Consequences of World War II - George Mason University

Consequences of World War II - George Mason University

Consequences of World War II Class 8 William A. Reader [email protected] Japan The End Game Invading the Philippines Having decided to invade Luzon rather than Formosa, the next step was Leyte The conquest of Leyte would provide land-based air support for the invasion of Mindoro and then Luzon From Luzon, amphibious landings could be made in the Bonin Islands (Iwo Jima) and the Ryuku Islands (Okinawa)

The Japanese saw retention of the Philippines as vital to protect their lines of communication with Southeast Asia This was to precipitate the largest set of naval battles in history in which the remainder of the Japanese Navy was sunk Raising the flag on Mt Suribachi on Iwo Jima Of the six men in the picture, only three survived the battle.

Okinawa Okinawa had large airfields, an excellent harbor, and was within easy range of the Japanese home islands The Japanese had over 100,000 men to defend the island They established their defense lines in the mountainous southern portion of the island where they expected to hold the Americans while kamikaze attacks on their ship-borne supply system was expected to drive off the American Navy, leaving the Americans without supplies and vulnerable to a Japanese counterattack Fighting on Okinawa lasted from 1 April to 22 June 1945 There were 75,000 American casualties The Japanese launched 2,000 kamikaze attack sorties

Japanese Surrender Despite having its cities destroyed by incendiaries and its islands blockaded by American ships, Japanese leaders were determined to continue the war Two factors led to the surrender The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki The entry of the Soviet Union into the war Only then did Japan decide to surrender, provided the imperial system remain, and even then it almost did not happen The Emerging Cold War

The Emerging Cold War Political scientists note that all nations seek security They also note that things a nation does to enhance its own security can often seem threatening to other nations This is the situation that arose after World War II Neither the Soviet Union nor the Western Allies wanted a recreation of the unstable international situation that led to World War II Both groupings wanted a stable world in which they could achieve their international objectives The problem was that the Western Allies and the Soviet Union had radically different view as to what a post-war world should look like

Diverging Goals Stalins goals To ensure that no external threat would ever again place his country at risk To rebuild the war-torn Soviet Union The first goal meant attempting to dominate the European continent as thoroughly as Hitler attempted to do This meant the creating of pro-Russian regimes in Eastern Europe and Germany Roosevelts goals To establish democratic regimes in Eastern Europe and eventually in Germany To establish a new global economic system which would prevent the recurrence of the Great Depression

To deter and, if necessary, punish aggression by the creation of a new collective security organization Poland The only way to reconcile Stalins and Roosevelts requirements would be if all of the Eastern European countries had been willing to elect leaders who were willing to follow a pro-Russian policy This Czechoslovakia and Finland did, but Poland could not follow this path since Stalins prior actions had eliminated any possibility that a Polish government subservient to the Soviet Union could sustain popular support The Nazi-Soviet Pact The murder of some 4,000 Polish officers at Katyn Forest in 1940

Doing nothing when the Nazis brutally suppressed the 1944 Warsaw uprising even though the Red Army was on the outskirts of Warsaw at the time Soviet taking of a third of Polands territory after the war Poland - 2 Since Poland would never elect a pro-Soviet government, Stalin decided to impose one This resulted in a permanently resentful Poland Stalins imposition of a Soviet-style government on Poland in violation of his promises at Yalta convinced the Americans and British that Stalin could not be trusted As a disillusioned Roosevelt put it, Stalin has

broken every one of the promises he made at Yalta Occupied Germany It had been decided at Yalta that Germany would be divided into separate occupation zones, with Berlin (even though it was in the Soviet zone) similarly divided The Soviet zone contained a third of Germanys population, but few of its industrial facilities Stalin believed that the Soviet zone with its MarxistLeninist government would act as a magnet for Germans in the western zones This, Stalin believed, would cause the West Germans to elect leaders who would eventually unify the country under Soviet control

Occupied Germany - 2 There were two big problems with Stalins plan The brutality of the Red Army in occupied East Germany Mass expropriation of property and extraction of reparations on an indiscriminate scale The rape of 2 million German women The way the Soviets had handled their affairs in Eastern Europe and in their zone of Germany made the British and the Americans wary of cooperation with Moscow Thus the Western Allies refused Russian demands for reparations from their zones

This led the Western Allies to follow a policy of preserving their zones of Germany under Western rule rather than risk the danger that all of Germany fall under Soviet control The Far East The events in Eastern Europe and Germany in turn convinced the United States to exclude the Soviet Union from any role in the occupation of Japan The Soviet decision to declare war on Japan and invade Manchuria and North Korea had two major impacts It resulted in the partition of Korea It persuaded the Japanese to surrender The Atom bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki intensified

Stalins insecurity and led him to institute a crash Soviet Abomb program to catch up with the United States The Full Emergence of the Cold War The Communist coup detat in Czechoslovakia and the blockade of Berlin persuaded the Western European recipients of Marshall Plan aid that they needed military protection as well This led the Europeans to request the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) This committed the United States for the first time ever to the defense of Western Europe It also led to the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany [West Germany]

This in turn led to the creation of the Democratic Republic of Germany [East Germany] The Atomic Bomb Two Types of Atomic Bombs Little Boy the Uranium Bomb dropped on Hiroshima Fat Man the Plutonium Bomb dropped on Nagasaki To Drop or Not to Drop

Before the Trinity test at Alamagordo, many doubted that a plutonium bomb would work The decision to use the bomb against Japan was neither easily reached nor unanimous ADM William Leahy, Secretary of War Henry Stimson, GEN Dwight Eisenhower, and Leo Szilard opposed using the bomb Secretary of State James Byrnes, Vannevar Bush, MGEN Leslie Groves, GEN George C. Marshall, and Robert Oppenheimer favored use of the bomb The proponents of using the bomb won out Trumans attitude was that the bomb would save American lives that would otherwise be lost in an invasion. There was no point in wasting American lives if a way existed to save them

Hiroshima At 8:16 AM on 6 August, the uranium bomb detonated 1,900 feet over the city of Hiroshima, turning the city to ashes The American scientists who created the bomb underestimated both the blast effect and the radiation produced by the bomb Among the soldiers and sailors who were expecting to assault Japan, the bomb was met with wonder and jubilation It was only later, after the publication of John Herseys Hiroshima in 1946, that people began to question the decision to drop the bomb Consequences - 1

One of the consequences of Hiroshima was a long scholarly (and sometimes political) controversy over whether it was right to use the bomb Many have argued that Japan was near surrender and that a blockade and conventional bombing would have eventually forced either a Japanese surrender or an overthrow of the regime Others have argued that the Japanese militarists were determined to fight to the end and that the shock of the bomb was necessary to induce surrender As Stimson and Szilard feared, Hiroshima prompted Stalin to give top priority to Russias nuclear bomb program. This gave rise to the nuclear arms race and the fear of nuclear war

Consequences - 2 The fact that Russia got the bomb in 1949 came as a great shock to the American people The fact of Soviet espionage at Los Alamos and the belief that Russia was too backward to produce a bomb on its own led to the belief that Russian spies stole the atom bomb, thus giving rise to anti-communist hysteria and MacCarthyism The fact of the atom bomb raised the question of delivery of the bomb to its target This led to the race to build long-range bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and nuclear submarinelaunched missiles

Consequences - 3 Although there were times when Russia and the United States came close to war, the Bomb played a major role in preventing the outbreak of war between the two powers Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) did have a deterrent effect, leading the two powers to be cautious in their dealings with each other Reinforced and modified the current of apocalyptic/millenarian thought in American culture Before the Atomic Age, end-of-the-world or apocalyptic beliefs were limited to fundamentalist religious groups who believed that the end of the world required some form of divine intervention With the Atomic Age, a secular apocalypticism arose, based on the

likelihood of nuclear war Consequences - 4 Since nuclear chain reactions could occur slowly in a reactor as well as explosively in a bomb, nuclear scientists realized that nuclear energy could be used to generate electricity Unlike conventional power plants which consumed vast quantities of coal, oil, or natural gas, nuclear plants would consume very little uranium or plutonium and theoretically could generate electricity cheaper than conventional power plants Nuclear power enthusiasts claimed that the electricity generated would be too cheap to meter In addition, nuclear power did not cause air pollution

As a result, nuclear power came to generate about 19% of Americas electricity Demographic Changes in Europe Germany & Eastern Europe Before the War Before World War II, East-Central Europe generally lacked clearly shaped ethnic settlement areas. Rather, outside of some ethnic majority areas, there were vast mixed areas and abundant smaller pockets settled by various ethnicities. Often different ethnic groups shared the same area but belonged to different socio-economic classes Rural landowners and industrialists were often disproportionately

German Urban professionals and entrepreneurs ns were often disproportionately Jewish or German Despite its economic backwardness, Eastern Europe had a vibrant Yiddish culture Germany was a world leader in culture, science, and technology Europe After the War An ethnically heterogeneous Eastern Europe had become a set of ethnically homogeneous nation-states ruled by Communists A vibrant Yiddish-speaking culture had been totally destroyed Much of Germanys and Eastern Europes intellectual capital had

been either destroyed or frightened into fleeing or was expelled Germany was no longer a world leader in culture, science, and technology Eastern Europe had become a cultural backwater The United States, Great Britain, Palestine, and the British Dominions of Canada, Australia, and South Africa, saw an influx of displaced persons and refugees from Eastern Europe Reasons for this Change The flight of a large number of the German Jews from pre-war Nazi Germany Part of this was the large-scale intellectual migration of European intellectuals, artists, writers, and scientists to the United States

The mass extermination of the European Jews Also, the large scale murder of the Roma and many of the educated elite of Eastern Europe The bringing of forced labor from elsewhere in Europe to the Reich Not all of them wanted to return home after the war The large number of civilian and military war casualties The flight and later the expulsion of the Germans from Eastern Europe The migration of Jewish Holocaust survivors out of Europe (mostly to Palestine and America)

Intellectual Migration Field Science Political & Social Science Anthropologists Psychologists Philosophers Novelists & Playwrights Composers & Musicians Architects

Painters & Sculptors Names Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Edward Teller, Leo Szilard, Hans Bethe, Victor Weisskopf Erik Erikson, Hannah Arendt, Leo Strauss, Erich Fromm, Max Horkheimer, Paul Lazarsfeld, Theodore K Adorno Claude Levi-Strauss, Bronislaw Malinowski Karen Horney, Bruno Bettelheim, Anna Freud Jacques Maritain, Rudolf Carnap, Herbert Marcuse Thomas Mann, Erich Maria Remarque, Vladimir Nabokov, Bertold Brecht Igor Stravinski, Bela Bartok, Arnold Schoenberg, Paul Hindemith, Darius Milhaud, Kurt Weill, Arturo Toscanini,

Bruno Walter, Otto Klemperer, George Szell, Erich Leinsdorf, Dimitri Mitropoulos, Rudolf Serkin, Gregor Piatigorski Walter Gropius, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Marc Chagall, Wassily Kandinski, Piet Mondrian, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst, George Grosz, Andre Breton, Jacques Lipschitz, Salvador Dali, Joao Miro A Note about the Holocaust The Holocaust took one form in the Soviet Union and another in the rest of Europe In the Soviet Union (largely between June and November 1941), special task forces killed one million Soviet Jews, usually by mass shooting

This created problems as far as the SS was concerned First, it was inefficient rounding up and shooting people individually or in small groups was time consuming Second, the killers were having problems dealing with the guilt feelings and psychological stress involved in the killing of helpless men, women, and children Too often, they were getting drunk, abusing family members when on leave, and freaking out In the rest of Europe, the killing began (except on an experimental basis) in 1942 and went through the stages noted in the following slide The Holocaust outside the Soviet Union The Holocaust Process outside the Soviet Union went

through the following stages: 1. Creation of Ghettos 2. Transport of People to the Ghettos 3. Slow starvation of the ghetto 4. Creation of the Death Camps 5. Transport of ghetto inhabitants to either the Death Camps or a Concentration Camp 6. Culling of the new arrivals 7. Death for most; concentration camp slavery for the rest The Liberation of the Camps American journalists and soldiers were shocked and horrified by what they had seen in the camps The Allies ordered thousands of nearby residents to visit

the camps and see the horrors up close The encounter with the concentration and death camps left the Allies with the conviction that World War II was the good war since it eliminated a regime that people could only regard as diabolically evil Unfortunately, many who survived the Nazis died soon afterward, sometimes unwittingly at the hands of the Western Allies Jewish Survivors The Jews in the post-war displaced persons camps consisted of four separate categories of people Survivors of concentration and death camps

About 200,000 of the millions of Jews who entered the camps Those who spent the war in hiding Those who spent the war in the Soviet Union Those who fought with the partisans Those who had Aryan papers What united all of them was a desire to get out of Europe and emigrate to either Palestine or America This reflected both a realization that there there was nothing to go back to their families and communities had been destroyed and the visit of the charismatic David ben-Gurion to the camps The German Removal from Eastern Europe

The removal of the Germans from Eastern Europe went through three somewhat overlapping phases 1. The spontaneous flight and evacuation of Germans in the face of the advancing Red Army from mid-1944 to early1945 2. The disorganized expulsion of Germans immediately following the Wehrmachts defeat 3. The organized expulsion following the Potsdam Agreement which both defined the new borders of Central Europe and approved the orderly expulsion of Germans from Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary German Refugees in East Prussia The Process of Expulsion

Toward the end of June 1945, word went round the villages and farms of Pomerania and Silesia that the Germans must get out It was common for Polish and Russian police and soldiers to come to a German house and give its residents a half hour to pack and leave, with only the items they could carry or push in a handcart Since the refugees were old men, women, and children, they were often robbed of their valuables by Polish and Russian soldiers and the women sometimes raped A Humanitarian Disaster The refugees had to feed themselves so that many suffered

from hunger and thirst; many also suffered from exposure in winter and the heat in summer The result of the expulsions was a humanitarian disaster An estimated 600,000 to 2,200,000 Germans died during the refugee flights from the advancing Soviet Army and the post-war expulsions from Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and elsewhere in eastern Europe Roughly 12 million Germans were expelled from Eastern Europe 7 million from the Eastern provinces of Germany that were annexed by the Soviet Union and Poland East Prussia, Pomerania, Danzig, and Silesia 3 million from Czechoslovakia

2 million total from Hungary, Romania, and Yugoslavia Other Population Movements The roughly 12 million German expellees were only the largest part of a number of population transfers, expulsions, and movements In 1940, there was a population transfer of Germans living in the Baltic states (which had just been annexed by the Soviet Union) to German-occupied Poland In 1941-42, ethnic Germans living in Russia were deported to Siberia and Kazakhstan In 1945, over a million Poles living in parts of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union were resettled in areas annexed from Germany

About 7,800,000 Eastern Europeans were brought to the Reich to labor for the Germans Within those brought to the Reich, a large number of Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Byelorussians, and Ukrainians in Germany had no desire to return to their homelands Consequences Turned an ethnically heterogeneous Eastern Europe into a set of ethnically homogeneous nation-states

Fearful of the emergence of a united Germany, Supportive of a divided Germany, Ruled by native Communists seen as subservient to Russia Still possessed by a lingering anti-Semitism although there were virtually no Jews Changed the demographic composition of both East and West Germany

In East Germany, expellees constituted 24.2% of the total population In West Germany, they constituted 18% of the total population Led many displaced persons and concentration camp survivors to emigrate out of Europe Precluded West German acceptance of Potsdam and the new frontiers with Poland until 1991 and then only as part of a package that included German reunification and the evacuation of Russian troops from East Germany The GI Bill

Why the GI Bill There were several factors that contributed to the creation of the GI Bill The fear that there would be a depression after World War II just as there had been after World War I Hence a desire to provide a buffer against unemployment by having veterans postpone their entry into the job market by going to either college or trade school The housing shortage in urban areas which would become potentially explosive when millions of GIs returned home The realization that the rise of Fascism and Nazism had been aided by the discontent of demobilized servicemen after World War I whose needs had been neglected

The lobbying efforts of the American Legion and other veterans organizations Key Provisions Enabled veterans to receive $20 a week for 52 weeks while they were looking for work Provided up to $500 a year for tuition and other educational expenses plus $50 a month subsistence for each month in uniform Provided no down payment mortgages that were federally guaranteed Provided small business loans for veterans seeking to establish a business

What the GI Bill Accomplished Colleges were transformed from a bastion of elite youth into a middle-class entitlement Large numbers of veterans from working-class backgrounds became college-educated members of the middle class A nation of renters became a nation of suburban homeowners Suburbs mushroomed and inner cities lost their members of the middle class College Roughly 8.8 million veterans took advantage of the GI Bills education benefits

2.2 million attended colleges or universities 6.6 million attended some kind of educational institution (trade school, high school, vocational school, or seminary) By 1947, half of all college students were veterans Academically, veterans got better grades than nonveteran college students Led to an expansion of college enrollments and the idea that people seeking to join the middle class should go to college College - 2 The Bills education benefits made possible the education of

14 Nobel Prize winners 2 Presidents (Gerald Ford & George H.W. Bush) 3 Supreme Court Justices

12 Senators 24 Pulitzer Prize winners 238,000 Teachers 91,000 Scientists 67,000 Doctors 450,000 Engineers 240,000 Accountants 17,000 Journalists Famous GI Bill Grads Authors Gore Vidal, Norman Mailer, Frank McCourt, Art Buchwald, Mario Puzo Stage & Screenwriters Paddy Chayevsky, Rod Serling, Terry Southern, Aaron Spelling

Actors Walter Matthau, Robert Duvall, Tony Curtis, Gene Hackman, Clint Eastwood, Paul Newman, Jason Robards, Charles Bronson, Harry Belafonte, Rod Steiger Artists Robert Rauschenberg, Leo Krikorian, Leroy Neiman Poets James Dickey, Lawrence Ferlinghetti Education The GI Bill gave rise to an entire vocational industry Before the war, there were 100 private vocational schools in the country By 1950, there were 10,000 vocational schools,

providing training in everything from flying a plane to cooking a gourmet meal The Culinary Institute of America, founded in 1946, became the top chef training program in the country Home Ownership - 1 The GI Bill helped touch off a home building boom In 1940, less than 1/3rd of American families owned their own home (and most of these were farm families) By 1949, 60% of American families were homeowners Before the war, only 1 out every 6 Americans lived in the suburbs Housing construction was a craft industry with no two

suburban houses looking alike Within a couple of decades, a majority of Americans lived in the suburbs Suburban housing had taken on a cookie-cutter look Home Ownership - 2 During the war, William Leavitt, a SEABEE who built military housing, saw the advantages of assembly-line construction using prefabricated building elements Levitt had the idea of using these mass production techniques to build a whole neighborhood of cookie-cutter homes that could be sold cheaply to the returning veterans and their families

Levitt sold his basic home for $7,990 on 25-year mortgages After the first Levittown (in suburban Long Island), Levittown-like instant suburban communities began springing up all over the nation The New Suburbs One result of the GI Bill was the transformation of America into a nation where a majority of people lived in their own homes and in a suburb. Half of these homes (over 5 million) were bought under the GI Bill The new home sparked an economic boom for the

furniture, appliance, and houseware industries and for the builders of the economic infrastructure (roads, utilities, schools, department stores, service stations, and grocery stores) needed to support these new suburbs The New Suburbs For the GIs that bought these home, it meant leaving boarding houses, Quonset huts, and cramped apartments for houses with a backyard where one could barbecue and/or plant a garden in a community with swimming pools and other amenities Home ownership gave the new owners a nest egg in

the form of appreciating home equity. By creating an economy of scale, it made housing cheap enough so that non-veterans could buy also Suburban Angst The new suburbs lacked sufficient and convenient public transportation, making all of its inhabitants dependent on the car The new suburbs, along with the post-war baby boom (to which it helped contribute) turned the working women of the 1940s into the stay-at-home housewife of the 1950s The boredom created by living in a car-dependent community with few of the

cultural attractions of the city created the discontented women who became the feminists of the 1960s The new suburbs were racially (and often religiously) segregated with Blacks, Orientals, Jews, and sometimes ethnic Catholics kept out Thus the new suburbs tended to be lily-white while the central cities lost their white middle class and became increasingly the residence of blacks and other minorities Diverse Political Impacts Suburban home ownership made parents of baby boomers supportive of new schools, parks, and other civic amenities

Home ownership also made homeowners sensitive to property taxes Thus when baby boomer children graduated from school, home owners became every more fiscally conservative, opposing property tax increases and bond issues The GI Bill, although welfare, was high-status welfare who recipients did not think of themselves as welfare recipients but as being rewarded for services and sacrifices rendered Thus, recipients tended to favor welfare for the deserving (such as the elderly via Social Security, veterans via pensions, and students via educational grants) but oppose welfare for the undeserving (the lower classes) Result: a tendency toward oscillating politics and ambivalent attitudes towards the role of government

OTHER INNOVATIONS Employer Health Insurance - 1 In order to curb inflation, the Roosevelt Administration instituted wage and price controls Wage and price controls, however, did not cover fringe benefits In order to get and retain workers in an environment of labor shortages, employers in the larger war industrial plants began offering new fringe benefits One of these was employee health insurance In 1945, President Harry Truman proposed a system of public health insurance open to all Americans

Denounced by the Chamber of Commerce, the American Hospital Association, and the American Medical Association as Socialism, the plan died in Congress Employee Health Insurance - 2 Since many of the war plants were unionized and run by manufacturers whose peacetime workers were unionized, labor unions insisted in their postwar contract demands that the employers continue or institute employee health insurance Chrysler made tanks during World War II Ford made aircraft during World War II Kaiser Aluminum built ships during World War II Willys and other companies made Jeeps during World War II

By 1958, 75% of all American workers had some form of employer-provided health coverage or health insurance Coffee breaks Coffee, containing caffeine, is a stimulant Two factors led to the large-scale institutionalization of the coffee break As the manpower shortage tightened, bosses felt the need to pamper their employees. Coffee breaks were one way of doing this With many employees working overtime and not getting enough sleep, employers saw coffee breaks as a way of keeping their employees awake and alert, especially when operating machinery

The need to separate coffee-drinking from the operation of machinery on the assembly line led to the coffee break room Federal Income Tax Withholding Prior to World War II, few Americans owed federal income tax and those that did paid the tax in full when they filed their federal income tax return for the prior year on March 15th. Beardsley Ruml advocated both lowering the amount of income exempt from Federal income taxes and enacting a collection-atthe-source means of taxation whereby payments were deducted from employee paychecks This raised the number of Americans having to file federal income tax returns from 7 million in 1941 to 42 million in 1944 Federal Income Tax withholding proved popular since people

preferred small installment payments to forking over a large sum on March 15th Paperback Book Paperback books are books with a thick paper or paperboard cover usually held together with glue While originating in the 19th century, they languished until the later-1930s when Penguin Books and Pocket Books started publishing paperback reprints Paperback book sales mushroomed in wartime due to both the desire of publishers to save paper stock and their popularity with Gis, sailors, and shift workers Paperbacks were light, relatively inexpensive, easy to mail, and available in formats handy for Gis and sailors

Plastics The 1930s saw the initial commercial development of todays major thermoplastics low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS), and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and also polyamides (PA) Among the products of polyamides were nylon World War II brought plastics into great demand as a replacement for scarce rubber, silk, and metals In short order, plastics soon showed up a host of products Steering wheels, telephones, food containers, casings for radios & phonographs, shelves for refrigerators, covers for thermos bottles, soles for shoes, thread, underliners for helmets, kitchen utensils, and

parachutes Margarine Margarine was created in response to a prize offering by Napoleon III for a butter substitute that could be used by the Armed Forces and the lower classes Prior to World War II, people much preferred butter to margarine because dairy interests succeeded in getting legislation passed which prevented the coloring of margarine World War II produced a shortage of butter, leading homemakers to use oleomargarine as a substitute Due to housewife complaints, postwar state legislatures repealed the laws preventing the sale of colored margarine

Technological Innovations World War II saw a whole host of technological and social innovations Some of these we have discussed; others are listed below Innovations took two forms Something entirely new that came about because of the war Something that moved from R&D or experiment or a limited niche to widespread adoption Among the other innovations we have not touched on Tee shirts Vinyl Records Radar

Electronic computers Civil Air Patrol The Jeep Cruise missiles Jet planes Armed Forces Radio The Pentagon Federal Impact Aid Pizza as an American dish

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