Colonial America 1587 to 1770 - Leon County Schools

Colonial America 1587 to 1770 - Leon County Schools

Radicals in Control Section Two A) Protecting African American Rights South Returns to U.S. Congress

In 1865, many of the Southern states elected new government officials and sent them to Washington, D.C. They included many former Confederate Return of the Confederates Congress refused to seat these new members, rejecting President Johnsons plan because they felt like it rewarded the South and hurt African

Americans. Black Codes In 1865-66, many Southern governments passed black codes rules to control the freedmen and allow plantation owners to exploit

them. BLACK CODES Freedmen were banned from owning land in the South and orphaned African American children became workers for plantation owners.

Black codes gave Southern governments the right to arrest freedmen if they did not have a job and forced them to work off the fine Many in the North believed this was a new form of with the white owners.

Civil Rights Act of 1866 *The Freedmens Bureau was also strengthened to allow African Americans some form of justice against those who were denying them their rights. *In 1866, the Civil Rights Act

of 1866 granted full citizenship to African Americans and allowed the U.S. government to intervene in Southern states that were denying these rights. This Act nullified Black Codes and the Dred

Pres. Johnsons Veto President Johnson vetoed the bill. He believed it was unconstitutional because the U.S. Congress did not recognize all the states in the South, but Congress overrode the veto.

Congress Overrides The 14th Amendment The 14th Amendment granted full citizenship to all Americans who were born in the U.S., including all former slaves. The Amendment also

forced the South to protect their rights. Southern states that did not protect the rights of African Americans would lose representation in Congress. Former Confederates were also banned from holding office unless pardoned. Only Tennessee agreed to ratify this amendment. The other ten Southern states were delayed re-admittance until

Radicals Seize Congress In 1866, the Radical Republicans won the majority in the U.S. Congress

and in all Northern governments despite the efforts of President Johnson to stop them. B) Radical

Reconstruction Once the Radical Republicans took over, Pres. Johnson was powerless to stop them.

Reconstruction In 1867, the First Reconstruction Act was passed that called for new governments in all Southern states except for Tennessee they got to keep theirs. Reconstruction Act

All Southern Governments are suspended South must obey the U.S. Congress

South must obey the 14th Amendment South divided into 5 military districts

All former Confederates will be disenfranchised Southern Military Districts The First Reconstruction Act divided the South into

five military districts. Florida was in the 3rd District under General John Pope. Second Reconstruction Act All African American males were guaranteed the right to vote, while former Confederate

leaders were denied this right. The Second Reconstruction Act was soon passed that gave military leaders the right to create new state constitutional conventions.

Whites Protest Many whites protested, while African Americans took advantage and voted in Republican governments all over the South. Southern States Rejoin the Union

In 1868, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, and South Carolina returned to the Union. Mississippi, Virginia, and Texas rejoined in 1870. Tenure of Office Act President Johnson was

stripped of most of his power to intervene in the South with the Tenure of Office Act. Impeachment of Johnson When Pres. Johnson tried to fire Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, a Republican, the House of Representatives

voted to impeach him. They accused him of misconduct. In 1868, Congress voted 35-19 for impeachment, but were two votes short so Johnson remained President. Election of 1868 In the election of 1868, the Republicans nominated Ulysses S. Grant and the Democrats nominated Horatio Seymour. Grant easily won based on African

American votes in the South. Election of 1868 Pres. Ulysses S. Grant The 15th Amendment In 1869, the 15th Amendment was passed stopping

governments from denying the right to vote to anyone based on race, color, or former condition of servitude

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