Cognitive Development

Cognitive Development

Cognitive Development Chapter 7 Novak and Pelaez Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

Piaget's Worldview What Changes? -- Structure Types of Schemes How do the structures change? -Functions: Adaptation = Assimilation Accommodation Equilibrium-Disequilibrium

and Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage (Birth - 24 months) Preoperational Stage (2 - 7 years) Preconceptual Period (2 - 4 years) Intuitive Period (4 - 7 years)

Concrete Operations Stage (7 - 11 years) Formal Operations Stage (12 years and up) Piaget and Function Behavioral Approaches to Cognitive Development

Knowledge and Ability Natural & Contrived Consequences What Reinforces Cognitive Behavior? Problem Solving Exploratory Behavior Creative Behavior

Knowledge Class of behaviors specified by a stimulus Simple discriminative behavior conceptual (abstract) behavior describing past events

describing how things work Ability Do things in a certain order Do things with a certain topography Problem Solving

Operant chain Precurrent behavior - makes correct response more likely Exploratory Behavior Reinforced by ecological stimuli Needs environment which affords

exploration Automatic (natural) reinforcement Creative Behavior Large repertoire of knowledge & ability History of reinforcement for creative combinations of behavior

Skill Learning: A Dynamical Systems Approach to Cognitive Development What Develops?--Operant Response Classes How Skills Develop -- Functions Transformational Rules

. Levels of Cognitive Skills Tiers of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor Tier Representational Tier Abstract Tier Levels within a Tier

Level A - Single Response Classes Level B - Mapping one class onto another Level C - Systems (mappings of mappings) Level D - Systems of Ststems (Shares with next tier) Figure 8-1: Fischers Levels of Cognitive Skills

10 Levels How Do Levels Change Transformational Processes Compounding (Chaining)

Focusing Intercoordination Differentiation Substitution Skill Theory and Dynamical Systems Stimulus Equivalence Identity (Reflexivity)

[ A =A Symmetry [ A=B then B=A Transitivity [ A=B and B=C then emerges A=C

The development of response systems Equivalencing: How? Basic Process (M. Sidman) Learned Skill (S. Hayes) Can Equivalencing be taught?

Charlie Studies (Lipkens, Hayes & Hayes) Is Equivalencing taught? Novak, et al. Skill Theory Analysis

and Behavior Cognitive skills as operants Stimulus Equivalence Classes Some Speculation on Stimulus Equivalence

and Cognitive Skills Theory Speculation on Skill Transformation Rules and Behavior Analysis Why are equivalence relationships important to the study of development?

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