Critical Infrastructure Security

Critical Infrastructure Security

Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity Module 2 Introduction to Control Systems & SCADA Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Lesson Objectives Describe the components and applications of industrial control systems. Describe the purpose and use of SCADA, DCS, and PCS systems. Describe the configuration and use of field devices used to measure

critical infrastructure processes, such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, level, density, etc. Describe the use and application of PLCs in automation. Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Control systems that are used in industrial production and critical infrastructures, such as electricity, water, wastewater, transportation, and oil

Information collected from remote stations is sent over communication links to remote station control devices (field devices) that collect data and act accordingly (i.e., opening valves, sending alerts) Consist of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, Distributed Control Systems (DCS), Process Control Systems (PCS), and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. What is SCADA?

Its an acronym that stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Put simply, it means bringing plant/process data into a computer system. Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Supervisory Control

Giving an operator the ability to control processes and equipment without having to run out in the field and do everything manually. Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Data Acquisition Collecting process information from all over your plant, displaying it, and storing it for future reference.

Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Whats in it for me? DART Displays See everything in ways that make sense to the people who run the place. Mimic graphics, trend charts, etc. Alarms Monitor process and alert staff Audit logs

Reports On demand or generated automatically at the end of the shift/day/week/month/year. Trending; historical data logging; chart recorder Visually analyze process over time Instantaneous recall Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Display

Screen s Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Field Devices Measuring the Process Field devices measure flow rate, pressure, temperature, level, etc. Three main communication methods: Analog devices (variable reading) Discrete or digital devices (ON or OFF) Computer protocols (serial communications)

Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Moving Data Around Hard-wired Local, in-plant, short runs Radio telemetry (wireless) Can move protocol-based information and even electrical signals Increasingly popular due to relatively low-cost and unlicensed radio technology (no more FCC hassles)

Can move data out of very remote/inaccessible locations Only requirement is power and a place to mount an antenna Ranges in miles Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Giving It a Place to Land: PLCs and RTUs PLC Programmable Logic Controller RTU Remote Telemetry Unit Terms are fairly general, sometimes interchangeable. Basic functions are:

Process controller Monitors process feedback and issue control signals Data concentrator Gets all of the process data into one place to make it easy to use with computers via a single communication protocol Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. To Control or Not to Control? PLCs can actually run an entire complex process, but they can also be used as data concentrators only. How do they do this?

They typically have screw terminals where instrument signals are landed. The four basic types of signal are: DI - Digital Inputs (on/off status) DO Digital Outputs (open/close commands) AI Analog Inputs (variable readings) AO Analog Outputs (VFD or valve position commands) Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. To Control or Not to Control? (cont. 1) Logic Program: PLCs are like small computers that can be programmed to behave in any way you need them to work.

Examples: If the tank level (coming in at AI #2) is lower than 3 feet, then turn on the pump command (going out of DO#6) to refill the tank. If the tank full level switch (DI #2) closes, then stop the pump (DO#6 off). Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. To Control or Not to Control? (cont. 2) Logic Programming Languages:

Function Block Diagram analogous to a digital electronics schematic Ladder Logic analogous to an AC wiring diagram Structured Text analogous to plain English or the old BASIC language Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. To Control or Not to Control? (cont. 3)

Data Concentrator The logic program is not mandatory Perhaps a process is already being controlled by some other equipment or doesnt need any additional control. The PLC is still useful as a centralized place to organize all of the process information. Every screw terminal has an address or designator, so that it can be individually referenced from the computer. The naming or formatting convention of the addressing scheme is specific to each protocol or manufacturer. Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College.

Bringing It All Home Now that the field instrument data has been concentrated at the PLC, just a single link is needed from the PLC back to the computer in order to have the process data available in real-time. Two ways to make this connection: Serial (RS-232 or RS-485) traditional, relatively slow; single protocol per bus Ethernet (copper or fiber optic) fast, increasingly popular; can handle multiple protocols through a single port

Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. PLC Control System Implementat ion Example Image source: DHS Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. SCADA Data Now, that we have our data, what can we do with it?

Meaningful displays for the operators Methods of control Historical data logging and trending Includes statistical analysis Monitor and annunciate alarm conditions Generate reports Distribute this information Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Whats the Computer Doing? Sending information requests to the PLC and processing the results

Comparing values to defined alarm conditions and annunciating them if appropriate Historically logging the values (time- or trigger-based) Displaying the process information graphically Operator/event controls send new values out to the PLC Generating reports (time- or trigger-based) Making all data available to networked clients Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Typical Water Plant Operator Screen

Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Packaging Line Control Screen (Demo) Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. What Kind of Control Can We Have?

START/STOP buttons Setpoint entry keypads or sliders Anything that it makes sense to have SCADA can even do primary process control, but generally accepted engineering practices discourage this. The process should be able to run blind (without a computer front-end)! Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Historical Trend Display

Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Historical Data Logging and Trending Samples can be stored on a timed basis or triggered meaning when a certain condition is met. For example: sample the flow rate every time a valve opens or just sample every 15 minutes. Logged data can potentially be stored for thousands of separate process

variables, and stored for several years (depending on the sample rate). Historical data, dating all the way back to when the system first went online, can be called up and displayed onscreen instantaneously. Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Alarms Display Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Alarms Can be defined for analog and digital variables

Digital conditions can be alarmed when ON or OFF Analog alarms can typically have separate thresholds for: HIGH HIGH HIGH

LOW LOW LOW RATE OF CHANGE STANDARD DEVIATION Can be displayed onscreen, as well as give an audible warning Can be tied to a pager or text-message dialout Can be integrated to allow acknowledgement from keypad Alarms can also be defined by Boolean expression Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College.

Reports Like trends, they can be time-based or trigger-based End of cycle, shift, day, week, month, year, whatever Reports can contain any information that the system has collected, going back to the beginning. They are sometimes used as batch/job audit paperwork. The system can use a modem to FAX or email the reports to faraway recipients. It is also possible to generate reports in webpage format and publish them automatically to an internet/intranet website.

Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College. Distributing Information SCADA systems are typically client/server systems. Computers can be networked in any configuration that is valid under Windows (LAN, WAN). SCADA systems typically can connect to a database and share information with it. SCADA systems can be set up with redundancy (fault tolerance). Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College.

Statement of Responsibility CyberWatch West Is funded by a National Science Foundation Advanced Technology Education Grant and is located at Whatcom Community College 237 West Kellogg Road Bellingham, WA 98226

T: 360.383.3176 www.cyberwatchwest.org Except where otherwise noted, this presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2017 CyberWatch West, Whatcom Community College.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Healthy Holiday!

    Healthy Holiday!

    Try to hold for 30 seconds and repeat 2-3 times. The same thing can be performed in a doorway. The second picture is a TRX assisted lat stretch. In this picture, the stretch can be enhanced by straightening the "right"...
  • Civil War Review Questions: - Who: - Defeated

    Civil War Review Questions: - Who: - Defeated

    nd. Triumvirate? Marc Antony. Civil War Review Questions: Who was: The leader of Egypt during the Roman civil wars? Cleopatra . Civil War Review Questions: Who: Took control of Gallia and Hispania (and Italia . kinda
  • Diapositive 1

    Diapositive 1

    En mai 1943, dans un pub 'The White Swan', à Coulsdon dans la banlieue sud de Londres, il compose avec son neveu, les paroles du Chant des Partisans, lequel deviendra le chant du ralliement de la Résistance. L'indépendance de l'État...
  • Oregon Oregon Reading Reading First First Review of

    Oregon Oregon Reading Reading First First Review of

    Oregon Reading First Review of Supplemental and Intervention Programs Acknowledgments Oregon Department of Education Center for Teaching and Learning, College of Education, University of Oregon U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs Oregon Reading First Supplemental and Intervention...
  • NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation

    NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation

    Friedman-Harry Marks Clothing Co., 85 F.2d 1 2nd Cir., 1936) Defense of Marriage Act, 1996 No State, . . . shall be required to give effect to any public act, record, or judicial proceeding of any other State. . ....
  • TOOLKIT FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION EDUCATION 1 This

    TOOLKIT FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION EDUCATION 1 This

    These are the questions one asks when evaluating historic cases to assist in performing risk management to plan for future possible events. Lets look at some additional examples of hazmat transportation incidents that have occurred in the past. Keep in...
  • CprE 458/558: Real-Time Systems Introduction to Real-Time Systems

    CprE 458/558: Real-Time Systems Introduction to Real-Time Systems

    CprE 458/558: Real-Time Systems (G. Manimaran) * Task constraints Deadline constraint Resource constraints Shared access (read-read) Exclusive access (write-x) Precedence constraints T1 T2: Task T2 can start executing only after T1 finishes its execution Fault-tolerant Requirements To achieve higher reliability...
  • Chapter title - California State University, Northridge

    Chapter title - California State University, Northridge

    "Downstream" costs include marketing, distribution, and customer service costs. Although these "upstream" and "downstream" costs are nonmanufacturing costs, they are just as essential to determining product profitability as are manufacturing costs. Omitting them from profitability analysis will result in the...