEffective Multi-service Mobile Network Architecture Xenofon Foukas, Mahesh K. Karina, Kimon Kontovasilis Introduction Whats important for a 5G Network? 5G Network Characteristics 1. Service Oriented 2. Flexibility

- Virtualization - Functional Isolation 1. Resource Efficiency Orions Focus: RAN Slicing Outline 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. Background & Related Work Orion Overview Orions Design Evaluation Case Studies

Extending Orion Background & Related Work RAN Slicing w/ Functional Isolation w/o Functional Isolation Radio Resource Virtualization RAN Slicing:

RAN Sharing w/o Functional Isolation Active RAN Sharing 1. Multi-Core Operator Networks - Shared spectrum - Slices not isolated - LTE Standard 1. Multi-Operator RAN - Dedicated spectrum

FlexRAN - Flexible, programmable control plane Network Slicing Not fully customizable No Functional Isolation

RAN Slicing: Complete Isolation Virtualized Base Stations - Assumes dedicated hardware among slices

Limited, inefficient resource sharing Uncustomizable Orions Aim: Combining both: - Functional Isolation Efficient Resource

Sharing Radio Resource Virtualization Existing abstractions: - Too high level Dont account for physical layer restrictions Orions Aim:

- Dealing with physical constraints Introduce flexible abstractions Orion Overview Key Design Points Infrastructure vs. Service Provider Distinction

Strong Isolation Guarantee Infrastructure Provider vs. Service Provider Infrastructure Provider - Owns physical Base Stations

Manages hardware Responsible for admission control Base Station Hypervisor - Isolates RAN

slices Coordinates Resources Sharing Provides virtual view of resources Dedicated communication channels Service Provider

- Owns virtual slices Supplies slice requirement information Strong Isolation Guarantee Achieved by:

1. Slice Controllers as separate processes - Allows use of existing virtualization tech 1. Single Hypervisor - Isolation from resources perspective 1. Allocation algorithm - Accounts for slice SLA and physical constraints 1. UEs unaware of slices - Slices appear as different MVNOs Orion Design

Base Station Hypervisor Virtual Control Plane End-to-End Network Slicing Base Station Hypervisor Intermediary for Communication: 1. Hypervisor to Slice - API to access/modify data plane state - Allocates virtualized

resources 1. Slice to Hypervisor - Uses virtual resources for control plane operations - Sends commands to Hypervisor 4 Components: 1. 2.

3. 4. Slice Context Manager Radio Resource Manager Virtualization Manager UE Association Manager Base Station Hypervisor Architecture

Slice Context Manager Role: Tracks and updates information on slices. Slice Context Manager Slice Service Description 1. Service Level Agreement (SLA) - Service requirements - Unrestricted by Orion 1. List of UE identifiers - Used for mapping UEs to

slices Admission Control - Checks active slices information Consults Infrastructure Providers admission policy to accept/reject

Radio Resource Manager Role: Allocates physical radio resources among slices. Resource Allocation Period: occurs every allocation window (duration t) 1. Decides how to allocate resources for next window - Uses Slice Context Managers context info 1. Generates 2D array for partionable

resources 2. Forwards decision to Slice Context Manager Radio Resource Manager Upon Receiving Scheduling Decision: 1. Translates & updates data plane state - Uses custom API 1. Tracks slices physical resources - To inform future allocation

Virtualization Manager Role: Maintains isolation of slices from physical resources. Two Main Tasks 1. Present resource abstraction to slices 2. Present virtualized data plane state to slices Virtualization Manager

Radio Resource Abstraction - Uses Radio Resource Managers Resource Map Maps decisions from virtual to physical Omits: -

Info irrelevant to slice Resource grid and Frequency Dimension information Allows Slice Control Plane full access to their own resources. Virtualization Manager Radio Resource Abstraction Challenges:

- How to hide physical grid layout from slices? How to follow physical constraints? - eg. Group Based Allocation, Frequency dependencies

Resource Abstractions 1. vRRB 2. vRRB Pools Virtualization Manager vRRB (Virtual Radio Resource

Block) - Capacity: amount of data in one or more PRBs - Allows varying capacities

Virtualization Manager vRRB Pools: groups of vRRBS - Different pools for uplink/downlink 0 or more pools per slice Slices can only allocate resources in their pools Handles frequency dependency challenge Virtualization Manager

Data Plane Abstraction - Reveals relevant data plane state to slices - - Isolation: information reported in vRRBs

Provides cell-related configuration to slices - Provided to all slices Relevant Information? UE information is only

reported to their slice. UE Association Manager Role: Assigns UEs to slices. Two Steps: 1. Aiding Discovery 2. Attachment/Mapping UE Association Manager

(Step 1) Aiding Discovery of UE 1. Gets active slices from Slice Context Manager 2. Broadcast information through Base Station 3. UE enters attachment process after successful random access process Broadcast and Random Access processes of Base Stations kept internal to Hypervisor. UE Association Manager (Step 2) Mapping UE to a Slice

1. UE supplies a unique ID 2. Manager maps UE to slice with a UE lookup function - Slice Context Manager maintains lookup functions for each slice 1. Updates list of active UEs in slices context 2. Notifies slices virtual control plane Virtual Manager takes control of UE. Virtual Control Plane Separation

- Separate processes - - Uses existing virtualization tech Dedicated channel with

Hypervisor Association with multiple physical Base Stations - Flexibility Control plane centralization in different regions

Virtual Control Plane End-to-End Network Slicing Evaluation Scalability vs. State of the Art Impact of Communication Channel Scalability

Vs. State-of-the-Art Vs. State-of-the-Art Impact of Communication Channel Case Studies Isolation Capabilities Flexible Radio Resource Allocation Deployment in End-to-end setting

Isolation Capabilities Flexible Radio Resource Allocation Deployment in End-to-End Setting Conclusion Orion achieves both: - Functional Isolation

- Efficient resource sharing Contributes towards: - RaaS - multi-RAT settings

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