Conquering the Comma With help from . . . The Green Bay Packers!! Purdue University Writing Lab What Is a Comma? A comma is a punctuation mark that indicates a pause is needed in a sentence. Commas help to clarify meaning for the reader. EX: Imagine this sign: Slow, children crossing.
Slow children crossing. EX: How many people are going to the party? James Marshall Linda Alexander and I are going to the party. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #1: ???? 1. My favorite football teams to watch are the Chicago Bears the Green Bay Packers the Arrowhead War Hawks and the Wisconsin Badgers. 2. The song Green and Yellow mentions such football stars as Aaron Rodgers Clay Matthews and Troy Polamalu .
3. The Green Bay Packers had one of their best seasons in 1996 because of Brett Favres solid passing attack Edgar Bennetts award winning rush yards Reggie Whites powerful sacks on opposing quarterbacks and Eugene Robinsons leading interceptions. 4. Green Bay Packers shirts hats stadium cushions and blankets became even more popular after they were dubbed Americas Team. Rule #1: Commas in LISTS Place commas in a sentence to divide items in a list. Commas should be placed in
series of words, phrases, or clauses. Always use a comma before the conjunction! Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #1: Commas in LISTS Consider the difference in the following: Last month, Alex dated Mary Ann Lee and Kim. Last month, Alex dated Mary, Ann, Lee, and Kim. Last month, Alex dated Mary Ann, Lee, and Kim. How many women did Alex date? Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #1: Commas in LISTS
YOUR TURN Write 2 sentences that contain lists of single words or longer phrases with the topic FOOD. Use your commas properly. Start a page of COMMA SENTENCES. Keep these sentences in your binder. You may be asked to turn these in. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #2: ????? 1. Many people hated Brett Favre for being an old backstabbing jerk but admired him for being a talented daring quarterback.
2. Donald Driver is one of the best-loved most talented running backs in the NFL and will continue to be after he retires. 3. When I was in high school, I had a dream that many of the award-winning fan-favorite Green Bay Packers came to my school to play basketball against our own team. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #2: Commas with ADJECTIVES Use commas to separate adjectives that provide an equal description of a noun. THE TEST: Can you put and between the adjectives? Can they be described in reverse order? If so, use a comma.
big blue house three hungry kittens a cranky, ungrateful man Abbey Road was one of the Beatles best-loved, biggest-selling albums and was released only a few months before the Beatles broke up. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #2: Commas with ADJECTIVES YOUR TURN Write 2 sentences that include adjectives which need to be separated by a comma.
Keep these sentences in your binder. Be ready to share them out loud. Your teacher may give you a topic. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #3: ????? 1. Even though I enjoy rooting for other teams the Packers are my number one! 2. In 1996 the Green Bay Packers dominated the NFL and won the Super Bowl against the New England Patriots. 3. Fortunately, for the Packers, the Chicago Bears have not been a successful team in many many years.
4. Convinced that the Packers will one day have another Super Bowl winning season I continue to be a fan. 5. Whenever the Packers and the Bears meet up in a football game it is sure to be an emotionally-charged challenging battle. Rule #3: Commas with INTRO ELEMENTS Interjections Hey, where are you going? Introductory words Well, I find it hard to believe.
Yes, Charles agrees with our plan. Oh, did he really say that? Of course, Ill do it for you Introductory Adverbs Certainly, you may borrow my book. Frantically, they searched for the lost child. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #3: Commas with INTRO ELEMENTS Longer Phrases At the very top, my father paused to enjoy the view. In the heart of the city, you will find many skyscrapers.
Walking slowly, she reached the subway in about ten minutes. Written carefully, the speech was a masterpiece. To get to Broadway, they rode in a taxi. To get to the train before it left, she ran all the way. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #3: Commas with INTRO ELEMENTS Dependent Clause A dependent clause contains a SUBJECT and VERB, but the clause cannot stand independently.
Dependent clauses start with a dependent clause marker (subordinate conjunction) When When Elizabeth Elizabeth called called 911, 911, the the firemen firemen rushed rushed to to her her rescue. rescue. DCM S V S V Purdue University Writing Lab
Rule #3: Commas with INTRO ELEMENTS Some common dependent clause markers: because though since although when unless while after until
before if once as whether Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #3: Commas with INTRO ELEMENTS Where would you place the comma in the following examples? Since Sinceitit was wasraining raining,we wedecided decidedtotogogototothe
themovies. movies. DCM S V S V Once , I Ifell Oncethe themovie moviebegan began fellasleep. asleep. DCM S V S V After we went went out out for for coffee. coffee. After the
the movie movie ended ended, we DCM S V S V Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #3: Commas with INTRO ELEMENTS YOUR TURN Write 3 sentences that contain different kinds of intro elements and that are punctuated properly.
Keep these sentences in your binder. Be ready to share them out loud. Your teacher may give you a topic. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #4: ????? 1. Mike Holmgren served as the head coach for the Packers in 1996 when they won the Super Bowl but now is the head coach of the Cleveland Browns. 2. Vince Lombari served as the Packers head coach for seven years and he was the only person to participate in both of the Packers 5 championship seasons, as one of the greatest coaches of all time. 3. Dianna Favres battle with breast cancer affected thousands of people nation-wide for she was a well-loved well-respected wife and human being who spent many years promoting breast cancer awareness and other charitable causes. Rule #4: Commas in COMPOUND SENTENCES
A sentence that contains TWO independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction is called a compound sentence. An independent clause has a SUBJECT and a VERB and expresses a COMPLETE THOUGHT IC, conj IC. Conjunctions for and nor but or yet
so FANBOYS Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #4: Commas in COMPOUND SENTENCES The comma in a compound sentence is placed before the coordinating conjunction. S V conj. Andy
built a snowman, and Andy built a snowman, and Jeff played with his dog. Jeff played with his dog. S V Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #4: Commas in COMPOUND SENTENCES Where would you place the comma in the following sentence? Dan so his his father father helped helpedhim. him.
Dan struggled struggled with with his his homework, homework so S V conj. S V Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #4: Commas in COMPOUND SENTENCES YOUR TURN
Write TWO compound sentences that are about the chapters of Catcher in the Rye that we have just read. Use a different conjunction for each sentence. Keep these sentences in your binder. Be ready to share them out loud. EX: Holden felt so alone at Pencey, so he decided to leave three days early. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #5: ???? 1. The Green Bay Packers are a superior team in my opinion have recorded more regular season and overall victories than any other NFL franchise. 2. The Packers who seem to be hated by most Bears fans recorded its most recent Super Bowl Championship win last January. 3. The Packers one of only remaining franchises since the founding of the NFL were founded in 1921. 4. We took the bus not our car to Green Bay to see the best football team ever. 5. Fortunately many of my students understand the undying loyalty and affection that I have for my favorite team the Packers.
Rule #5: Commas with INTERRUPTERS Direct Address Contrasting Expressions We took the subway, not the bus, to work yesterday. Parenthetical Expressions
Please, Ben, could you help me? The tennis match, therefore, was held after the rain shower. I am explaining his theory, I believe, as clearly as I can. Common Parenthetical Expressions after all I believe moreover for instance of course on the contrary however in my opinion nevertheless by the way for example to tell the truth Purdue University Writing Lab
Rule #5: Commas with INTERRUPTERS Appositives An appositive with its modifiers identifies or explains a noun or pronoun in the sentence. Examples (appositives are in bold): Aerobics, a type of exercise, is fun to do. Hanna received a wonderful present, a down vest. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #5: Commas with INTERRUPTERS
An ESSENTIAL clause or phrase is used to modify a noun. It also adds information that is critical to the meaning of the sentence. Essential clauses are NOT set off by commas. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #5: Essential INTERRUPTERS The people who work in my office are so uptight! S essential phrase V Without the essential phrase, this sentence does not make complete sense : The people are so uptight! Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #5:
Essential INTERRUPTERS The martini that I had at Joes was much better than this one! S essential V The word that is almost always an indicator of an essential phrase or clause. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #5: Essential INTERRUPTERS
The train that goes to Chicago is on track B. The person receiving the package must sign for it. Players who are over six feet tall have an advantage in basketball. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #5: Nonessential INTERRUPTERS A NONESSENTIAL phrase or clause adds extra information to a sentence. This information can be eliminated from the sentence without jeopardizing the meaning of the sentence.
Always place commas around nonessential phrases and clauses. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #5: Nonessential INTERRUPTERS My brother, who lives across town, plans to throw a party! S non-essential V Even without the phrase the sentence still makes sense : My brother plans to throw a party! (She has ONE brother who happens to live across town.) BUT . . . My brother who lives across town plans to throw a party! (She has SEVERAL brothers, but the one throwing the party is the one who happens to live across town. This time the phrase is essential.) Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #5: Nonessential INTERRUPTERS
S V Steve said that he would propose to me on Valentines Day, which is my favorite holiday! non-essential Use commas to set off additional information Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #5: Essential or Nonessential? IIam a tripato Paris amplanning planning trip towhich Parisis,
one of the in the world. which isgreatest one ofcities the greatest cities in the world. The place that I would most like to see is the Eiffel Tower. No comma is needed. The sentence is correct. Pierre who is is one one of of my my Pierre, who business
will meet meet business contacts contacts, will me me at at the the airport. airport. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #5: Essential or Nonessential? The speed limit which is strictly enforced
helps decrease traffic accidents. The jet making a forced landing has mechanical trouble. My ice skates which had been packed in a carton were lost in the move to our new house. The bird perched on the tree outside the window awakened me with its chirping. Purdue University Writing Lab Rule #5: Essential or Nonessential? Carolyn who was the first speaker introduced the subject. The girl who was the first speaker is Carolyn Davis. Purdue University Writing Lab
Rule #5: Commas with INTERRUPTERS YOUR TURN Write THREE sentences that are about the chapters of Catcher in the Rye that we have just read. Use a different type of interrupter for each sentence. Keep these sentences in your binder. Be ready to share them out loud. Purdue University Writing Lab QUICK REVIEW: How would you
correct the following sentences? This This semester semester II am am taking taking calculus calculus,physics physics,and andeconomics. economics. Calculus am Icertain I willI get Calculus is is my my best best subject, subject, Iand am certain willan getA.an A. Although I am very busy,
busy IIstill stillfind findtime timeto tohave havefun. fun. Last weekend my brother visited me, me and andwe wewent wentto toaa football game, game aaparty party,and andaarock rockconcert. concert. Purdue University Writing Lab
A Common Comma Error: The Comma Splice A comma splice is an error in which two independent clauses are joined only by a comma. We had a nice time, I hope we can meet again soon. S V S V The Internet has revolutionized the business world, S V online sales have increased dramatically this year. S V Purdue University Writing Lab To Correct a Comma Splice
Insert a conjunction between the two independent clauses. Start a new sentence. Insert a semi-colon between the two independent clauses (only in cases where the independent clauses are closely related in topic). We had a nice time, and I hope we can meet again soon. We had a nice time. I hope we can meet again soon. The Internet has revolutionized the business world; online sales have increased dramatically this year. Purdue University Writing Lab More on Dependent Clauses When a dependent clause is IC DC. located after an independent clause,
DO NOT place a comma between the two. I went on the roller coaster because my brother dared me. S V DCM S V I became very sick when the S V DCM roller coaster zoomed upside down. S V Purdue University Writing Lab Dependent Clauses YOUR TURN
Write TWO sentences with DEPENDENT clauses in them. The first should have the DEP clause at the BEGINNING. The second should have the DEP clause at the END. Write your sentences about the current chapters of Catcher in the Rye. Purdue University Writing Lab
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