Comedy of Morals

Comedy of Morals

LITERARY CRITICISM TERMS TO KNOW SET 2 PERIODS OF AMERICAN LITERATURE Colonial Period: 1607-1765 Revolutionary & Early National Period: 1765-1830

Romantic Period: 1830-1865 Realistic Period: 1865-1900 Naturalistic & Symbolistic Period: 19001930 Period of Conformity & Criticism: 19301960 Period of the Confessional Self: 1960 - _____ HARLEM RENAISSANCE African American authors who produced works equal to whites during the 1920s.

Members: Gwendolyn Brooks, Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, Dubose Heyward, Langston Hughes, Julia Peterkin, Jean Toomer, Arna Botemps POTBOILER Something written solely for money. It is writing that will

keep the pot boiling. RATIOCINATION The process of reasoning from data to conclusions. The terms was given literary significance by Poe, who wrote several of these type tales, among them The Murders in the Rue Morgue, The gold Bug, The Purloined Letter, and The Mystery

of Marie Roget. As a literary term, it signifies a type of writing that solves, through logical processes, some sort of enigma. SOLECISM A violation of prescriptive grammatical rules, like he dont and between you and I. This term is loosely any error

in diction, grammar, or propriety. Some, however, reserve this term for errors in grammar and idiom alone, distinguished from catachresis. TRIBE OF BEN SONS OF BEN They acknowledged Ben Jonson as their leader; this group

included poets and Puritans. Members: Robert Herrick, Richard ovelace, Thomas Carew, John Suckling SPOONERISM An accidental interchange of sounds, usually the initial consonants, in two or more words, such as blushing crow

for crushing blow or wellboiled icicle for well-oiled bicycle. The term owes its name to Dr. W.A. Spooner, of New College, Oxford, who was supposedly prone to such SYNECDOCHE A trope in which a part signifies the whole or the whole signifies the part. To be clear, it ought ot be based on an

important part of the whole and, usually, the part standing for the whole ought to be directly associated with the subject under discussion. Thus, under the first restriction, we say threads for clothes or wheels for car, and under the second restriction we speak of infantry on the march as foot rather than as handsjust as we use hands (rather than foot) for people who work in

manual labor. TAUTOLOGY The use of repetitious words. This term repeats an idea without adding force or clarity. For example, since devoid means completely empty, the use of wholly devoid would be ______.

JEU DESPRIT A witty playing with words, a clever sally. Much of Tomas Hoods verse, for example, may be said to be marked by a happy ___________. The term is also applied to brief, clever pieces of writing, such as Benjamin Franklins bagatelles.

JEREMIAD A prophesy. A work that foretells destruction because of the evil of a group. IMPRECATION A curse: a malediction CHANSON de JESTE

A song of great deeds. The earliest and best example is the Chanson de Roland, c. 1100. ACATALECTIC Metrically complete; applied to lines that carry out the basic metrical and rhythmic pattern of a poem.

ACCISMUS A form of irony, a pretended refusal that is insincere or hypocritical. Ex: Caesars refusal of the crown as reported by Casca in Shakespeares Julius Caesar. ACROSTIC A composition, usually verse, arranged in

such a way that it spells words, phrases, or sentences when certain letters are selected according to an orderly sequence. Ex. From the poem at the end of Lewis Carrolls Through the Looking Glass A boat, beneath the sunny sky, Lingering onward dreamily In an evening of July Children three that nestle near, Eager eye and willign ear

ANALEPTIC An aspect from the past of the unconscious mind is restored to vivid life in the present or conscious mind. A recovery to restoration. ANAPHORA (also called

Epanaphora) One of the devices of repetition, in which the same expression (word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences. As I ebbd with the ocean life, As I wended the shores I know, As I walkd where the ripples continually wash you

Paumanok. ANASTROPHE Inversion of the usual, normal, or logical order of the parts of a sentence. ANGRY YOUNG MEN They demonstrated bitterness in their attacks on the

outmoded, bourgeoisie values of Britain; the name came from the title of Leslie Pauls autobiography. Members: Leslie Paul, John Osborne, Kingsley Amis, John Braine, Leigh Hunt DRAMATIC PERSONAE The characters in a drama, a

novel, or a poem. The term is also applied to a listing of the characters in the program of a play, at the beginning of the printed version of a play, or sometimes at the beginning of a novel. Such a list often contains brief characterizations of the persons of the work and notations about their

BIBLE TRANSLATIONS Caedmonian 7th century poetic paraphrases Bede 7th century prose translation of Gospel of St. John King Alfred 9th century glosses of Psalms and prose translations West Saxon Gospels and Lindisfarne Gospels; 10th century

Richard Rolle 14th century English versions and commentaries BILDUNGSROMAN A novel that deals with the development of a young person, usually from adolescence to maturity; it is frequently autobiographical. Ex: Dickenss Great

Expectations BILLINGSGATE Course, foul, vulgar, violent, abusive language. The term is derived from the fact that the fishmongers in this particular fish market in London achieved distinction for the scurrility of their language.

BLUESTOCKINGS Women of pronounced intellectual interest in London who worked to promote interest in literature. Only one male member Horace Walpole. Members: Elizabeth Montague, Hannah More, Fanny Burney, Hester Chapone

BON MOT A witty repartee or statement. A clever saying. BRAGGADOCIO A noisy braggart who is actually a coward. Although the name comes from a character in Spensers Faerie Queene, the

______ is really a stock character with a long history stretching back to Greek and Roman comedy. BREAD & CHEESE GROUP Social club not restricted to literary activities. Members: James F. Cooper, Samuel B. Morse, William

Dunlap BRITISH LITERATURE: 428 - 1500 Old English: 428 1100 Anglo-Norman: 1100-1350 Middle English: 1350-1500 BRITISH LITERATURE: PERIODS OF THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE

1500-1660 Early Tudor: 1500-1557 Elizabethan: 1558-1603 Jacobean: 1609-1625 Caroline: 1625-1649 Commonwealth Interregnum: 1649-1660 BRITISH LITERATURE:

PERIODS OF THE NEOCLASSIC AGE 1660-1798 Restoration: 1660-1770 Augustan Age: 1770-1750 Age of Johnson: 1750-1798 BRITISH LITERATURE: PERIODS OF THE ROMANTIC & REALISTIC AGE 1798-1914

Romantic: 1798-1870 Age of the Romantic Movement: 1798-1832 Early Victorian: 1832-1870 Realistic: 1870-1914 Late Victorian: 1870-1901 Edwardian: 1901-1914 BRITISH LITERATURE:

Periods of the Modernist & Post Modern/Contemporary 1914-present Georgian: 1914-1940 Diminishing Age: 1940-1965 Post Modern/Contemporary: 1965present CAVALIER LYRICISTS They supported Charles I and wrote light-hearted poetry.

Their motto was Carpe Diem. Members: Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Thomas Carew, John Suckling CHIASMUS A pattern in which the second part is balanced against the first, but with the parts reversed, as in Coleridges line,

flowers are lovely, but love is flowerlike. CONFESSIONAL POETRY Works of contemporary poets whose poetry features a public and sometimes painful display of private and personal matters. Members: Theodore Roethke, Anne Sexton, Allen Ginsberg,

Robert Lowell, Sylvia Plath, John Berryman DADAISM A movement in Europe during and just after the First World War, which ignored logical relationship between idea and statement, argued for absolute freedom, and delivered itself of

numerous provocative manifestos. DIRGE A wailing song sung at a funeral or in commemoration of death. A short lyric of lamentation. DITTY

A song, a refrain. The term is used for any short, simple, popular melody. DOGGEREL Rude Verse. Any poorly executed attempt at poetry. Characteristics of this are monotony of rhythm and rhyme, cheap, sentiment and trivial,

trite subject matter. DRAWING ROOM COMEDY A form of the COMEDY OF MANNERS that deals with high society. It is called this because it is usually a WELL-MADEPLAY with its actions centered indoors, often literally in a drawing room.

DUALISM A doctrine (as opposed to monism) that recognizes the possibility of the coexistence of antithetical or complementary principles. In monistic schemes, mind is reducible to matter (as in behaviorism), or matter is reducible to mind (as in mysticism); in _______, mind

and matter both exist. ECPHONEMA, ECHONESIS An outcry or exclamation, sometimes indicated by oh or ah, along with an exclamation point. EISTEDDFOD

A Welsh festival of poetry and song, dating back many centuries. Now annual and more or less official, the _______ has been important in maintaining communication among writers. ENCOMIUM In Greek literature a

composition in praise of a living person, object, or event, but not a god, delivered before a special audience. FILIDH (pl. FILI) Early Irish professional poets. FU A technical term used in the

Briggsian school of alfresco film criticism; appropriated from the Chinese kung fu, the Briggsian application of ____ means mindless violence. GASCONADE Because Gascons were considered inveterate boasters, this term came to mean

bravado or boastful talk. GEST An old word occasionally found in English, especially in literary titles from the medieval period meaning a tale of war or adventure, as the Gest Historiale of the Deconstruction of Troy (14th

century). HAGIOGRAPHY Writing about the saints. HELLENISM The Greek spirit, which manifests itself in the celebration of the intellect and of beauty.

OEDIPUS COMPLEX In psychoanalysis a libidinal feeling that develops in a child, especially a male child, between the ages of three and six, for the parent of the opposite sex. This attachment is generally accompanied by hostility to the parent of the childs own sex. It

is named for the ancient Theban hero who unwittingly slew his father and married his MUCKRAKERS 1902-1911. They worked to expose the dishonest methods unscrupulous motives in big business and in national governments. They also published

magazines: The Arena, Everybodys McClures, The Independent, Colliers, and Cosmo. Members: Ida Tarbell, Mark Sullivan, Lincoln Steffens, Samuel H. Adams, T.W. Lawson, Upton METATHESIS The interchange of position between sounds in a word. An

example is when one hears pretty pronounced as perty. When ______ occurs between words, the result is a spoonerism, whereby loving shepherd is mistakenly said as shoving leopard. MASCULINE RHYME Rhyme that falls on the

stressed, concluding syllables of the rhyme words. This term account for a majority of rhymes in English. Mount and fount are an example of this. MACABRE Originally in danse macabre or Dance of Death, the obscure

word relates to both subject and style, a gruesome combination of farce and tragedy. LOST GENERATION Writers who served in World War I and reacted against older writers of the times. They blamed the loss of traditional values on war & other

social evils. They got their name from Gertrude Stein who had a house in Paris where most of them lived at one point. Members: Ernest Hemingway, Louis Bromfield, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Malcolm Cowley, Harte Crane LITOTES A form of understatement in

which a thing is affirmed by stating the negative of its opposite. To say, She was not unmindful when one means that She gave careful attention, is an example. KILL FEE Money paid to an author in compensation for material that

has been requested or commissioned, but not used (that is, the material that has been killed). KITSCH From the German term for gaudy trash; shallow, flashy art designed to have popular appeal and commercial success.

KENNING A figurative phrase used in Old Germanic languages as a synonym for a simple noun. These are often picturesque metaphorical compounds. Specimen kennings from Beowulf are the bent-necked wood, the ringed prow, the

foamy-necked, the sea-wood, and the sea-farer, for ship. MORPHOLOGY A word coined by Goethe for the study of forms at any level. MIMESIS The Greek for imitation, often used specifically to indicate

Aristotles theory of imitation. ______ in a narrower sense has been used by Northrop Frye to designate works that imitate characters on a human level (as distinct from the superhuman levels fo myth and romance as well as the subhuman level of irony).

JUVENALIAN SATIRE Formal satire in which the speaker attacks vice and error with contempt and indignation. It is so called because it is like the dignified satires of Juvenal. Samuel Johnsons The Vanity of Human Wishes is a wellknown example. _______ ______ in its realism and its harshness is in strong contrast to Horation

HORATION SATIRE In general, a gentler, more good humoured and sympathetic kind of satire, somewhat tolerant of human folly even while laughing at it. Named after the poet Horace, whose satire epitomized it. ______ ______ tends to ridicule

human folly in general or by type rather than attack specific persons. LEITMOTIF In art, a recurrent repetition of some word, phrase, situation, or idea, such as tends to unify a work through its power to recall earlier occurrences.

LEVEL A metaphor that relates to our sense of the relative dignity, complexity, and rarity of something. We speak of the ____ of ones vocabulary as high, plain, or low; we also speak of ______ of meaning surface or deep.

VERFREMDUNGSEFFEKT German for alienation effect. Of particular importance in the drama, this term was advocated by Bertolt Brecht as a means by which performers and audiences alike could avoid undue emotional identification with a work an identification

that needs to be neutralized and controlled I the work is to have its intended intellectual VERSIMILITUDE The semblance of truth. The term indicates the degree to which a work creates the appearance of the truth. The word was a favorite with Poe,

who used it in the sense of presenting details, however farfetched, in such a way as to give them the impression of the truth. An example is Daniel Defoes True Relation of the THE BEAT GENERATION (conformity & criticism) Poets and novelists in the 150s and 1960s. It was a romantic rebellion against

what they conceived as American culture expressed revolt through works of loose structure and slang. Members: Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Jack Kerouac THE GREEK MUSES All the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Memory)

Calliope Epic poetry Melpomene Tragedy Erato Lyrics & love poetry Euterpe Music Polyhymnia Sacred choric poetry Thalia Comedy Urania Astronomy Terpischore Choral dance & song Clio - History

PARAGRAM Generally, a word that resembles another and is used in its place for the sake of euphemism, apotropaic deformation, insult, avoidance of libel, or some other purpsoe. Example: using gad, gosh, and/or golly, rather than God.

OLLAVE Among the early Irish, a person of wisdom and learning; a poet sometimes ranking below a Druid, but above a Bard. OBLIQUE RHYME Approximate but not true rhyme; ______ ______ is another

term for near rhyme, half rhyme, and slant rhyme. NIHIL OBSTAT Lating for nothing obstructs, used in the Roman Catholic church to grant permission to publish a book. NEW YORK SCHOOL

A group of American poets who flourished between 1950 and 1970, distinguished by urbanity, with, learning, spontaneity, and exuberance. Led by Frank OHara (1926-1966), these poets exploited certain interests and sympathies; the culture of France, modern painting (surrealism and abstract expressionism in particular), jazz,

Hollywood movies and city life. NEW HUMANISM An American critical school in the first third of the twentieth century that emphasized the moral qualities of literature. MAGNUM OPUS A great work, a masterpiece.

Formerly the term was used in all seriousness, but nowadays it often connotes irony or sarcasm. LOCALE The physical setting of some action. It denotes geographical setting and scenic qualities rather than the less tangible

aspects of setting. TYPES OF CHARACTERS Round can surprise reader without losing credibility Dynamic character who develops and changes as a result of plt actions Static conventional character types

Flat single sentence recognition Stock static characters (i.e. scheming murder villain, ghosts of murdered relatives, vengeance TROUBADOUR A name given to the lyric poets and composers of Provence (southern France) in the 12th and 13th centuries. The name comes from a word meaning to find,

suggesting the ______ was regarded as an inventor and experimenter. They were essentially lyric poets, occupied with love and chivalry. Its poetry figured into the developmetn of corutly love and influenced the troiuveres of northiern France. The earliest ______ of record is William IX of Aquitaine (1071-11-27); other famous ______ are Bernard de Ventadour, Bertran de Born, and Artnaut Daniel. Some

THE PRINTING PRESSES Gutenburg (1456) Germany Caxton (1476) England learned from Gutenburg Oxford (1478) England learned from Caxton St. Albans (1479) England also learned from Caxton

THE NEW JOURNALISM A species of writing that owes something to the example of H.L. Menken, John Dos Passos, and Ernest Hemingway; and even reaches back as far as Daniel Defoe for precursors. As it emerged after the second World War, the ______ was founded on conventional journalistic or historical coverage of events, but gave up traditional impersonality and invisibility of the

journalist as such and offered instead a subjective style and voice that openly admit the personal presence and involvement of a Tom Wolfe, Norman Mailer, Hunter S. Thompson, Joan Didion, INCUNABULUM A term applied to any book printed in the last part of the 15th century (before 1501).

Since the first printed books resembled in size, form and appearance the medieval manuscript, which had been developed to a high degree of artistic perfection, these are commonly large and ornate. UNIVERSITY WITS A name used for certain young university

people who came to London in the late 1580s and undertook careers as professional writers. They played an important part in the development of the great literature, especially the drama, that characterized the latter part of Elizabeths reign. The most important was Christopher Marlowe. Others were Robert Green, George Peele, Thomas Lodge, Thomas Nash, and Thomas Kyd. Some authorities

include John Lyly, though he was older and perhaps not personally associated with the others. The lived irregular lives, Green and Marlowe being particularly known as Bohemians. IMPORTANT AUTHORS JANE AUSTEN Lived from 1775-1817

Persuasion Northanger Abbey Emma Pride and Prejudice Sense and Sensibility WILLIAM WORDSWORTH Lived from 1770-1850 Descriptive Sketches The Borderers

Prelude Excursion Lyrical Ballads (with Coleridge) 2nd Edition of Lyrical Ballads w/famous Preface (with CHARLES DICKENS Lived from18121870 Great

Expectations Bleak House Hard Times Pickwick Papers Oliver Twist American Notes Cricket on the Hearth David Copperfield

Little Dorrit Tale of Two Cities Our Mutual Friend Old Curiosity Shop Christmas Carol JOHN DRYDEN Lived from 16311700

Absalom and Achitophel The Indian Queen MacFlecknoe (a) (written with Howard) The Hind & the The Indian Emperor Panther Alexanders Feast

Essay on Dramatic Poesy Stanzas on Death of Conquest of Granada Cromwell All for Love GEORGE ELIOT Real name is Mary Ann Evans Lived from 1819-1880 Scenes of a Clerical Life

Adam Bede Mill on the Floss Silas Marner Romola Middle March Daneil Deronda T.S. ELIOT Lived from 1888-1965 Love Song of Alfred Prufrock

Poems 1920 The Waste Land Ash Wednesday Murder in the Cathedral Four Quartets The Cocktail Party A Confidential Clerk The Elder Statesman RALPH WALDO EMERSON

Lived from 1803-1882 Nature Essays Essays: Second Series Poems Representative Man English Traits Conduct of Life WILLIAM FAULKNER

Lived from 18971962 The Sound & the Fury Sanctuary Light in August Absalom, Absalom! The Hamlet Go Down, Moses Intruder in the Dust

Requiem for a Nun A Fable The Town The Mansion The Rivers ERNEST HEMINGWAY Lived from 1899-1961 The Garden of Eden In Our Time

The Sun Also Rises A Farewell to Arms The Fifth Column & the First 49 Stories For Whom the Bell Tolls Across the River and Into the Trees The Old man and the Sea A Moveable Feast Islands in the Stream

HENRY JAMES Lived from 18431916 Roderick Hudson The American Daisy Miller The Portrait of a Lady Washington Square The Bostonians Princess

Casamassima Aspern Papers Tragic Muse The Real Thing & Other Tales The Wings of the Dove The Ambassadors The Golden Bowl

The Sacred Fountain JOHN KEATS Lived from 1795 1821 Poems Lamia...and Other Poems Endymion J.D. SALINGER Lived from 1919

Catcher in the Rye Franny and Zooey Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters EUGENE ONEILL Lived from 18881953 Marco Millions Morning Becomes

Moon on the Electra Caribees The Emperor Jones The Iceman Cometh A Long Days Journey The Hairy Ape Beyond the Horizon Into the Night More Stately Anna Christie Mansions

Desire Under the A Touch of the Poet Elms MARK TWAIN Lived from 1835-1910 Real name was Samuel Clemens The Celebrated

Jumping Frog of Calveras Cty The Innocent Abroad Roughing It Tom Sawyer The Prince & the Life on the Mississippi

A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court Puddnhead Wilson Huckleberry Fin The Mysterious EUDORA WELTY Lived from 1909

A Curtain of Green Delta Wedding The Golden Apples The Optimists Daughter Losing Battles

GEOFFREY CHAUCER Lived from 1340-1400 Book of the Duchess House of Fame Troilus and Criseyde Legend of a Good Woman Canterbury Tales THE END

This concludes the second of two installments of Terms to Know for UIL Literary Criticism.

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