Commonly Abused Drugs

Commonly Abused Drugs

Commonly Abused Drugs and Addictive Substances () [email protected]

Addictive Substances Addictive substances can affect the brain in different ways. Stimulants: make a person feel more energetic Depressants: bring a feeling of relaxation. Hallucinogens: change the way someone experiences reality. Some drugs fall into more than one classification.

Legal Addictive Substances Caffeine: Coffee, tea, soda, sports drinks. Coffee has roughly twice as much caffeine as other sources. Moderate consumption is three cups or less of coffee per day. Ten cups is considered excessive and results in nervousness, sleeping difficulty, increased heartbeat, headaches, anxiety and nausea. Nicotine: Cigarettes, cigars, nicotine patches. Both coffee and nicotine are stimulants that not only increase dopamine levels, but boost adrenaline. Increased adrenaline raises the user's heart rate and blood pressure, and interferes with the release of insulin by the pancreas, leading to elevated blood sugar. Nicotine can also act as a depressant.

Alcohol: Wine, beer, liquor. Alcohol is a depressant that affect neurons in the central nervous system which leads to relaxation, drowsiness, lack of inhibition, sleep, coma and even death. Addiction to alcohol is called alcoholism. Inhalants: Aerosols, solvents, gases and nitrates. Products range from paint thinners to hair spray to propane tanks, and inhalation results in a high similar to that of alcohol. Even one-time use of inhalants can kill or cause heart failure. Controlled Addictive Substances Available by prescription only.

Amphetamines: Stimulants that boost alertness and concentration. Adderall, dexedrene and other drugs are normally prescribed for treatment of ADHD. Abuse occurs when they're taken in quantities other than those prescribed or by someone other than the intended patient. Sedative-hypnotic drugs: Benzodiazepines Xanax, Valium, barbiturates, Seconol, phenobarbital. Benzodiazepines are also known as depressants because they depress brain activity. These drugs are prescribed for insomnia, anxiety, seizures and symptoms of bipolar and manic depressive disorder. Even a small overdose of barbiturates used for anesthesia can result in coma, respiratory distress or death.

Opioids: Heroin, morphine, oxycodone, codeine and other narcotic pain relievers are very useful when prescribed. They interfere with the way pain messages are sent to the brain and how the brain receives them. Heroin, an illegal drug processed from the poppy-plant product, morphine, is highly addictive. Can be injected, smoked or snorted. Illegal Addictive Substances illegal in all cases, but can still be widely available. Cannabis: Marijuana, grass, pot, hashish. The most commonly used illegal drug in the U.S., it relaxes the user and concentrated doses may bring euphoria, hallucinations or paranoia. Long-term use can be addictive for some people. Prescribed legally in some

states for medical use because it curbs nausea. Cocaine: Coke, crack. Brings users a strong sense of euphoria and energy before leading to agitation, depression and paranoia. A white powder, cocaine comes from the coco plant and is the second most-used illegal drug in America. Can be snorted, sniffed, injected or smoked (crack). Hallucinogens: LSD, ecstasy. Changes the way users perceive time, motion, colors, sound and their own thoughts. Disruption of normal thinking can lead to dangerous behavior. Phencyclidine (PCP): Angel dust. Anesthetic approved only for animal use. A

hallucinogen that has sedative qualities producing a dissociative state, or out-of-body experience, along with a euphoric rush. Can be sprinkled on marijuana or other substances and smoked, snorted or taken in pill form. Users can become violent or suicidal, and experience muscle contractions so severe they can lead to bone fractures. Cannabis & Hashish Cannabis & Hashish Cannabis is a collective term referring to the bioactive substances from Cannabis sativa. The C. sativa plant contains a group of more than 60

chemicals called cannabinoids. The major cannabinoids are cannabinol, cannabidiol, and tetrahydrocannabinol. The principal psychoactive cannabinoid is ~9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Marijuana is the common name for a mixture of dried leaves and flowers of the C. sativa plant. Hashish and hashish oil are the pressed resin and the oil expressed from the pressed resin, respectively. History Cannabis has been used for more than 4000

years. The earliest documentation of the therapeutic use of marijuana is the 4t century BC in China. Cannabis use spread from China to India to North Africa, reaching Europe around AD 500. Medical Conditions Proposed for Cannabinoid Use dronabinol and nabilone Anorexia-cachexia syndrome secondary to HIV infection'

Anxiety Asthma Depression Epilepsy Glaucoma Head injury Insomnia

Migraine headaches Multiple sclerosis Muscle spasticity and spasms Nausea and vomiting (resistant)'

Neurologic disorders Pain Parkinson disease Tourette syndrome Cannabinoids pharmacodynamics Before the 1980s, it was often speculated that cannabinoids produced their physiological and behavioral effects via nonspecific interaction with cell membranes, instead of interacting with specific membrane-bound receptors. The discovery

of the first cannabinoid receptors in the 1980s helped to resolve this debate. At present, there are two known types of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2,with mounting evidence of more. DEA Schedule Schedule I Controlled Substances: Substances in this schedule have no currently accepted medical use in the United States, a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision, and a high potential for abuse.

Examples: heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), peyote, methaqualone, and 3,4methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy"). DEA Schedule Schedule II/IIN Controlled Substances (2/2N): Substances in this schedule have a high potential for abuse which may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. Examples of Schedule II narcotics: hydromorphone (Dilaudid), methadone (Dolophine), meperidine (Demerol), oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet), and fentanyl (Sublimaze, Duragesic).

Other Schedule II narcotics include: morphine, opium, and codeine. Examples of Schedule IIN stimulants: amphetamine (Dexedrine, Adderall), methamphetamine (Desoxyn), and methylphenidate (Ritalin). Other Schedule II substances: amobarbital, glutethimide, and pentobarbital. DEA Schedule Schedule III/IIIN Controlled Substances (3/3N): Substances in this schedule have a potential for abuse less than substances in Schedules I or II and abuse may lead to moderate or low physical

dependence or high psychological dependence. Examples of Schedule III narcotics: combination products containing less than 15 milligrams of hydrocodone per dosage unit (Vicodin), products containing not more than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit (Tylenol with Codeine), and buprenorphine (Suboxone). Examples of Schedule IIIN non-narcotics: benzphetamine (Didrex), phendimetrazine, ketamine, and anabolic steroids such as Depo-Testosterone. DEA Schedule

Schedule IV Controlled Substances Substances in this schedule have a low potential for abuse relative to substances in Schedule III. Examples of Schedule IV substances: alprazolam (Xanax), carisoprodol (Soma), clonazepam (Klonopin), clorazepate (Tranxene), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), midazolam (Versed), temazepam (Restoril), and triazolam (Halcion). DEA Schedule

Schedule V Controlled Substances Substances in this schedule have a low potential for abuse relative to substances listed in Schedule IV and consist primarily of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics. Examples of Schedule V substances: cough preparations containing not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams (Robitussin AC, Phenergan with Codeine), and ezogabine.

Cannabinoids Acute Toxicity decreases in coordination, muscle strength, and hand steadiness. Lethargy, sedation, postural hypotension, inability to concentrate, decreased psychomotor activity, slurred speech, and slow reaction time. - Life-threatening ventricular tachycardia (200 beats/min) has been reported. - acute cardiovascular deaths(?) - risk of myocardial infarction is increased five times over baseline in the 60 minutes after marijuana use.

- It is not known to cause death via direct drug toxicity. Cannabinoids Acute Toxicity In children: - 250 to 1000 mg of hashish resulted in obtundation in 30 to 75 minutes. - Less commonly: apnea, cyanosis, bradycardia, hypotonia, and opisthotonus.

Stimulants Stimulants Health Risks - Weight loss, insomnia; cardiac or cardiovascular complications; stroke; seizures; addiction Also, for cocaine Nasal damage from snorting Also, for methamphetamine Severe dental problems

PHARMACOLOGY (Cocain) inhibits the synaptic reuptake of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin stimulates the presynaptic release of norepinephrine, leading to increased sympathomimetic activity. is a powerful vasoconstrictor and may enhance in situ thrombus formation and platelet aggregation.

PHARMACOLOGY (Cocain) Cocaine + Ethanol = Cocaethylene (more toxic than cocaine itself, has a longer half-life than cocaine) Acute Toxicity (Cocain) sudden death by: - stroke

- seizure - cardiac dysrhythmia - acute coronary syndrome may cause excited(agitated) delirium PHARMACOLOGY (Methamphetamine) promote increased norepinephrine release into the synaptic cleft, which then overflows into the circulation, resulting in

sympathomimetic effects. also promote the release of dopamine and serotonin Amphetamine increases the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic cleft in 3 ways: (1) bind to the pre-synaptic membrane of dopaminergic neurones and induce the release of dopamine

from the nerve terminal (2) interact with dopamine containing synaptic vesicles, releasing free dopamine into the nerve terminal (3) bind to the dopamine re-uptake transporter, causing it to act in reverse and transport free dopamine out of the nerve terminal. Amphetamine can also cause an increased release of noradrenaline into the synaptic cleft. Acute Toxicity (Methamphetamine) sudden death by - stroke - seizure

- cardiac dysrhythmia excited delirium hyperthermia tachycardia hypertension rhabdomyolysis disseminated intravascular coagulation Stimulants Pharmacokinetics

Duration of Action Cocaine - oral onset in 2-3 min with peak in 15-20 min duration less than 1 hr IV or smoked - onset in 10 sec & peak in 5-10 min Amphetamine - oral effects after 30 min & peak in 2-3 hrs duration 10-12 hrs IV or smoked - onset 5 min & lasts up to 7 hrs

?designer amphetamine The term designer amphetamine is often used to describe synthetic chemicals that are derived from amphetamine or methamphetamine. Designer amphetamines, like other designer drugs, are often created to avoid regulation by existing drug laws. Methamphetamine

Amphetamine type stimulants D L

) CNS(psychostimulants euphoria 1887 1920 ( )

Amphetamine type stimulants . ( %40 %30

%20) .. . Street Names

Meth Crystal Crystal meth Glass

Shabu Shaboo Ice Go fast

S Speed Snap Tina Crank Shabs Shard Batu

Locations of amphetamines manufacture and main trafficking routes Sources: UNODC, Annual Reports Questionnaire Data, UNODC, Individual Drug Seizure Database, other Club Drugs Club Drugs Club drugs, Rave drugs, are a loosely-defined category of recreational drugs which are associated with discothques in the 1970s and dance clubs, parties, and raves in the 1980s to the

2000s, are a "category of convenience," which includes drugs ranging from phenethylamines such as the popular ecstasy to the lesser known 2C-B, inhalants (nitrous oxide and amyl nitrite "poppers"), stimulants (such as amphetamines and cocaine), and hallucinogens such as LSD and psilocybin mushrooms. Dancers at all-night parties use these drugs for their stimulating or psychedelic properties. "Club drugs" vary by country and region; in some areas, even opiates such as heroin are sold at clubs, though this practice is relatively uncommon. Club Drugs

effects Acute Effects, for MDMA - Mild hallucinogenic effects; increased tactile sensitivity; empathic feelings; lowered inhibition; anxiety; chills; sweating; teeth clenching; muscle cramping Also, for Flunitrazepam - Sedation; muscle relaxation; confusion; memory loss; dizziness; impaired coordination Also, for GHB - Drowsiness; nausea; headache; disorientation; loss of coordination; memory loss Health Risks, for MDMA - Sleep disturbances; depression; impaired memory; hyperthermia; addiction Also, for Flunitrazepam - Addiction

Also, for GHB - Unconsciousness; seizures; coma Hallucinogens Hallucinogens psychedelics dissociatives deliriants - can cause subjective changes in perception, thought, emotion and consciousness. - Unlike other psychoactive drugs, such as stimulants and

opioids, these drugs do not merely amplify familiar states of mind, but rather induce experiences that are qualitatively different from those of ordinary consciousness. Psychedelics (classical hallucinogens) LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide) Psilocybin(more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms) DMT(Dimethyltryptamine) 2C-B (4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine) mescaline(peyote cactus, the San Pedro cactus , and in

the Peruvian torch) DOB (2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine) Other tryptamines Other phenethylamines Mescaline Mescaline is produced when products of natural mammalian catecholamine-based neuronal signalling such as dopamine and serotonin are subjected to additional metabolism via methylation, and mescaline's

hallucinogenic properties stem from its structural similarities with these two neurotransmitters. Mescaline Mescaline or 3,4,5trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects similar to those of LSD and psilocybin. It shares strong structural similarities with the catecholamine dopamine.

Psilocybin Psilocybin is rapidly dephosphorylated in the body to psilocin, which is a partial agonist for several serotonergic receptors. Psilocin has a high affinity for the 5-HT serotonin receptor in the brain, where it mimics the effects of serotonin. LSD LSD affects a large number of the G proteincoupled receptors, including all dopamine

receptor subtypes, and all adrenoreceptor subtypes, as well as many others.Most serotonergic psychedelics are not significantly dopaminergic, and LSD is therefore rather unique in this regard. Dissociatives Dissociatives produce analgesia, amnesia and catalepsy at anesthetic doses. They also produce a sense of detachment from the surrounding environment,

ketamine, phencyclidine (PCP), dextromethorphan (DXM), nitrous oxide, Salvia divinorum Deliriants induce a state of delirium in the user, characterized by extreme confusion and an inability to control ones actions. Atropa belladona(deadly nightshade), Brugmanasia species (Angel's Trumpet), Datura stramonium(Jimson weed), Hyoscynamus niger(henbane), Mandragora

officinarum (mandrake), and Myristica fragrans (nutmeg), as well as a number of pharmaceutical drugs, when taken in very high doses, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and its close relative dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) LSD decorated paper Structural Classifications of Hallucinogens

lysergamides d-Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) Lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide Ipomoea violacea (Morning glory) Ololiuqui (South American Morning glory) Ergine Argyreia nervosa (Wood rose)

Indolealkylamines/Tryptamines 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Psilocin Psilocybin Phenylethylamines Mescaline MDMA (3,4methylenedioxymethamphetamine) 2C-8 2C-T-7

Tetrahydrocannabinoids Marijuana Hashish Belladonna alkaloids Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) Brugmansia spp Miscellaneous Kava Kava Ketamine

Kratom Nutmeg Phencyclidine (PCP) Salvia divinorum Hallucinogens effects Acute Effects - Altered states of perception and feeling; hallucinations; nausea Also, for LSD - Increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; loss of appetite; sweating; sleeplessness; numbness, dizziness,

weakness, tremors; impulsive behavior; rapid shifts in emotion Also, for Mescaline - Increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; loss of appetite; sweating; sleeplessness; numbness, dizziness, weakness, tremors; impulsive behavior; rapid shifts in emotion Also, for Psilocybin - Nervousness; paranoia; panic Health Risks, for LSD - Flashbacks, Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder Dissociative Drugs effects

Acute Effects - Feelings of being separate from ones body and environment; impaired motor function Also, for ketamine - Analgesia; impaired memory; delirium; respiratory depression and arrest; death Also, for PCP and analogs - Analgesia; psychosis; aggression; violence; slurred speech; loss of coordination; hallucinations Also, for DXM - Euphoria; slurred speech; confusion; dizziness; distorted visual perceptions Health Risks - Anxiety; tremors; numbness; memory loss; nausea

Acute Effects, for Anabolic steroids - No intoxication effects Also, for Inhalants (varies by chemical) - Stimulation; loss of inhibition; headache; nausea or vomiting; slurred speech; loss of motor coordination; wheezing Health Risks, for Anabolic steroids - Hypertension; blood clotting and cholesterol changes; liver cysts; hostility and aggression; acne; in adolescentspremature stoppage of growth; in malesprostate cancer, reduced sperm production, shrunken testicles, breast enlargement; in femalesmenstrual irregularities, development of beard and other masculine characteristics Also, for Inhalants - Cramps; muscle weakness; depression; memory

impairment; damage to cardiovascular and nervous systems; unconsciousness; sudden death

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