Crime and location - WordPress.com

Crime and location - WordPress.com

Crime and location There are several key questions which sociologists have been concerned to raise regarding crime and location: Does crime tend to occur in particular geographical locations? Is it for example, predominantly an urban or a rural phenomenon? Does crime tend to be concentrated in particular parts of cities, and if so, how can this be explained? How can the geographical distribution of crime be explained? Shaw and McKay Studying crime rates in the Chicago district, Shaw and McKay found a strong statistical pattern. The further one moved from the centre of the city (the central business district or CBD), the more the rate of male delinquency declined. Shaw and McKay argued that the central area was a zone of transition. This meant that it contained a large number of immigrants, of lowincome families, and a constantly shifting

population. Shaw and McKay describe this zone as being socially disorganised. By this they mean that it is an area where there are many broken families, violence, and lots of other social problems. Shaw and McKay claim that these sorts of areas have high and increasing crime rates because the population is constantly changing, and in a Link: Merton and sub cultural theory large and anonymous urban setting there is less social control. Zones continued

Link To Merton A zone of transition will lack the community spirit and the close relationships between neighbours that other areas, with less population movement, will be able to establish. Therefore, Shaw and McKay reason it offers more opportunities for crime. Shaw and McKays findings might seem to accord with common sense expectations; the further one moves out from the centre of large urban areas, the more delinquency rates fall. Moreover, we still commonly talk of leafy suburbs, and probably have a favourable image of the suburbs in contrast to the dangers involved in inner city dwelling. VS Several British sociologists have conducted research on similar lines in the UK, and have attempted to replicate and test Shaw and McKays work. Morris Croydon study 1957

Morris found that the highest rates of crime were concentrated on particular council estates in the Croydon area not in the central business district. Morris also argued that it was hard to describe these council estates as socially disorganised there was more evidence to suggest that they were tightly knit communities, where people knew neighbours quite well and with low levels of population change or turnover. If any areas could be described as socially disorganised, it would be the more middle class residential areas. In these areas people did not interact a great deal and they might have to live in them for a long time before they made significant social contacts and relationships. Baldwin and Bottoms Sheffield study 1976

This research used official statistics and aimed to test the concept of social disorganisation. Baldwin and Bottoms operationalised social disorganisation in terms of the following factors: larger numbers of immigrants, unmarried people, young adults, dwellings with 3 or less rooms, shared accommodation. The researchers categorised the city into three main areas; owner occupied accommodation, council tenants, and rented accommodation. They found significant differences between the three areas, with the latter two have the highest crime rates. The degree of social disorganisation was a factor but it was not found to be significant on council estates. Baldwin and Bottoms thus concluded that there was no evidence for Shaw and McKays arguments regarding social disorganisation, and they found no correlation between a high population turnover and crime rates.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Chapter 1 - Observation Skills

    Chapter 1 - Observation Skills

    Chapter 1 Observation Skills . By the end of this chapter you will be able to: Define . ... -What a person perceives using his or her five senses. We are constantly collecting information through observations: sight, hearing, smell, taste,...
  • WRC-12 Regional Planning Seminar Presentation:

    WRC-12 Regional Planning Seminar Presentation:

    In practice, most of the frequency assignments for aeronautical communication and navigation systems are coordinated through the ICAO Regional Offices and registered in the relevant ICAO frequency lists (or COM lists). ... The Morse code on ILS) are contained in...
  • Title of Presentation

    Title of Presentation

    Meet Michael. Michael is a Property Manager at Dinder Mufflin Residential, a multi housing provider with properties throughout the U.S. Michael needs a new maintenance technician and thinks he has found the perfect candidate - his childhood friend Jim.
  • PRPP Injection Dr. Paul Annett MBBS FACSP Sport

    PRPP Injection Dr. Paul Annett MBBS FACSP Sport

    PRPP Injection Dr. Paul Annett MBBS FACSP Sport and Exercise Medicine Physician www.orthosports.com.au 29-31 Dora Street, Hurstville Basic science PRPP preparations Literature Patient information PRP injection - Outline Tendonosis Breakdown of collagen architecture 'Angiofibroplastic hyperplasia' Fibre disruption Increased cellularity Neovascularity...
  • Presented by Abu Zakariya Aims and Objectives  This

    Presented by Abu Zakariya Aims and Objectives This

    The view of two natures became orthodoxy. Today it is the mainstream position in Catholicism, Protestantism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. The official position of these churches is that all the other groups, with their different views about Jesus, are heretics,...
  • A taxonomy of granular partitions Thomas Bittner and

    A taxonomy of granular partitions Thomas Bittner and

    A taxonomy of granular partitions ... Spatial partition Folk categorization of water bodies Conclusions Formal ontology of granular partitions Ongoing work Folk and common-sense categories have weaker structure A theory of granularity, vagueness, and approximation based on partition theory A...
  • Module A: Experience Through Language Elective 1 ...

    Module A: Experience Through Language Elective 1 ...

    What does DISTINCTIVELY VISUAL mean in the context of the rubric? Anything WITHIN THAT TEXT that provokes an image you can physically see or imagine. It provokes an image WITHIN THAT TEXT which is connected to a CLEAR attitude/ value/...
  • Poster Template

    Poster Template

    Extend the methodology to simultaneously regulate CNC equipment position errors and cutting force in a micro end milling process. Study the application of the method to control other processes (e.g., fuel cells) to accomplish complex tasks. Acknowledgements: This research was...