Covalent Bonding - Augusta County Public Schools

Covalent Bonding - Augusta County Public Schools

Covalent Bonding Sharing is caring Types of Bonds Review Transfer Electrons Unit Cell Ionic Molecule Metallic Covalent Share

Delocalized Electrons (sea of e-) Electrons Electronegativity and bond types Another way to usually tell whether a bond is ionic or covalent is with electronegativities Electronegativity (Page 194) the tendency of an atom to gain electrons in a chemical bond. If the difference between the electronegativities is large, the bond tends to be ionic. If it is small, it tends to be covalent. Compounds can have both, but usually show one type more than the other chemically, usually ionic).

Naming Covalent Compound Types of Covalent Compounds Diatomic molecules (twins): H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 ________________________________ There are seven diatomic molecules ________________________________ NEVER FOUND AS SINGLE ATOMS if alone

Their names are just the name of the element Binary Molecular Compounds ___________________________(no metals or Non-metals with no H+ ions) i.e. Does not start with an H. Steps to name compounds Name _________ first a. _________ - use entire name Name

second - change ending to ide b. _________ _________ c. Prefixes used to indicate _________ number of atoms of each p. 832 Only time that no prefix is used is if the first is a one Examples: CCl4 carbon tetrachloride As2O3 di arsenic tri oxide

The Prefixes Mono- monocle Tetra- Tetris Di-Dialogue Tri- tricycle Penta- pentagon Octa- octopus Acids Always begin with ______ H+ binary and ___________ oxyacid

Two Types: _________ Remember: The number of hydrogen atoms in the acid equals the charge of the anion Binary Acids + H O Binary Acids - ______ but no _______ Steps to name compounds hydro a. Use prefix - _________

b. Root of second element plus suffix -ic _________ followed by the word acid Example: HCl - hydrochloric acid Oxyacids O polyatomic ion so most have ___ has a ________________, Steps to name compounds

Identify polyatomic ion p. 178 a. Use root of anion, change suffix ending and word acid -ic a. Suffix rules: ends in ate change to _________ b. ends in ite change to _________ -ous Example: HNO3 nitric acid Hydrocarbons a compound containing carbon and hydrogen Named using prefixes that correspond to the number of carbons in the compound. 1 meth

2 eth 3 prop 4 but After this it used the normal prefixes Hydrocarbons Ending refers to the type of functional group found in the compound. The simplest hydrocarbon ends in -ane which means that the hydrocarbon only has single bonds and the number of hydrogen atoms equal 2(Carbon atoms)+2. Practice Formula PCl5

HI N2 C2H6 Type of Covalent Bond Name Binary Molecular Phosphorous pentachloride Binary Acid Hydroiodic acid

Diatomic Nitrogen Hydrocarbon ethane H3PO4 Oxyacid Phosphic acid HClO2

Oxyacid Chlorous acid N2H4 Binary Molecular Dinitrogen tetrahydride

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