VPNs IETF developing IPsec security standards IP security At the internet layer Protects all messages at the transport and application layers E-Mail, WWW, Database, etc. TCP UDP IPsec
VPNs IPsec Transport Mode End-to-end security for hosts Local Network Secure Communication Internet Local Network
VPNs IPsec Tunnel Mode IPsec server at each site Secure communication between sites Local Network Secure Communication Internet Local Network
IPsec Server VPNs IPsec Modes Can be Combined End-to-end transport mode connection Within site-to-site tunnel connection Local Network Tunnel Mode
Internet Local Network Transport Mode VPNs Another Security System for VPNs is the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) For dial-up connections, based on PPP
Connects user with securely to a remote access server at a site Dial-Up Local Connection PPTP Connection Internet Network Remote Access Server
PKIs To use public key methods, an organization must establish a comprehensive Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) A PKI automates most aspects of using public key encryption and authentication PKI Uses a PKI Server Server PKIs
PKI Server Creates Public Key-Private Key Pairs Distributes private keys to applicants securely Often, private keys are embedded in delivered software Private Key PKI Server PKIs
PKI Server Provides CRL Checks Distributes digital certificates to verifiers Checks certificate revocation list before sending digital certificates Digital Certificate PKI Server PKIs CRL (Certificate Revocation List) Checks If applicant gives verifier a digital certificate,
The verifier must check the certificate revocation list CRL PKI Server OK? OK or Revoked Integrated Security System When two parties communicate Their software usually handles the details First, negotiate security methods
Then, authenticate one another Then, exchange symmetric session key Then can communicate securely using symmetric session key and message-bymessage authentication SSL Integrated Security System SSL Secure Sockets Layer Developed by Netscape TLS (now)
Netscape gave IETF control over SSL IETF renamed it TLS (Transport Layer Security) Usually still called SSL Location of SSL Below the Application Layer IETF views it at the transport layer Protects all application exchanges Not limited to any single application
Browser & Webserver Software Implement SSL User can be unaware SSL Operation SSL ISS Process Two sides negotiate security parameters Webserver authenticates itself Browser may authenticate itself but rarely does
Browser selects a symmetric session key, sends to webserver Adds a digital signature and encrypts all messages with the symmetric key Importance of SSL Supported by Almost All Browsers De facto standard for Internet application security Problems
Relatively weak security Does not involve security on merchant server Does not validate credit card numbers Viewed as an available but temporary approach to consumer security Other ISSs SSL is merely an example integrated security system Many other ISSs exist IPsec PPP and PPTP Etc.
Other ISSs All ISSs have the same general steps Negotiate security parameters Authenticate the partners Exchange a session key Communicate with message-by-message privacy, authentication, and message integrity
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