Conventional data missing in some runs x0025 re-run t2m ...

Conventional data missing in some runs x0025 re-run t2m ...

Even though we believe this is strongly diurnal, it still shows up in monthly means As should some net difference Sfc T = Qnet Sensible Heat Flux Latent Heat Flux + Ground Heat Flow Qnet = (Downwelling Shortwave + Upwelling Shortwave (albedo)) + (Downwelling Longwave Upwelling Longwave) Substituting the GEOS-5 expressions for each of these fields gives: Sfc DeltaT = (swgdn + (swgdn swgnt) ) + (lwgdn (lwgdn lwgnt) ) A B C D - hflux eflux + ghland E

F G and we have all of these expressions for ERA-interim except ghland (which may turn out to be very important) We can quickly eliminate terms E and F It isnt latent heat flux In the Sahara Desert Sfc Delta-T = Qnet Sensible Heat Flux Latent Heat Flux + Ground Heat Flow Qnet = (Downwelling Shortwave + Upwelling Shortwave (albedo)) + (Downwelling Longwave Upwelling Longwave) Substituting the GEOS-5 expressions for each of these fields gives:

Sfc DeltaT = (swgdn + (swgdn swgnt) ) + (lwgdn (lwgdn lwgnt) ) + ghland A B C D G and we have all of these expressions for ERA-interim except ghland (which may turn out to be very important) We can quickly eliminate terms E and F Sfc T = Qnet Sensible Heat Flux Latent Heat Flux + Ground Heat Flow

Qnet = (Downwelling Shortwave + Upwelling Shortwave (albedo)) + (Downwelling Longwave Upwelling Longwave) Substituting the GEOS-5 expressions for each of these fields gives: Sfc T = (swgdn + (swgdn swgnt) ) + (lwgdn) + ghland A B C G and we have all of these expressions for ERA-interim except ghland (which may turn out to be very important) Term D, upwelling longwave, by definition has To be lower in MERRA-2, it says that we have A cold biasso it isnt contributing to the bias Sfc

T = Qnet Sensible Heat Flux Latent Heat Flux + Ground Heat Flow Qnet = (Downwelling Shortwave + Upwelling Shortwave (albedo)) + (Downwelling Longwave Upwelling Longwave) Substituting the GEOS-5 expressions for each of these fields gives: Sfc T = (swgdn swgnt) ) + (lwgdn) + ghland B C G and we have all of these expressions for ERA-interim except ghland (which may turn out to be very important) Downwelling Shortwave, A, could be an issue in cloudy regionsbut It looks pretty good compared with ERA-interim in the desert.

Sfc T = Qnet Sensible Heat Flux Latent Heat Flux + Ground Heat Flow Qnet = (Downwelling Shortwave + Upwelling Shortwave (albedo)) + (Downwelling Longwave Upwelling Longwave) Substituting the GEOS-5 expressions for each of these fields gives: Sfc T = (swgdn swgnt) ) + (lwgdn) + ghland B C G and we have all of these expressions for ERA-interim except ghland (which may turn out to be very important) Upwelling shortwave , Bthe albedo factor may be contributing to the cold bias in some small way (slightly brighter, slightly less sfc. net)

Sfc T = Qnet Sensible Heat Flux Latent Heat Flux + Ground Heat Flow Qnet = (Downwelling Shortwave + Upwelling Shortwave (albedo)) + (Downwelling Longwave Upwelling Longwave) Substituting the GEOS-5 expressions for each of these fields gives: Sfc T = (swgdn swgnt) ) + (lwgdn) + ghland B C G and we have all of these expressions for ERA-interim except ghland (which may turn out to be very important) The Downwelling longwave term could be important. If we have clouds and aerosols

Radiating at the appropriate temperature, it should be close to ERA-i. And while not Exactly like ERA-i , the mean difference is only on order of 10 to maybe 15 W/m2 not enough to be the 2-3K differences we see While we see a lot Of blue over the desert It is in the 10W/m2 range It turns out the ground heat flow term has a large diurnal cycle in deserts The equation describing the conduction of heat through the ground G = Ks * T / depthT / T / depthdepth, where Ks is the thermal conductivity (dependent on ground type soil, clay, sand)

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