PAIN FACTS - 4 Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Dr. S. Parthasarathy MD., DA., DNB, MD (Acu), Dip. Diab. DCA, Dip. Software statistics PhD (physio) Mahatma Gandhi medical college and research institute , puducherry India
Definition Complex regional pain syndrome represents an abnormal response to injury,
usually of an extremity, presenting as prolonged, often intense pain, vasomotor disturbances, delayed functional recovery and trophic changes CRPS Synonyms
shoulder hand syndrome, algodystrophy, algoneurodystrophy, reflex neurovascular dystrophy reflex sympathetic dystrophy IASP International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) introduced a single term Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
(CRPS, 1994), to accommodate the differing clinical presentations syndrome may follow as many as 5% of all traumatic injuries. Types Type 1 is not associated with a specific nerve injury and does not follow an anatomical distribution of a peripheral nerve,
Type II, has similar symptoms and signs to those in Type I, is associated with an identifiable nerve injury Three classical stages Acute: up to 3 months from the onset. The limb is warm, the skin red, with swelling with palmar or plantar hyperhydrosis, hyperesthaesia and joint stiffness.
No effusion or fixed contractures. The other two stages 2)Dystrophic: 36 months after the injury. The limb is cool, cyanotic and indurated. Hyperaesthesia is present, fixed contractures begin to occur, with ankylotic changes in the small, distal joints of the limb. 3) Atrophic: after 6 months. The skin may become hairless and loses its folds.
Contractures prevail changes become permanent. CRPS is not a non corrupt Govt. official It can jump to stage 2 or it can skip stage 2 Symptomatology Mild Moderate
Severe Or Symptom type Autonomic : sweating, swelling, warm or cold Motor : muscle weakness, tremor Sensory : pain deep, spontaneous orthostatic, nocturnal Trophic changes : glossy skin, hair nail disturbances osteoporosis
Special about symptoms
Upper Vs lower limb 2 :1 CRPS possible in knee, shoulder, hip etc Both sides Rarely all four limbs affected Peak 50 years age Female more Preceding trauma Mechanism of CRPS Every one gets injured
Why some develop CRPS ?? Prone for CRPS !! 1. Genetic 2. disuse 3.psychogenic Mechanisms increase in the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in response to a noxious
stimulus Pain stimulates sympathetic But sympathetic stimulates pain ?? Other mechanisms Formation of abnormal synapses between sympathetic and sensory fibres. A direct nerve injury resulting in an abnormal electrical discharge. disruption of the auto regulation of blood flow
An increase in substance P. plastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous system. As a manifestation of a psychosomatic disease. Diagnosis Clinical Sympathetic blockade Sure it has done the job Sure that it has not done extra
SIP Phentolamine infusion test Mixed alpha antagonist Principle : norepinephrine released by nociceptors is blocked Similar results of pain relief as stellate ganglion blockade Simple , repetition possible
How to do it ?? Routine monitors, informed consent , RL , baseline pain score ,temperature Propranolol 1-2 mg IV Phentolamine 1 mg / kg over 10 minutes
VAS, temperature , BP pulse rate IVRA with sympatholytics
Guanethidine Taken up by NA varicosities Depletes NA from sympathetic axons prevents further release for1-2 days Availability ?? Others Skin blood flow measurements Ischemia test Xray and bone scan
Treatment of CRPS SMP or not ---Blocks stellate , lumbar sympathetic , IVRA
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