CS Rote's resume

CS Rote's resume

1 of 53 Real Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Works of C. S. Lewis Contents I. C. S. Lewis on the cover of Time Magazine 8 September, 1947 2 II. A composite review from several readers on Amazon.com 3 III. Main Themes of the Book 4 0. Preface 17 1. Introduction: Incarnational Reality 17 2. God, Super-Nature, and Nature 18 3. Sacrament: Avenue to the Real 20 4. Spirit, Soul, and Body 21 5. Till We Have Faces

24 6. Weve Been Undragoned 25 7. The Great Dance 29 8. The Way of the Cross 33 9. The Whole Intellect 38 10. The Whole Imagination I: Surprised by Joy 43 11. The Whole Imagination II: The Two Minds 46 12. Selected Lewis Bibliography 50 13. 51 Found in Space: How C. S. Lewis has shaped my faith and writing 14. Books of the Bible Cited in this Summary 52 15. Leanne Payne Bibliography 53 Ms. Paynes 175-page book focuses on the deep truths of Christianity that Lewis highlighted in his widely varied writings. Lewis writing included autobiography, fiction, letters (both published and unpublished), professional (academic) and

theology. Because Ms. Payne illustrates these deep truths using examples from Lewiss writing, her book also provides an excellent overview of the Lewis oeuvre. For the sake of brevity I have omitted these examples where it was possible to do so and still communicate the point at hand. My purpose is to focus attention on Lewis deep Christian truths rather than on his writings. - Clifford S. Rote, January 2009 Real Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Works of C. S. Lewis I. C. S. Lewis on the cover of Time Magazine 8 September, 1947 2 of 53 Real Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Works of C. S. Lewis II. A composite review from several readers on Amazon.com In REAL PRESENCE, Leanne Payne explains the spirituality of C.S.Lewis as revealed in his fiction and nonfiction writings. Payne is in part an interpreter of C.S. Lewis; in part a Christian apologist to the philosophical community; in part a spiritual director (telling us how to 'grow our own spiritual life'). She is also a minister in her own right - she has an international ministry of spiritual (emotional) healing. She has a somewhat arcane writing style which takes just a little bit to decipher. But her understanding of Lewis is great. His spirituality was foundational to the development of her own, and she articulates it very well. She explains it in light of classic, historic Christian doctrine, especially that of the early church. This book is very helpful in understanding her own subsequent books, all of which I highly recommend, especially HEALING PRESENCE, RESTORING THE CHRISTIAN SOUL and LISTENING PRAYER. She has a tremendous understanding of (as she terms it) 'Incarnational Reality', the essential Christian assertion that, through the Holy Spirit, God comes to live right inside the believer. It is in listening to and collaborating with the Holy Spirit, who indwells us, that we are healed and caused to grow. Lewis wrote much about this concept (in large part symbolically, in his fiction); and it is from him that much of Payne's own understanding comes. It is to this concept that she refers in the title of this book - THE REAL PRESENCE. The book is a tremendous help in understanding the complexity of Lewis' writing, especially his fiction. Without understanding his underlying spirituality, it is hard to appreciate any but the most superficial aspects of meaning in the imagery and characterizations in his fiction; it also informs much of his nonfiction. Payne does an excellent job of explaining that spirituality and does so with frequent quotes from and references to Lewis' writings. (Perhaps you thought that the Narnia Chronicles and his space trilogy - PERELANDRA,OUT OF THE SILENT PLANET,THAT HIDEOUS STRENGTH - were simple children's books. They are, in fact, profound works, if one only knows what is meant through the imagery.) Later chapters in the book look at how Lewis understood the role of an artist, the nature of imaginative experience, and Good and evil (the author contrasts Lewis's views on this with those of the psychologist CG Jung and fellow writer Charles Williams). "Real Presence" is the best introduction to C. S. Lewis that I have seen; Leanne Payne captures the essence of Lewis better than anyone else I've read. She follows the main threads of Lewis' thought through a comprehensive crosssection of his work, and, from where I sit, she gets it exactly right. I kept finding myself nodding vigorously as she described some key aspect of Lewis that I had noticed but couldn't quite put into words. "Incarnational Reality" is Payne's key insight (hence the title) - that, just as God

in Christ took on human flesh, so in our day, Christ, by His Holy Spirit, lives in Christian believers. This leads in some very fruitful directions as she develops how God "breaks in" to our universe and sanctifies ordinary life - her thought is very "sacramental. Lewis once said that he discerned in George MacDonald's writing an elusive quality which he later realized was holiness; Leanne Payne here returns the favor to Lewis. After I finished "Real Presence", I realized that what I loved about Lewis was exactly holiness. Thanks to Leanne Payne for showing it to me. 3 of 53 Real Presence 4 of 53 Main Themes 1. Introduction: Incarnational Reality The reality of God, present in and through His creation is what Leanne Payne calls incarnational reality. Lewis puts us in touch with incarnational reality. This embodiment of spiritual reality in material form is the principle of the Incarnation; or, in other words, it is the principle of sacramental truth whereby Gods Real Presence is made manifest in and through the material world. Lewis recovered the vision of an immanent God a God who indwells His people yet Who is sovereign over, and beyond, His creatures. The creature is linked to the Creator by the Spirit of the risen Christ. This fact, fully comprehended and experienced, is the whole of it as Lewis would say. But, as Lewis points out, this is the one truth that man tends always to fall away from. Left to his natural inclinations, he evades its awe-full reality, and invents for himself shallow and less demanding substitutes for his one redeeming link with God. With brilliant clarity, Lewis reveals that over this view of reality all the philosophies and ideologies of man stumble. Herein is Christianity different from all other religions. Unless one is literally filled by the Real Presence of the risen Christ, he cannot see the Kingdom of God. 2. God, Super-Nature, and Nature Lewis not only recognizes the common division between the natural and the supernatural, between that which is matter and that which is spirit, but further distinguishes the uncreated or absolute being of God from the created supernatural. Man, in his body, participates in nature; in his psyche he participates in super-nature; and through his spirit, the whole of him can be linked beyond all nature and super-nature to absolute being. We come to know ultimate reality, not by theological ideas about it, even though these are valid and necessary, but by union with it by the establishing of a personal relationship between God and man. To experience this union is to apprehend the presence of God within and without The most concrete reality that can be known, it is often relegated to the abstract and the theoretical by those who attempt to know it only with the conscious, analytical mind. But our sole avenue to reality is, as Lewis says, through prayer, sacrament, repentance, and adoration; that is through the deep hearts way of knowing. Knowing here is not a direct knowledge about (savoir) God, but a knowledge-by-acquaintance (connatre), a tasting, of Love Himself that the humblest of us, in a state of Grace, can know. 3. Sacrament: Avenue to the Real It is fatally easy to confuse an aesthetic appreciation of the spiritual life with the life itself. It is easy to know, in apparent detail, the doctrines of the life in Christ without ever experiencing the life itself. It is possible to come to baptism or the Lords Supper and to perceive nothing but the symbol. Ones spirit must be open to the Holy Spirits work to effectively appropriate the grace which the visible sign represents. To perceive only the symbol is to fail to apprehend the Presence which forms Christ in us, makes us one with our brothers, and grants us Christs supernatural gifts.

To truly communicate in Holy communion is to experience Christ, to experience our oneness with God, with our brothers and sisters, and with the saints of every age. Christ is first apprehended in the preaching of the Word. He is then experienced through the Eucharist. Together both parts achieve a whole: mind, spirit, and body are fed. This is worship. The experience of true communion can be overpowering. The absence of a true communion in our worship services is a source of the spiritual malnutrition of our times. Real Presence 5 of 53 Main Themes (contd) 4. Spirit, Soul, and Body Like St. Paul, Lewis describes man as consisting of spirit (pneuma), soul (psyche), and body (soma). In the Christian view the primacy of the spirit is of great importance. Mans spirit answers to the Spirit (Pneuma) of God, and when touched by His Spirit becomes from our perspective the Higher Self or the New Man, and from the perspective of the Spirit of God, becomes the Christ formed in us. (Galatians 4:19) This highest element in man is thus distinguished from the psyche (soul), which Lewis understands to include both the rational soul (the mind, conscious and unconscious, the will, the emotions, the feelings, the imagination, the intuitive faculty), and the animal soul (the instinctual and sensory faculties, etc,). Both spirit and soul are then distinguished from the animal body, the soma (the body as part of the material world). These three united make up the composite being called man. Soma, psyche, and pneuma each point to a realm of truth, only one of which is effectually acknowledged in higher education today and that is the truth of soma or material nature. This is the realm of the scientists truth, empirical truth, that can be discerned and measured by the senses. Because this kind of truth is today often understood to be the only one, the present view of man and mind is often reduced to a biological and chemical one. For this reason, those who recognize the supernatural have difficulty communicating with those who recognize only the natural; they literally speak a different language. This is also the reason many Christians have grave difficulty communicating with their own children or with other Christians who, schooled in naturalistic thought, are confused and inexperienced in regard to the Holy Spirits work in their lives. Super-nature or the supernatural is the realm of supersensory truth in that it is beyond the range of the senses. Like nature, super-nature is still finite, still created. The nonmaterial but created spirits, both good and evil, belong to this realm. Consciousness or the rational soul, the reasoning mind in man, is a part of the super-nature system. The power of reason which is the light of human consciousness becomes incarnate in each human being. Rational thought is therefore not part of the system of nature but comes down into nature or, rather, nature is taken up into reason. As part of super-nature incarnate in nature, reason includes not only the thought-process in the individual mind, but objective truth beyond the thinking subject: It must be something not shut up inside our heads but already out there in the universe or behind the universe: either as objective as material Nature or more objective still. Unless all that we take to be knowledge is an illusion, we must hold that in thinking we are not reading rationality into an irrational universe but responding to a rationality with which the universe has always been saturated. The prevailing twentieth [and twenty-first]-century view of man, unlike the Christian model, is a dreary one indeed. It is based on the truth of nature alone. Man in this model is most generally understood as an organism whose choices are determined by his environment and heredity, and not as a truly ethical and moral being, much less one capable of being indwelt by God.

Man, along with his world, just sort of happened, and his mind (as well as any deity he might admit) simply rose up out of the biological process. [The strong form of Darwinism.] The totally natural, even biological view of man and mind has come about because of a crisis in our understanding of truth. Modern man, having discarded the possibility of supersensory truth, has come to recognize only the truth of the senses. He has come to see himself and his world in terms of only one of the three kinds of truth. He therefore understands and measures himself and everything else only by that one kind. Real Presence 6 of 53 Main Themes (contd) 4. Spirit, Soul, and Body (contd) The Christian view of man differs radically from the naturalistic view, for the Christian understands himself and his world in the light of the three kinds of truth. A thoroughgoing supernaturalist, the Christian believes that besides Nature, Something else exists, and that he himself with all nature depends upon this Something else for existence. Unlike the naturalist, who understands himself and his world as a developing (biological and evolutionary) process sufficient and complete in itself, and who explains the continuity between things that claim to be spiritual and things that are certainly natural by saying that the one slowly turned into the other, the supernaturalist envisions God coming down into His developed but fallen creation, incarnating it, and coming up again, pulling it up with Him. Unfortunately, however, the mind of Christendom has been contaminated by the naturalistic view of man. The materialistic assumptions in the Christians unexamined view of himself bar him from miracle, that is from the supernatural, and from a true understanding of Gods presence without and within. Due to his naturalistic presuppositions, he is no longer free to listen to God, to receive His guidance, or to collaborate actively with the Holy Spirit in such a way as to become free from the interior and exterior forces that shape his life and cost him his freedom. When a proper understanding of the Holy Spirits work in man is lost, then the Christian, like the materialist, lives solely from the psychological level of his being. He has lost the incarnational way of knowing. His mind, developed apart from an active participation in the Holy Spirit, yields a rationalism that cannot receive spiritual wisdom. In becoming truly Christian we become truly free. Because the Christian understands a Mind outside of nature, guiding both himself and his cosmos, he has no fear of contingency or of fate and mere circumstance, in regard either to the cosmos or himself. He believes that the Uncreated Who comes down is the Good, and that in Him is no darkness nor shadow of turning, and that this Good, is not simply a law, but also a begetting love. Therefore, he believes in meaningful freedom rather than in chance or fate. In fact, the Christian believes he was created precisely so that he could be free and therefore able to love, and that this same begetting Love indwelling him is capable of lifting him out of the cauldron of predetermined fate and resurrecting him in every part of his being. He is enabled to radiate this freedom to other spirits yet in bondage. Such is the fully restored Christian view of man. Real Presence 7 of 53 Main Themes (contd) 5. Till We Have Faces Something far more basic than modern mans materialism works against true knowledge of himself and his condition the Fall and its effects. The Fallen self cannot know itself. But as Lewis says, we cannot tell the truth about ourselves; the persistent, lifelong inner murmur of spite,

jealousy, prurience, greed and self complacence, simply will not go into words. The intellect is affected by a corruption of the spirit that has turned from God to its self. The fallen will cooperates with an imagination filled with shapes that cater to its own spiritual and physical lusts. Christ commanded and empowered His followers to heal because He knew that all men, in their exterior relationships and within themselves, are broken and separated. In order for man to regain wholeness in every aspect of his life, the relationships between himself and God, himself and other men, himself and nature, and himself and his innermost being, must be healed. And this healing must include the will, the unconscious mind or the deep heart, the emotions, and the intuitive and imaginative faculties. The key to the healing of all these relationships has to do with incarnational reality with being filled with Gods Spirit and with seeking to dwell in His Presence. It has to do with mans choosing union and communion with God rather than his own separateness which is, in effect, the practice of the presence of the old Adamic fallen self. To be filled with the Spirit is to choose the heaven of the integrated and emancipated self rather than the hell of the disintegrated self in separation. In ceasing to direct her every action and thought to her Creator, Eve displayed the self-will which, as Lewis says, is the only sin conceivable as the Fall. Her self-will was, in effect, a denial of her creaturehood. The created finite would contend with the Uncreated Infinite. From the moment a creature becomes aware of God as God and of itself as self, the terrible alternative of choosing God or self for the center is opened to it. This sin is committed daily by young children and ignorant peasants as well as by sophisticated persons, by solitaries no less than by those who live in society: it is the fall in every individual life, and in each day of each individual life, the basic sin behind all particular sins: at this very moment you and I are either committing it, or about to commit it, or repenting it. We must therefore open every door of our being to this Presence, to our God. It is then that we are healed in spirit, in intellect and will, and in our intuitive, imaginative, and sensory faculties. And it is then that we as healers, as channels of Gods Love and Presence, literally carry Christ into the lives of others. Christs aim is to fill the whole life of the believer. That is what conversion is the ongoing process of being filled with Christ. 6. Weve Been Undragoned In regard to our religious life, there are two things to be especially noted: First of all, our emotional or sensory reactions to our behavior are of limited ethical significance. To repent and to turn from sin and the self is a matter of the will, not the feelings. Second, and most important, we can, by substituting for reality our feelings or states of mind, miss the Reality Himself. The act of penitence and the reception of pardon are definite acts a very real transaction with God, and we fail in this when we turn from God to seek our feelings or states of our own minds. In Lewiss case, though the guilt was real, he found it was removed not by looking inward but by looking outward. It is when man looks up to Jesus that he finds the road out of the self. To take ones eyes off the reality of the Creator and to cast them instead onto the creature is to find oneself in bondage. Real Presence 8 of 53 Main Themes (contd) 6. Weve Been Undragoned (contd) Lewis also came to understand, with great clarity, that all times are eternally present to God, and he labored to dispel our strange illusions about time and forgiveness. He understood how the divine forgiveness, the eternal efficacy of the work of Christ accomplished in Gethsemane and on the Cross, works all the way backward in time to the first man, Adam, and all the way forward to the last man who will ever be born:

We have a strange illusion that mere time cancels sin. I have heard others, and I have heard myself, recounting cruelties and falsehoods committed in boyhood as if they were no concern of the present speakers, and even with laughter. But mere time does nothing either to the fact or to the guilt of sin. The guilt is washed out not by time but by repentance and the blood of Christ. Lewis therefore understood how God, outside of time, heals our oldest and deepest sorrows. By our repentance and the shedding of His Blood, Christ walks back in time as we know it, forgiving our sins and healing our sorrows, so that we may find wholeness. To be God is to enjoy an infinite present where nothing has yet passed away and nothing is still to come. To be Christian man is to experience the healing Christ as He walks back in time and forgives our blackest sins and heals our deepest hurts. Furthermore, we find that His Presence was there all along had we only known it, and we merely appropriate the Love that had even then, at the very moment, been there. This is the heritage of the sons [and daughters] of God, this is the peace promised by Jesus Christ: and, when it is received, it floods the finite soul the dweller in chaotic time. It is possible, once we have begun on the road to sanctity and humility, to forget whence we have come. We must never forget that, through pride and self-will, we can once again cater to the old nature. The most important thing is to keep on, not to be discouraged however often one yields to temptation, but always to pick yourself up again and ask forgiveness. In reviewing your sins dont either exaggerate them or minimize them. Call them by their ordinary names and try to see them as your would see the same faults in somebody else no special blackening or white-washing. Remember the conditions on which we are promised forgiveness: we shall always be forgiven provided that we forgive all who sin against us. If we do that we have nothing to fear: if we dont, all else will be in vain. It is only by remembering that Another lives in me that we can die daily to that old, false, usurping self, and that we continue to be drawn further in and higher up into the life of God. To practice the Presence is to call to mind, continually, this great reality. Once again we see that the secret is incarnational. One dies to the old self and lives to the new by continuing to receive of that Other Life. Even our prayers, in true prayer, are really His prayers. He speaks to Himself through us. And it is the same with all the virtues and all the fruits and gifts of the Spirit. All are equally derivative. We must never forget this, and we must practice, always, this Holy Presence, even though we can do it only for moments at first: That is why the problem of the Christian life comes where people do not usually look for it. It comes the very moment you wake up each morning, All your wishes and hopes for the day rush at you like wild animals. And the first job each morning consists of shoving them all back; in listening to that other voice, taking that other point of view, letting that other larger, stronger, quieter life come flowing in We can do it (practice the Presence) only for moments at first. But from those moments the new sort of life will be spreading through our systems because now we are letting Him work at the right part of us. And, as Lewis says, This is the whole of Christianity. There is nothing else. Christianity isnt a covenant or a law but it is a life Another Life being lived in and through us. Our human spirit, when in union with this Holy Other, is the higher self. Real Presence 9 of 53 Main Themes (contd) 7. The Great Dance You do not fail in obedience through lack of love, but have lost love because you never attempted obedience. Quote from Lewiss novel, That Hideous Strength Lewis tells us that when he first seriously attempted to obey his conscience he found himself struggling

with a Spirit or a Real I who was showing an alarming tendency to become much more personal and is taking the offensive, and behaving just like God. And it was in this Real Presence that he first knew himself to be no one: Presently you begin to wonder whether you are yet, in any full sense, a person at all; whether you are entitled to call yourself I (it is a sacred name) You find that what you called yourself is only a thin film on the surface of an unsounded and dangerous sea. Ones ordinary self is, then, a mere facade. Theres a huge area out of sight behind it. So it was that as Lewis discovered God to be no impersonal force, he found his view of human personality changed. Each mans personality is divided within him and needs to become one before he can know who he is. As Lewis understands it, the human will is linked with the conscious mind of man that which most obviously distinguishes him from the rest of nature. It is consciousness that gives man choice to obey or not to obey. And it is when man is obedient, when he wills to unite himself with God, that he finds himself to be one person a person whose choices are continually changing him from the very center of his being into that perfected person that shall be. For, of course, the personality is being perfected. That man or woman who we really are will come into its ultimate personhood only in heaven. This is one reason why, while we are being perfected, obedience is not an option, but an imperative: Personality is eternal and inviolable. But then, personality is not a datum from which we start. The individualism in which we all begin is only a parody or shadow of it. True personality lies ahead We are marble waiting to be shaped, metal waiting to be run into a mold. Paradoxically, it is only as we obey, as we become slaves to obedience, that we come into that incredible freedom of the realized and integrated personality. The realized and integrated personality, finding its identity only in God, and no longer seeking it in a role (wife, mother, father, churchwoman), in a career or profession (doctor, lawyer, pastor, artist), or in a class (woman, white-collar worker, African-American) is no longer shaped or determined by fears of failure or by what others think of it. Its justification is in God alone. This redeemed personality is freed from the superimposition of the sins, mistakes, and foibles of others and of those of its own past; it is freed from the rejections it has experienced, both in its past and in its present. This personality no longer attempts to relate to others (much less to the Body of Christ) on the basis of expertise of any kind, for it no longer finds its identity in that expertise. Fears, outward pressures, undue domination by others, no longer shape its inner life, nor even over too long a period the circumstances of its outer life; secure within its inner being, it is enabled to confront and to deal with these things rather than be shaped by them. The Great Dance has been from all eternity and first and foremost in the love that has always been going on between the Father and the Son. Lewis says, What grows out of the joint life of the Father and the Son is a real Person, is in fact the Third of the three Persons who are God. To enter into the Dance, then, is to enter the Holy Spirit and to enter the living, dynamic activity of Love that has always been between the Father and the Son. Real Presence 10 of 53 Main Themes (contd) 7. The Great Dance (contd) Obedience is the holy courtesy required for entering into the divine relationship. That is why we first see the joy of obedience in the Godhead. The Trinity is a co-inherence in Love: Being Christians, we learn from the doctrine of the blessed Trinity that something analogous to society exists within the Divine being from all eternity that God is love, not merely in the sense of being the Platonic form of love, but because, within Him, the concrete reciprocities of love exist before all worlds and are thence derived to the creatures.

But it is in the incarnate Christ that we first see the pattern of perfect obedience. God could, had He been pleased, have been incarnate in a man of iron nerves, the Stoic sort who let no sigh escape him. Of His great humility He chose to be incarnate in a man of delicate sensibilities who wept at the grave of Lazarus and sweated blood in Gethsemane. Otherwise we should have missed the great lesson that it is by his will alone that a man is good or bad, and that feelings are not, in themselves, of any importance. The key to our own obedience: Not only must we listen in the presence of the Father, but we must let the Son and the Holy Spirit respond in obedience through us. He that is at once both further away (Sovereign over all) and closer to us than our breathing (Immanent God) can speak to us. With all our being therefore we must learn to listen to Him. To be obedient is to choose joy, that is, utter reality. And the choosing of joy is, of course, the choosing of Love Himself. St. John says that loving God and obeying Him is proof that we love our brothers and sisters; and conversely, that loving our brothers and sisters is proof that we love God. To step outside the Great Dance is to step outside of Love and back into the hell of self and separation; it is to step from the co-inherence of all things, animated by the Love of God, back into in-coherence. We see, therefore, that love and the choice to obey are inextricably intertwined and related. We choose to love God and others; or, pridefully, we choose self love instead. We are able to step outside the Dance because weve been given the freedom to do so. The happiness which God designs for His higher creatures is the happiness of being freely, voluntarily united to Him and to each other This love, of course, is not a feeling: Christian Love, either towards God or towards man, is an affair of the will. If we are trying to do His will we are obeying the commandment, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God. This brings us to the very crux of the matter of obedience. Our self-will, swollen with pride, is dreadfully diseased and blemished. It has dark spots in it. It requires radical conversion. This conversion is painful, for it is the surrender of an inflamed self-will that has been, for years, the usurper; for it to surrender is a kind of death. The full acting out of selfs surrender to God therefore demands pain: this action, to be perfect, must be done from the pure will to obey, in the absence, or in the teeth, of inclination. Obedience, even after a thorough conversion of the will, is an ongoing thing. There is a necessity to die daily to the old self, for however often we think we have broken the rebellious self we shall still find it alive. There are only two kinds of people in the end: those who say to God, Thy will be done, and those to whom God says, in the end, Thy will be done. All that are in Hell choose it. Without that self-choice there could be no Hell. No soul that seriously and constantly desires joy will ever miss it. Those who seek find. To those who knock it is opened. [Matthew 7:7] Real Presence 11 of 53 Main Themes (contd) 8. The Way of the Cross Believing, is more than intellectual assent by the conscious mind, for it includes experience of the reality believed in. It is knowing that is experiential, that includes the deep heart (the unconscious intuitive faculty), and that results in a new creation. An idiom the Scriptures employ to denote sexual union expresses the deeper meaning inherent in the word: And Adam knew Eve his wife: and she conceived and bore Cain. [Genesis 4:1] And (Joseph) knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name Jesus. [Matthew 1:24-25] We moderns have trouble with the words knowing and believing for to us these suggest merely intellectual

conceptual understanding or assent to propositions without the substantive content of the King Jamess to know. [The Authorized King James Version is an English translation of the Christian Bible begun in 1604 and first published in 1611 by the Church of England.] A believing heart, then, is not one with a mere rational understanding of Christs being and mission, but one that has entered into a relationship of trust and love with a Person. Of course the conceptual belief ought to be there too, but a child or a simple person can be a Christian without understanding what, logically or theologically speaking, a Christian is. We now know that an infant, even as an embryo, can experience rejections by his parents when unwanted and unloved, and can, by the same token, experience their affirmation and love. This receiving, of either rejections or of love, is not on a conceptual level, but is a very real message written into the infants unconscious mind. Insofar as divine Love is concerned, an infant can believe can, in other words, experientially know or receive love long before he can conceptually comprehend it. Experiential knowing is, in a way beyond our understanding, connected with Christs shed blood. This is why to believe in the message of a crucified Christ is Gods way of saving us. We are told that Christ was killed for us, that His death has washed out our sins, and that by dying He disabled death itself. That is the formula. That is Christianity. That is what has to be believed. Christ has provided in Holy Communion a way for us to continue to participate in His dying and rising. The efficacy of the Eucharist lies in the fact that it is, in effect, an extension of the ongoing work of the Cross. It is not the only means available to us but it is the one commanded by Christ and its efficacy, like that of the Cross itself, bypasses the reasoning mind. Participating then in the life of the risen Lord makes us an extension of the Incarnation. It is then that we can truly live the life of the servant, for Christs very power and love flows through us when the channels are cleansed and open [which occurs to the extent that we are healed of our wounded souls & spirits]. Similarly, this is what carrying the Cross means becoming channels through which His redeeming life can flow. [Therefore, get thee Healed!] St. Paul determined to know nothing among the Greeks & Hebrews but Jesus Christ and Him Crucified. This is the only way man is released from the Law and his own works, is taken into union with Christ, and is given His Spirit. Pauls preaching was empowered, not by human wisdom or eloquent rhetoric, but by a manifestation of the Spirit and power. By such preaching, true belief is ignited in the spirit of the unbeliever, and entering into Christ, his spirit leaps alive. This kind of preaching, the kind that literally imparts the Presence, is apostolic preaching. Wherever or whenever this preaching occurs, new churches are born. In an essay first published in 1946, entitled the Decline of Religion, Lewis lamented the absence of such preaching. He first affirms the work of the Christian apologists. Their work is important, but, Their share is a modest one; and it is always possible that nothing nothing whatever may come of it. Far higher than they stands that character whom, to the best of my knowledge, the present Christian movement has not yet produced the Preacher in the full sense, The Evangelist, the man on fire, the man who infects. The propagandist, the apologist, only represents John the Baptist: the Preacher represents the Lord Himself. He will be sent or else he will not. But unless he comes we mere Christian intellectuals will not effect very much. Real Presence 12 of 53 Main Themes (contd) 9. The Whole Intellect From believing rational man to be a pawn in a meaningless and irrational world, Lewis came to understand that rationality itself is a gift from outside the system. In fact, mans rationality became the telltale rift in Nature which shows that there is something beyond or behind her. This outcropping, this incarnation of mind in nature, turned out to be the rock on which the case for naturalism founders; for in assuming the mind to be part of nature and hence irrational, it falls into self-contradiction.

It is nonsense when one uses the human mind to prove the irrationality of the human mind Dr. Clyde Kilby. But beyond this, Lewis understood that the Spirit of God, descending into the heart of man, could not only illumine a faltering and faulty intellect but could put it in touch with divine Reason. In 1931, three years after his conversion to theism [but not, yet, Christianity] he explains in a letter how he has penetrated the last intellectual barrier to belief. Now the story of Christ is simply true myth: a myth working on us in the same way as the others, but with this tremendous difference that it really happened; and one must be content to accept it in the same way, remembering that it is Gods myth where the others are mens myths: i.e. the Pagan stories are God expressing Himself through the minds of poets, using such images as He found there, while Christianity is God expressing Himself through what we call real things. Therefore it is true, not in the sense of being a description of God (that no finite mind can take in) but in the sense of being the way in which God chooses to (or can) appear to our faculties. The doctrines we get out of the true myth are of course less true: they are translations into our concepts and ideas of that which God has already expressed in a language more adequate, namely the actual incarnation, crucifixion, and resurrection. Does this amount to a belief in Christianity? At any rate I am now certain, a) That this Christian story is to be approached, in a sense, as I approach the other myths. And b) That it is the most important and full of meaning. I am also nearly certain that it really happened. Never has an age been more hostile to the Faith than this modern one, nor more completely afflicted with what Lewis calls chronological snobbery the uncritical acceptance of the intellectual climate common to our age and the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited. Truth is still truth and error is still error no matter what the date on the calendar is. I claim that the positive historical statements made by Christianity have the power, elsewhere found chiefly in formal principles, of receiving, without intrinsic change, the increasing complexity of meaning which increasing knowledge puts into them. With a passion for honoring truth, Lewis therefore never tires of pointing up the effects of these prejudices on the souls of men. In effect, he takes the blinders off sense-imprisoned men and thereby presents heaven to their sight. The intellect, in association with the real and the true noumenal (the Holy Spirit), becomes the Holy Intellect, and replaces the glib rationalism of man confined to the world of sense perceptions. Our period, as Lewis shows, has had no satisfactory theory of knowledge. That we know reality by Gods Spirit within us is an idea simply so foreign to the modern mind-set that even the archetype memory of it has a hard time emerging in the consciousness of Christian man. That man can know God, the Ultimate reality, by His Spirit in-Gracing him, by prayer and sacrament, repentance and adoration and that this is not fantasy is a truth lost to modern man, who has, (as Lewis once had) an epistemology that accepts as rock-bottom reality [only] the universe revealed by the senses. [Epistemology: a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.] Our educational systems, drawing their theories increasingly from materialist philosophy, have claimed heaven to be off-limits and have taught us to look within ourselves and to this earth for the ultimate good. Worse, they often flatly claim man is only a product of biological, psychological, and social forces. There is no Object, they assume, no objective meaning outside of our senses. Therefore, all the meaning, all the reality we had once attributed to the objective order of the universe, seen and unseen, we attempt to transfer to the Subject, that is, to ourselves and to our sense-world. Having done this, we find the Subject to be as empty as we have made the Object appear to be: Real Presence Main Themes (contd) 13 of 53 9. The Whole Intellect (contd) At the outset, the universe appears packed with will, intelligence, life and positive qualities: every tree is a nymph and every planet a god. Man himself is akin to the gods. The advance of knowledge gradually empties this rich and genial universe: first of its gods, then of its colors,

smells, sounds, and tastes, finally of solidity itself as solidity was originally imagined. As these items are taken from the world, they are transferred to the subjective side of the account: classified as our sensations, thoughts, images or emotions. The subject becomes gorged, inflated, at the expense of the Object. But the matter does not end there. The same method which has emptied the world now proceeds to empty ourselves. The masters of the method soon announce that we were just as mistaken (and mistaken in much the same way) when we attributed souls, or selves, or minds to human organisms, as when we attributed Dryads to treesWe, who have personified all other things, turn out to be ourselves mere personifications And thus we arrive at a result uncommonly like zero. While we were reducing the world to almost nothing we deceived ourselves with the fancy that all its lost qualities were being kept safe (if in a somewhat humbled condition) as things in our own mind. Apparently we had no mind of the sort required. The subject is as empty as the Object. Almost nobody has been making linguistic mistakes about almost nothing. By and large, this is the only thing that has ever happened. Physicists, in accepting Dr. Einsteins mathematical description of nature, rejected as inadequate the Newtonian and Darwinian theories that gave rise to the mechanistic and sensate view of man, his mind, and his cosmos; but not before both these theories had profoundly influenced Freud, and through him, the whole of American psychology, the rest of the social sciences, and the humanities. It is strange that the epistemological implications of the new intellectual light, which dawned over four decades ago [from 1979], have been so very slow to penetrate (when at all) the social sciences and the humanities. Even so, the modern physicists, by their loss of faith in Newtons mechanistic universe, have opened wide a window through which this light can shine. By virtue of this new light and the humility that accompanies it (the loss of certainty that science can explain what physical reality is and how all things happen), there is power to exorcise at least some of the illusions and barriers which have impeded mans metaphysical desires. Meanwhile, the more direct concern we face is the complete secularization of our systems of education, which operate ever more consistently on naturalistic assumptions that would finally reduce the intellect itself to an elaborate computer. In his book, The Abolition of Man, Lewis chronicles this reductio ad absurdum of the intellect and the consequent drain of meaning and value from his world view as western man has yielded to the spell of materialism. Although the industrial and technological revolutions have lent their momentum to the ongoing alteration in educational philosophy, it is partially through deteriorating and even erroneous ideas of what the term democratic means that the supernaturalist view of man is dropping out of education. In societies that separate Church from State, any supernaturalist point of view seems to threaten this division and falls into the category of religion. Yet, if we define religion as those principles of belief underlying any world view, we find that the naturalists assumption that nature is all there is involves a commitment of faith equally as religious. It cannot be proven by science any more than the assumption that God exists can. Both are matters of faith. Yet the loss in our educational system of a transcendent view of man and his cosmos has brought about a crisis in the very spirit of man and is the real basis for the cries of irrelevancy and despair that we hear in connection with higher learning. our educational systems, but due to pressure on those systems to remain democratic and neutral, moral and ethical values go unstated and neglected. It would seem that Dostoyevskys gloomy prediction has come true: if God does not exist (i.e., is not believed to exist) anything is possible. We may recall the ethics created by the Nazis to justify exterminating the Jews. In a state where all choices are made scientifically, that is, by the truth of nature alone, there finally will be no place for democratic disagreement as B. F. Skinners Beyond Freedom and Dignity forecasts. Real Presence 14 of 53 Main Themes (contd) 10. The Whole Imagination I: Surprised by Joy

Lewis defined three uses of the word, imagination. Reverie daydream, wish-fulfilling fantasy. Invention. But in neither reverie nor invention does Lewis locate the truly imaginative experience. But other experiences contained the truly imaginative, those which call for the third and highest definition of the word imagination: that of awe at the presence of the Objective Real; that of an intuition of objective truth lying outside of ourselves. Joy best describes it. Sharply distinguishing these experiences of Joy from both happiness and pleasure, Lewis said that the quality common to each was that of an unsatisfied desire which is itself more desirable than any other satisfaction. Joy, the truly imaginative experience, at its highest level is the creaturely experience of receiving from the Holy Other.There is no doubt that Joy has to do with the work of the Holy Spirit, and that the experience of Joy is linked with the word imagination in its third and highest sense. But there are several levels even to the truly imaginative, and we must differentiate between that which begins in merely poetic awe and that which includes religious awe. Similarly, we intuit the Real in at least three kinds the realms of Nature, Super-nature, and the Real Presence of God. The awe differs as the kinds of reality to be intuited differ, though Absolute Reality, in the person of the Holy Spirit, can find His way through any one of the three. It is in the Object, that which invokes the awe, that the difference lies. The form of the desired is in the desire. When the heavens were opened in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, on the fifth day of the month and the prophet Ezekiel saw visions of God he fell on his face in worshipful awe. [Ezekiel 1:1] In the midst of this he heard a Voice speaking: And when He spoke to me, the Spirit entered into me and set me upon my feet. [Ezekiel 2:1] Ezekiel was then indwelt by the Object. This is religious awe, and the Object that inspired it was God. In poetic awe the artist sees, with his newborn intuition, one blade of grass or one dewdrop as it really is. His experience differs from Ezekiels in that the object giving rise to the awe differs. But the parallels are definitely there. Looking to the object, the artist forgets himself, and in loving that which he sees he becomes totally absorbed in it. Possessed by the creative idea, he feels compelled to transpose it into material form. This is poetic awe, capable at any moment of becoming not less, but more, than poetic awe. It is often with a profound sense of transfigured awe that the artist or the mystic perceives the truths of super-nature or, on a higher level, of God. Then, sometimes flat on his face over what he feels to be his utter inadequacy, he attempts to pass the vision on. Always, too, there is the gap between that which is seen and heard and that which is finally captured on canvas, in stone, in poetry, in melody. To one who is not an artist or a mystic it seems incredible that Michelangelo felt himself to be a fumbler, and that Isaiah, when he saw the Lord sitting high and lifted up, felt himself to be lost and a man of unclean lips [Isaiah 6:1-5]. Lewis found it essential that imagination lead us beyond ourselves to the Source whence we came. And the purpose of the highest art he says along with Plato and a host of other voices not often heard these days is to do just that. As the Shining One says to the artist newly arrived in heaven [in Lewiss book, The Great Divorce,] When you painted on earth, it was because you caught glimpses of Heaven in the earthly landscape. The success of your painting was that it enabled others to see the glimpses too. But here you are having the thing itself. It is from here that the messages came. Lewis wrote: There seems, in fact, to be only two views we can hold about awe. Either it is a mere twist in the human mind, corresponding to nothing objective and serving no biological function, yet showing no tendency to disappear from that mind at its fullest development in poet, philosopher, or saint: or else it is a direct experience of the really supernatural, to which the name Revelation might properly be given. Real Presence 15 of 53

Main Themes (contd) 10. The Whole Imagination II: The Two Minds serious problems arise from our failure to understand and appreciate the ways of knowing peculiar to the so-called unconscious mind. This is the intuitive rather than the reasoning faculty, the seat of the creative imagination, the memory, and the gifts of the Holy Spirit. It has much to do with belief in the sense of relationship, discussed in chapters 2 and 8. This failure is also rooted in our inheritance of Greek thought, particularly from Aristotle. Aristotles epistemology confined mans ways of receiving knowledge to the data received through his sense experience and his reason. [Epistemology: a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.] By synthesizing experience, reason was thought capable of putting man in touch with the real. From these two ways of knowing (experience and reason), both belonging to the conscious mind, he developed his first principles of knowledge. He thus ruled out Platos third way of knowing, which included the ways of divine inspiration, of the poet and the prophet, of the dream and of the vision, and most important of all, the way of love. These of course, are the ways of the unconscious mind: the way of picture, metaphor, symbol, myth, and with love the way of Incarnation: that way which brings myth and fact together. As the Church came to accept the Aristotelian epistemology and incorporate it into its theology, the Judeo Christian understanding of the deep heart (the unconscious mind and its ways of knowing) simply dropped from sight. Christians and non-Christians alike came to value exclusively the conscious mind and its ways of knowing over those of the unconscious. This not only greatly hampered the Western Christians understanding of the creative imagination, but it has mightily suppressed our understanding of the work of the Holy Spirit in man. Our two minds, so very different, are both vital in the creative process one as the matrix of the creative idea and the mythopoeic imagination; the other as the seat of the rational powers which must, after the creative idea is given material form, bring to bear on it a shaping critique. Intuitive revelations of nature, super-nature, and God are one thing; conscious thinking about them is quite another. As thinkers we are cut off from what we think about; as tasting, touching, willing, loving, hating, we do not clearly understand. The more lucidly we think, the more we are cut off; the more deeply we enter into reality, the less we can think. You cannot study Pleasure in the moment of the nuptial embrace, nor repentance while repenting, nor analyze the nature of humor while roaring with laughter. Our dilemma, because the conscious intellect is incurably abstract, is either to taste and not to know or to know and not to taste or, more strictly, to lack one kind of knowledge because we are in an experience or to lack another kind because we are out of it. Plain, rational abstractions about truth are not truth. Failure to differentiate between the two kinds of knowing can lead to that disease called introspection (a looking inward to find reality), and, because of this, to an art that is self conscious. The poet sometimes receives his poem very nearly as a whole. Likewise, an entire plot is on occasion given to the novelist in a moment of time. The scientist, in a creative flash, sees his discovery dancing before his eyes. The creative idea, as Dorothy Sayers points out in The Mind of the Maker, contains the whole; the book is there whether it is given form or not, and so with the poem, the sculpture, the painting or the musical motif. Writing about the Creative Idea, she likens it to God the Father passionless, timeless, beholding the whole work complete at once, the end in the beginning. This, she says, is how we are makers in the Creators image. It is in the glow of this inspiration that the creative work is set down. Only afterward is the critical, reasoning, conscious mind brought to bear on it, the true rewriting begun. Real Presence 16 of 53

Main Themes (contd) 10. The Whole Imagination II: The Two Minds (contd) Although Lewis is recognized as one of the most logical minds of the twentieth century, he was also an outstanding Christian mystic. His mysticism consists of the knowledge of an indwelling Christ, and the practice of the Presence of God within and without. Like the mysticism of Saints Paul and John the Beloved, it is Christocentric. The pattern of this life is, again, the Perfect Mans. Like Christ, one learns to listen always to the Father and to collaborate with the Holy Spirit. This makes mystics of all those who know the Spirit of God and are indwelt by Him. Christ did his redemptive work exactly as we are to do ours, by listening. A root meaning of the term to obey is to listen. He listened always to the Father and always did what He heard the Father say. The Scriptures teach that Christ listened to the Father; trusting the Holy Spirit, He taught and healed through the power of the Spirit. The Apostles learned this from Him. This capacity to collaborate with the Holy Spirit is also given to us. Herein we see the artist and the Christian brought together. The artist, to free the work, must get self out of the way; he must die to self. So it is with the Christian. To do the works that Christ commanded, he must first get self out of the way; he must die to the old man. And, just as the Spirit gave form and beauty back to the earth which was without form, and void, when darkness was upon the face of the deep, [book of Genesis, chapter 1] so the Christian, listening to God and collaborating with the Holy Spirit, frees the souls of men. Chaotic, fallen like the earth after the angelic fall, without form and void, the soul cries out to be delivered from chaos, to be given back its form and beauty. The Christian, proclaiming liberty to the soul held captive, calls forth the real person; he frees the prisoner as Michelangelo freed the Moses. The true artist and the true Christian collaborate with the Spirit: The Spirit comes into us and does it. This is Lewiss mysticism. Perhaps he would prefer the term supernaturalism. Incarnational Christianity is supernatural, and Christians are both called and empowered to be extensions of the Incarnation. In this and in this alone the mysticism that acknowledges the Presence of God with us, within us, empowering us do we find all the substitutes for the Real unmasked and stripped away. Lewis not only understood, but experienced, all reality as sacramental, as incarnational that is, as a channel through which Gods grace can be known and received. In his Pentecost Sunday sermon, Transposition, he suggests the pattern of it. We catch sight of a new key principle the power of the Higher, just in so far as it is truly Higher, to come down, the power of the greater to include the less. To return to where we began, Joy, which first lured Lewis to seek again after God, is in the Christians life the authentic seal and promise of the Spirit the evidence, even in times of deep need and sorrow, that we are in communion with Christ, that our Spiritual Marriage with Him is being consummated. Such Joy is the seal of Lewiss mysticism: one that never bypasses the Incarnation, one which recognizes the [human] body, one in which the two minds are given their equally important roles. Real Presence 17 of 53 Preface In the hearts and minds of a great many people the writings of Lewis have found a permanent home. The reason for this should be easily understood: Lewis points a scholarly, imaginative, and thoroughly devout finger at the Real, firmly believing that It is. Then, great logician that he is, he methodically unmasks all the precious idols that we have substituted for reality. The reality of God, present in and through His creation is what Leanne Payne calls incarnational reality. Lewis

puts us in touch with incarnational reality. His effectiveness lies in the fact that he touched this reality. This energy, this reality, fills his writings; it is, after all, the Presence of God that Presence we all are either running from or searching for. Most of us hunger for this reality. We do not know who we are until we find our own truest selves in God. It is the work of the Holy Spirit to call us up and out of the hell of our false selves and into the glorious Presence of our Lord. And it is as we touch Him that His life, His Holy Spirit enters our being and we are indwelt by the living God. The Christ that is formed in the Christian, Lewis wrote, transforms every part of him: in it his spirit, soul and body will all be reborn. The [human] body is not to be understood as merely a container of the Holy Spirit, but as wed to the Spirit; it too is in the state of being drawn up into the Spirit. [The redeemed] Man is indwelt by God, in every atom and molecule. It is Lewiss experience and understanding of incarnational reality that informs his vision of mans relationship to God, in which God redeems man from his fragmented and alienated condition. It is the aim of this book to help show how far-reaching and urgently needed that vision is. 1. Introduction: Incarnational Reality: the reality of God, present in and through His creation. For himself and for many others, Lewis recovered the vision of an immanent God a God who indwells His people yet Who is sovereign over, and beyond, His creatures. Knowing well that Christians had for the most part lost this understanding, and that the non-Christian of the twentieth [and twenty-first] century had not even an inkling of it, Lewis proclaimed in philosophical, theological, and imaginative terms that the creature is linked and can be absolutely linked to the Creator. The creature is linked to the Creator by the Spirit of the risen Christ. This fact, fully comprehended and experienced, is the whole of it as Lewis would say. But, as Lewis points out, this is the one truth that man tends always to fall away from. Left to his natural inclinations, he evades its awe-full reality, and invents for himself shallow and less demanding substitutes for his one redeeming link with God. God by His Spirit may indwell man; Christians are therefore linked with the absolute. With brilliant clarity, Lewis reveals that over this view of reality all the philosophies and ideologies of man stumble. Herein is Christianity different from all other religions. Unless one is literally filled by the Real Presence of the risen Christ, he cannot see the Kingdom of God. Just as in the person of Jesus Christ, God Himself became incarnate, so after Pentecost the risen Christ indwells the believer by the descent of the Holy Spirit We catch sight of a new key principle the power of the Higher, just in so far as it is truly Higher, to come down, the power of the greater to include the less. This is what Lewis calls transposition. God has come down to us and we can know Him by His Spirit indwelling us. Real Presence 18 of 53 2. God, Super-Nature, and Nature (1 of 2) -While it is impossible that our anthropomorphic images of God can fully reflect His Presence within, without, and all about us, our abstractions of Him can be even more harmfully misleading. Many Christians delve deep into ideas about concrete realities but at the same time hold them on an abstract level. Lewis would say that this attitude is exactly why so much of our theology is ineffective today. Somewhere along the line, many of us in Christendom have played down direct knowledge of the supernatural, of the fact that God can reveal himself to man by His presence. There have been many appearances of God to man recorded in the Scriptures, but these were mediated (or in Lewiss terminology, transposed) appearances. Several of these recorded visitations were to Moses [book of Exodus]. This embodiment of spiritual reality in material form is the principle of the Incarnation; or, in other words, it is the principle of sacramental truth whereby Gods Real Presence is made manifest in and through the

material world. The incarnation was and is, of course, the most amazing and complete example of a mediated (i.e., a sacramental) reality. Since Christ ascended in the flesh, ultimate reality is known by man in union with Him through the Person of the Holy Spirit. Christ has given us His Spirit, and His Presence therefore remains with us. We may desire, like Moses or like St. John, to see Him in all His glory not just in visions, dreams, and in our sanctified imaginations. But we do not see God directly. Yet, though our finiteness limits our perceptions of God and the supernatural, we have no reason to reduce them to abstractions. Heaven and all it contains, according to Lewis, is of such reality that the unredeemed (those who have chosen self and hell) can never be at home in it. The unredeemed, in choosing self rather than God, hell rather than heaven, have chosen insubstantiality rather than radiant substance. They have refused incarnational reality, the infusion of the Spirit of God into their empty and insubstantial beings. The above explains what theologians mean when they use the term inessential in regard to evil. God creates, evil can only destroy, and this fact is fleshed out in a great theme that runs through Lewis works. Even so, his view of good and evil never allows him to dismiss Satan and demonic beings as merely mythic representations of the evil in man; they are intelligent powers, active in the world today. Man is not the only fallen creature; other beings suffer alienation from God. Satan, the destroyer and hater of all creation, is a personality and his angels are a present evil force the Christian must withstand. In the Garden of Eden story there is the lesson of not only a self alienated from God but also of a tempter alienated from God. In his fiction Lewis advanced a fascinating theory to explain why we mortals do not ordinarily see angels and other supernatural beings: their substance moves at a radically different rate of speed than ordinary matter. Moving swifter than light, their bodies are not ordinarily sensible to us (as trees and houses are); their usual invisibility is however no reason to relegate their shining reality to the grey regions of the abstract and the insubstantial. On the contrary, Lewis suggests, angels are so real that rocks and walls and all which seems solid to us is to them transparent and cloudlike. (It is interesting to reflect on this in light of modern physics which has shown that all the objects of our world which we presume to be solid are actually not at all.) It is a small thing for them to pass through the most solid of matter. If one is versed in the Gospel narrative, his imagination will quickly fly to the story of Christs post-resurrection appearances to His disciples; we might speculate that Christs radiant solidity was such that by contrast the walls were cloudlike and insubstantial: If anything is clear from the records of Our Lords appearances after His resurrection, it is that the risen body was very different from the body that died and that it lives under conditions quite unlike those of natural life. It is frequently not recognized by those who see it: and it is not related to space in the same way as our bodies. Real Presence 19 of 53 2. God, Super-Nature, and Nature (2 of 2) The sudden appearances and disappearances suggest the ghost of popular tradition: yet, He emphatically insists that He is not merely a spirit and takes steps to demonstrate that the risen body can still perform animal operations, such as eating. What makes all this baffling to us is our assumption that to pass beyond what we call Nature beyond the three dimensions and the five highly specialized and limited senses is immediately to be in a world of pure negative spirituality, a world where space of any sort and sense of any sort has no function. I know of no grounds for believing this. To explain even an atom Schrdinger wants seven dimensions: and give us new senses and we should find a new nature. There may be Natures piled upon Natures, each supernatural to the one beneath it. It is interesting in view of Lewiss theory of why we mortals do not ordinarily see spiritual beings to learn

what physicists have to say about the extent of mans sensory limitations. Our eyes cannot see cosmic, gamma, or X-rays, nor ultraviolet, infrared, radar, television, or shortwave radio waves not to mention other known and unknown wave lengths of light. The visible radiations of light form only a very small band on the electromagnetic spectrum of light known to exist. The eyes of man can receive only those radiations of light that fall within the rainbow colors of the solar spectrum. It is humbling to realize how little of this worlds light we are capable of seeing. And we would see the Father of Lights! Mans other sensory organs are just as limited. What we ordinarily speak of as the supernatural may consist of those parts of creation beyond our narrow sensory capacity. The paradox of physics today, says physicist Lincoln Barnett, is that with every improvement in its mathematical apparatus the gulf between man the observer and the objective world of scientific description becomes more profound. [The Universe and Doctor Einstein, by Lincoln Barnett, ISBN-10: 055322915X ] So it is that physicists and scientists, in their acceptance of Einsteins mathematical description of the cosmos, have had to go beyond the world of sense perception and ordinary experience. It is a question among physicists, having passed over the thin line that divides physics from metaphysics, as to whether scientific man is in touch with reality at all. Though the merely scientific and sensory man may fail to do so , the Christian affirms with Lewis that the Spiritindwelt man can touch reality. But an experiential understanding of the Holy Spirit is necessary first. We come to know ultimate reality, not by theological ideas about it, even though these are valid and necessary, but by union with it by the establishing of a personal relationship between God and man. It begins in a meeting with God such as Abraham had when he was called out of Ur; it develops into a union and communion with God such as St. Paul describes in these words: I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me. [Galatians, 2:20] To experience this union is to apprehend the presence of God within and without The most concrete reality that can be known, it is often relegated to the abstract and the theoretical by those who attempt to know it only with the conscious, analytical mind. But our sole avenue to reality is, as Lewis says, through prayer, sacrament, repentance, and adoration; that is through the deep hearts way of knowing. [Consider this quote from French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal (1623-1662): "The heart has its reasons, of which reason knows nothing. It is the heart which perceives God and not the reason. That is what faith is: God perceived by the heart, not by the reason.] Knowing here is not a direct knowledge about (savoir) God, but a knowledge-by-acquaintance (connatre), a tasting, of Love Himself that the humblest of us, in a state of Grace, can know. Real Presence 20 of 53 3. Sacrament: Avenue to the Real (1 of 1) St. Paul taught that Christians form a mystical unity with one another through their fellowship with, and incorporation into, Christ (1 Corinthians 10:17, 1 Corinthians 12:12, Ephesians 1:22-3, Colossians 1:18, 24). The first-century Christians appear to have understood this unity, this fellowship, this incorporation into Christ better than we do today, perhaps because they experienced more fully the work of the Holy Spirit in their lives. Though they had as yet formulated no clear-cut doctrines of the Holy Spirit, they simply and daily experienced His power. Their unity was by virtue of immersion into this One Spirit. The charismatic structure of the church was taken for granted, and each believer was a vital part of this structure, exercising his own charism or gift. -These early Christians believed their unity to be not only symbolized, but actualized, in Holy Communion or the Eucharist; they believed that we are one with God and our brother by the one Lord mediated through this sacramental mystery. Just as they experienced the Holy Spirit working through the apostles and prophets, so they experienced the presence of Christ through the Lords Supper. Having received the New Birth and the Holy Spirit, they found themselves in a relationship anything but static and fixed. Rather they saw themselves as vessels, open always to the Spirit and continually receiving from Him. Always, their eyes were on God, receiving from Him and blessing Him in return. To understand the special Presence in the Tabernacle and in the Ark is to understand, at least partially, sacramental

reality. Israel knew that Yahweh was in His heaven, but they also knew that he was with them in a unique, if barely approachable way, in the Holy of Holies. After Christ, we as the new Israel are to know the Presence of God indwelling us. Individually, and corporately we are the Body, the Ark or the Temple of the Presence an idea almost staggering if we could truly comprehend it. We are the indwelt the fellowship of the Holy Spirit. On the other hand, it is, as Lewis writes, so fatally easy to confuse an aesthetic appreciation of the spiritual life with the life itself. It is easy to know, in apparent detail, the doctrines of the life in Christ without ever experiencing the life itself. We have made [conceptual, or abstract] objects out of vital acts and experiences. One almost hesitates in the face of the vitality of New Testament accounts of baptism to label this event by the word Sacrament. Perhaps we hesitate because the words connotation is that of a thing or a doctrine rather than of an experience of the Holy Spirit full of mystery and awe. In the biblical accounts (Acts 8:14-17, 19:3-6, 10:44-48) we see the great mystery of God deigning to indwell man occurring in broad daylight. An ordinary man on an ordinary day is suddenly confronted with the Good News; he submits to the rites commanded by Christ and finds his life vitally changed finds himself in union with God. Who is great enough to completely understand these mysteries? It is therefore, as Lewis might say, mad idolatry that would replace the Presence with a definition of how it works. Nevertheless, definitions are necessary, if not always adequate, and so it is with caution that we approach the meaning of the word sacrament. A sacrament is most usually defined as an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace, a rite which Christ ordained and through which we receive Him, His grace, and His gifts. As we have seen, the mediating work of the Holy Spirit is the vital agent in effecting this inward and spiritual grace. It is possible to come to baptism or the Lords Supper and to perceive nothing but the symbol. Ones spirit must be open to the Holy Spirits work to effectively appropriate the grace which the visible sign represents. To perceive only the symbol is to fail to apprehend the Presence which forms Christ in us, makes us one with our brothers, and grants us Christs supernatural gifts. To truly communicate in Holy communion is to experience Christ, to experience our oneness with God, with our brothers and sisters, and with the saints of every age. Christ is first apprehended in the preaching of the Word. He is then experienced through the Eucharist. Together both parts achieve a whole: mind, spirit, and body are fed. This is worship. The experience of true communion can be overpowering. The absence of a true communion in our worship services is a source of the spiritual malnutrition of our times. Real Presence 21 of 53 4. Spirit, Soul and Body (1 of 3) We cannot conceive how the Divine Spirit dwelled within the human spirit of Jesus: but neither can we conceive how His human spirit, or that of any man, dwells within his natural organism. What we can understand, if the Christian doctrine is true, is that our own composite existence is not the anomaly it might seem to be, but a faint image of the Divine Incarnation itself. C. S. Lewis, from his book, Miracles. Lewis has been called the apostle to skeptics and atheists, but he is also the apostle to a Christendom contaminated by a naturalistic view of man which is hard to distinguish from that of secular philosophies. Whole aspects of mans being are ignored by Christians. Sarah Smith, a character in Lewiss The Great Divorce, illustrates the redeemed self. Her spirit, aglow with the Divine Spirit, illuminates not only her own soul and body, but throws forth its beams like liquid gold to encircle and penetrate those who have not yet elected to step into the circle of Gods love. Thus transformed, the life that brings the whole personality into balance is diffused into her rational, intuitive, feeling, sensory, and organic faculties.

The Christian view is one of man the created fully reconciled to God the Creator. To be thus reconciled (healed, restored, forgiven, and loved) is to know the Good. Evil is, as we have seen, separation from God, and psychologically speaking, it is separation within oneself. Like St. Paul, Lewis describes man as consisting of spirit (pneuma), soul (psyche), and body (soma). In the Christian view the primacy of the spirit is of great importance, as we shall continue to see. Mans spirit answers to the Spirit (Pneuma) of God, and when touched by His Spirit becomes from our perspective the Higher Self or the New Man, and from the perspective of the Spirit of God, becomes the Christ formed in us. (Galatians 4:19) This highest element in man is thus distinguished from the psyche (soul), which Lewis understands to include both the rational soul (the mind, conscious and unconscious, the will, the emotions, the feelings, the imagination, the intuitive faculty), and the animal soul (the instinctual and sensory faculties, etc,). Both spirit and soul are then distinguished from the animal body, the soma (the body as part of the material world). These three united make up the composite being called man. Soma, psyche, and pneuma each point to a realm of truth, only one of which is effectually acknowledged in higher education today and that is the truth of soma or material nature. This is the realm of the scientists truth, empirical truth, that can be discerned and measured by the senses. Because this kind of truth is today often understood to be the only one, the present view of man and mind is often reduced to a biological and chemical one. - For this reason, those who recognize the supernatural have difficulty communicating with those who recognize only the natural; they literally speak a different language. - This is also the reason many Christians have grave difficulty communicating with their own children or with other Christians who, schooled in naturalistic thought, are confused and inexperienced in regard to the Holy Spirits work in their lives. But beside the truth of nature, there are two other kinds which Lewis terms the truth of Super-Nature and the truth of Absolute Being that which is beyond any and every Nature. Lewis not only recognizes the common division between the natural and the supernatural, between that which is matter and that which is spirit, but further distinguishes the uncreated or absolute being of God from the created supernatural. Man, in his body, participates in nature; in his psyche he participates in super-nature; and through his spirit, the whole of him can be linked beyond all nature and super-nature to absolute being. Super-nature or the supernatural is the realm of supersensory truth in that it is beyond the range of the senses. Like nature, super-nature is still finite, still created. The nonmaterial but created spirits, both good and evil, belong to this realm. Consciousness or the rational soul, the reasoning mind in man, is a part of the super-nature system. The power of reason which is the light of human consciousness becomes incarnate in each human being. Rational thought is therefore not part of the system of nature but comes down into nature or, rather, nature is taken up into reason. - We must give up talking about human reason. In so far as thought is merely humanit does not explain our knowledge. - Where thought is strictly rational it must be, in some odd sense, not ours, but cosmic or super-cosmic. Real Presence 22 of 53 4. Spirit, Soul and Body (2 of 3) As part of super-nature incarnate in nature, reason includes not only the thought-process in the individual mind, but objective truth beyond the thinking subject: It must be something not shut up inside our heads but already out there in the universe or behind the universe: either as objective as material Nature or more objective still. Unless all that we take to be knowledge is an illusion, we must hold that in thinking we are not reading rationality into an irrational universe but responding to a rationality with which the universe has always been saturated. For instance, the primary moral principles (the knowledge of the moral law common to all men; AKA natural law, traditional morality, or the first principles of practical reason) are not only rationally perceived, but are

themselves part of reason, which exists objectively in the realm beyond nature. Man, whether pagan or Christian, has access to this truth as a rational creature and can know himself to be a moral and ethical being as well as an intellectual and biological one. Absolute being is, of course, the Reality Who created both nature and super-nature. This Absolute Being is the Spirit beyond or behind the universe Who is quite beyond mans scientific power of observation. He is a Person, or three Persons in One, Who created man in His image and Who communicates Himself to those who will receive Him, thereby redeeming them. For Lewis, the sharp division of nature from super-nature, of matter from created spirit, may be an accident of our limited point of view. As suggested in chapter 2, matter and spirit may be more akin than we know. The prevailing twentieth [and twenty-first]-century view of man, unlike the Christian model, is a dreary one indeed. It is based on the truth of nature alone. Man in this model is most generally understood as an organism whose choices are determined by his environment and heredity, and not as a truly ethical and moral being, much less one capable of being indwelt by God. Man, along with his world, just sort of happened, and his mind (as well as any deity he might admit) simply rose up out of the biological process. [The strong form of Darwinism.] He is therefore quite beyond freedom, and he requires not an educator, but, quite literally, a conditioner. Lewiss essay, The Abolition of Man, and his novel, That Hideous Strength, prophesy quite graphically the logical end of such a view of man. They illustrate the dreadful irony that in his attempt to manipulate nature completely man winds up with no governing values except for natural impulse, whim, and caprice. Also, since the desire for the supernatural cannot be completely repressed, dark mysticisms, superstitions, and orgies too dreadful to imagine replace the good of reason, of faith, and even of natural law. As an examination of present-day [media and the internet] will reveal, superstitions and (even dark, perverse) mysticisms void of the truths of nature, reason, and absolute being are already to some extent replacing in the popular mind the materialistic view of man. The totally natural, even biological view of man and mind has come about because of a crisis in our understanding of truth. Modern man, having discarded the possibility of supersensory truth, has come to recognize only the truth of the senses. He has come to see himself and his world in terms of only one of the three kinds of truth. He therefore understands and measures himself and everything else only by that one kind. Due to the encroaching uniformity of an ideology that explicitly or implicitly would reduce all truth to what can be measured by the senses, our systems of higher education are in a critical stage. As has often been pointed out, man from such a materialistic perspective has no freedom. The Christian view of man differs radically from the naturalistic view, for the Christian understands himself and his world in the light of the three kinds of truth. A thoroughgoing supernaturalist, the Christian believes that besides Nature, Something else exists, and that he himself with all nature depends upon this Something else for existence. Unlike the naturalist, who understands himself and his world as a developing (biological and evolutionary) process sufficient and complete in itself, and who explains the continuity between things that claim to be spiritual and things that are certainly natural by saying that the one slowly turned into the other, the supernaturalist envisions God coming down into His developed but fallen creation, incarnating it, and coming up again, pulling it up with Him. The supernaturalist believes that matter can never turn into mind or spirit, but, instead, that matter receives into itself this higher life which is spiritual and supernatural. Real Presence 23 of 53 4. Spirit, Soul and Body (3 of 3) Unfortunately, however, the mind of Christendom has been contaminated by the naturalistic view of man. The materialistic assumptions in the Christians unexamined view of himself bar him from miracle, that is from the supernatural, and from a true understanding of Gods presence without and within.

Due to his naturalistic presuppositions, he is no longer free to listen to God, to receive His guidance, or to collaborate actively with the Holy Spirit in such a way as to become free from the interior and exterior forces that shape his life and cost him his freedom. When a proper understanding of the Holy Spirits work in man is lost, then the Christian, like the materialist, lives solely from the psychological level of his being. He has lost the incarnational way of knowing. His mind, developed apart from an active participation in the Holy Spirit, yields a rationalism that cannot receive spiritual wisdom. Desiring the spiritual experience this rationalism denies him, he may be tempted by occult knowledge, failing to distinguish it from spiritual wisdom. The imaginative and intuitive facility, developed apart from the Holy Spirits indwelling, can quickly lead into the spuriously spiritual, if not into outright occult bondage. The Christian, laboring under materialistic assumptions concerning his own soul, but hungry in spirit, needs the intellectual blocks to true spirituality removed blocks put there by those of his mentors armed only with naturalistic presuppositions. He also needs to understand there are different kinds of truth and to be able to discern and verbalize them. While appreciating more than most the truth of the first kind, the truth of nature, Lewis hands back to the Christian the knowledge and the vocabulary with which to speak of the supernatural and of absolute being. The Christian is thus truly informed, and not only by the senses. We cannot blame only our educational institutions for this general plight of knowledge. Lewis comments, No generation can bequeath to its successor what it has not got. If we are skeptical, we shall teach only skepticism to our pupils, if fools only folly, if vulgar, only vulgarity, if saints sanctity, heroes heroism. Education is only the most fully conscious of the channels whereby each generation influences the next. It is not a closed system. Nothing which was not in the teachers can flow from them into the pupils A society which is predominantly Christian will propagate Christianity through its schools: one which is not, will not. All the ministries of education in the world cannot alter this law. We have, in the long run, little either to hope or to fear from government. Ultimate values are rooted in metaphysical truths, those very truths that we, in our materialistic society, have lost. Therefore our hope is not in calling our systems to be Christian, but in becoming truly Christian ourselves. In becoming truly Christian we become truly free. Because the Christian understands a Mind outside of nature, guiding both himself and his cosmos, he has no fear of contingency or of fate and mere circumstance, in regard either to the cosmos or himself. He believes that the Uncreated Who comes down is the Good, and that in Him is no darkness nor shadow of turning, and that this Good, is not simply a law, but also a begetting love. Therefore, he believes in meaningful freedom rather than in chance or fate. In fact, the Christian believes he was created precisely so that he could be free and therefore able to love, and that this same begetting Love indwelling him is capable of lifting him out of the cauldron of predetermined fate and resurrecting him in every part of his being. He is enabled to radiate this freedom to other spirits yet in bondage. Such is the fully restored Christian view of man. Real Presence 24 of 53 5. Till We Have Faces (1 of 1) Something far more basic than modern mans materialism works against true knowledge of himself and his condition the Fall and its effects. The Fallen self cannot know itself. But as Lewis says, we cannot tell the truth about ourselves; the persistent, lifelong inner murmur of spite, jealousy, prurience, greed and self complacence, simply will not go into words. The intellect is affected by a corruption of the spirit that has turned from God to its self. The fallen will cooperates with an imagination filled with shapes that cater to its own spiritual and physical lusts. The intuitive faculty can be described as often paranoid, both toward God and toward ones neighbors. Ones emotions and feelings support only too well that which calls one to separate from, and refuse to

harmonize with, the Holy Other and with the shining realities outside oneself. Christ commanded and empowered His followers to heal because He knew that all men, in their exterior relationships and within themselves, are broken and separated. In order for man to regain wholeness in every aspect of his life, the relationships between himself and God, himself and other men, himself and nature, and himself and his innermost being, must be healed. And this healing must include the will, the unconscious mind or the deep heart, the emotions, and the intuitive and imaginative faculties. The key to the healing of all these relationships has to do with incarnational reality with being filled with Gods Spirit and with seeking to dwell in His Presence. It has to do with mans choosing union and communion with God rather than his own separateness which is, in effect, the practice of the presence of the old Adamic fallen self. To be filled with the Spirit is to choose the heaven of the integrated and emancipated self rather than the hell of the disintegrated self in separation. It is to choose the same love that has bound together the Father and the Son throughout all eternity. It is to enter the Great Dance of healthy relationship with the self, others, God, and His creation. In ceasing to direct her every action and thought to her Creator, Eve displayed the self-will which, as Lewis says, is the only sin conceivable as the Fall. Her self-will was, in effect, a denial of her creaturehood. The created finite would contend with the Uncreated Infinite. Such pride cannot be rationally comprehended but can be well enough recognized, since we all experience it. From the moment a creature becomes aware of God as God and of itself as self, the terrible alternative of choosing God or self for the center is opened to it. This sin is committed daily by young children and ignorant peasants as well as by sophisticated persons, by solitaries no less than by those who live in society: it is the fall in every individual life, and in each day of each individual life, the basic sin behind all particular sins: at this very moment you and I are either committing it, or about to commit it, or repenting it. Masks are required that we might hide from the Presence as our first parents hid behind leaves. The real I, buried deeply in layers of the self, must be sovereignly resurrected if it is to find its one true face with which to meet the Presence. We must therefore open every door of our being to this Presence, to our God. It is then that we are healed in spirit, in intellect and will, and in our intuitive, imaginative, and sensory faculties. And it is then that we as healers, as channels of Gods Love and Presence, literally carry Christ into the lives of others. Christs aim is to fill the whole life of the believer. That is what conversion is the ongoing process of being filled with Christ. The Holy Spirit, truly present and operative in the human spirit, is capable of resurrecting every faculty of man. It is from this healing Presence, this gracious flow of life and power, that Adam and Eve fell. Real Presence 25 of 53 6. Weve Been Undragoned (1 of 4) Radical surgery is necessary. This radical surgery will restore our true self, though the perfecting of the self will take more than a lifetime. In order for this surgery to occur, we must die to the old self with Christ, and be born anew into Him Lewis saw with terrible clarity that our conversion from loving self to loving God and our neighbors is a radical one indeed. At a time when he was first attempting obedience but before his conversion to Christ, Lewis wrote to his life-long friend Arthur Greeves and told of what he was beginning to find in his heart - What worries me much more is pride my besetting sin, as yours is indolence. - During my afternoon meditations which I at least attempt quite regularly now I have found out ludicrous and terrible things about my own character. - Sitting by, watching the rising thoughts to break their necks as they pop up, one learns to know the sort of thoughts that do come. - And, will you believe it, one out of every three is a thought of self-admiration: when everything else fails,

having had its neck broken, up comes the thought What an admirable fellow I am to have broken their necks! - I catch myself posturing before the mirror, so to speak, all day long. - I pretend I am carefully thinking out what to say to the next pupil (for his own good, of course) and then suddenly realize I am really thinking how frightfully clever Im going to be and how he will admire me. I pretend I am remembering an evening of good fellowship in a really friendly and charitable spirit and all the time Im really remembering how good a fellow I am and how well I talked. - And then when you free yourself to stop it, you admire yourself for doing that. - Its like fighting the hydra (you remember, when you cut off one head another grew). - There seems to be no end to it. - Depth under depth of self-love and self-admiration. - Closely connected with this is the difficulty I find in making even the faintest approach to giving up my own will: which as everyone has told us is the only thing to do. Lewis saw in the depths of his being the animal and the diabolic selves contending with his human self. He came to understand the old self to be that which would love itself with partiality or even to the exclusion of all other selves, and endeavoring to die to that old self, he pressed on into Christ and into Joy. Lewis had, Payne believes, such a vivid revelation of joy and the freedom of the liberated soul precisely because his comprehension of the hell and bondage of the fallen self had been so great. Yet and this is important to the understanding of Lewiss image of man along with the hell he found in the human heart were also radiant things, delights and inspirations; he saw that they, as well as the animal and diabolical selves, surface to face the living God. And this is, among other reasons, why he disbelieved the doctrine of the total depravity of man: I disbelieve that doctrine, partly on the logical ground that if our depravity were total we should not know ourselves to be depraved, and partly because experience shows us much goodness in human nature. Also, it seemed to him that this doctrine inculcated in its adherents an emotional view of the self that in the long run impeded a wholesome understanding of it. This inculcated state of feeling toward oneself could even become a substitute for, or a barrier against, receiving the real grace of God, and thereby the healing knowledge of the higher self. For instance, Lewis stressed the act of confession and the reception of pardon as a most important and objective act, and was on his guard against those states of feeling that would make of this important act a merely subjective thing. It seemed to him that a program of permanent emotions about ourselves could turn even the act of our confession into a mere state of feeling about ourselves. Lewis therefore stands apart from that particular school of thought that would include as an essential symptom of the regenerate life a permanent, and permanently horrified, perception of ones natural and (it seems) unalterable corruption. Lewis would replace this viewpoint with an understanding of the indwelling Christ, and he came to prefer the practice of this Presence rather than that of the old, carnal man. He believed this was in accord with the Scriptures. To perceive, always and at all times, ones natural corruption seemed unlike the New Testament fruits of the Spirit love, joy, and peace. And very unlike the Pauline program; forgetting those things which are behind and reaching forth unto those things that are before. [Philippians 3:13] Real Presence 26 of 53 6. Weve Been Undragoned (2 of 4) Besides that objection, he found that his feelings (the degrees of shame and disgust he felt) did not at all correspond to what his reason told him of the gravity of his sins. This is only one example of what Lewis constantly points out as the dangers of introspection and of dwelling on the subjective at the expense of the objective. The objective deals with the reality itself; the subjective deals with our sensations or feelings about reality, the impressions or track that the reality imprints as it descends into our sensory or feeling beings. To introspectively dwell on feelings within oneself is a subjectivism that in worship or prayer leads away from the higher reality of Gods objective presence and to the lower reality of our own psychic and sensory beings.

This subjectivism obscures, in the case of confession and the ensuing reception of Gods pardon, the very grace, joy, and peace mediated by the Holy Spirit, and therefore the reality of Gods forgiveness. The guilt therefore remains in the unconscious. This, of course, destroys rather than builds up the spiritual life. In regard to our religious life, there are two things to be especially noted: First of all, our emotional or sensory reactions to our behavior are of limited ethical significance. To repent and to turn from sin and the self is a matter of the will, not the feelings. Second, and most important, we can, by substituting for reality our feelings or states of mind, miss the Reality Himself. The act of penitence and the reception of pardon are definite acts a very real transaction with God, and we fail in this when we turn from God to seek our feelings or states of our own minds. In Lewiss case, though the guilt was real, he found it was removed not by looking inward but by looking outward. It is when man looks up to Jesus that he finds the road out of the self. To take ones eyes off the reality of the Creator and to cast them instead onto the creature is to find oneself in bondage. In the case of ones imaginative life, it is easy to see how this same kind of blunder is made. When the aesthetic thrill becomes the goal, one has lost sight of the objects outside oneself that would, or could, evoke this state of being. A substitute has replaced the reality. It is the one who is coming into harmony with God, with others, within himself in other words, it is the one who is being healed in the inner man who understands most clearly the evil still left in him. He need not dwell on it as it surfaces; he need only repent of it: - When a man is getting better, he understand more and more clearly the evil that is still left in him. - When a man is getting worse, he understands his own badness less and less. - A moderately bad man know he is not very good: a thoroughly bad man thinks he is all right. Ones conversion does not guarantee, however, that a soul will continue to progress in its imitation of Christ. There is always the matter of resisting temptation and of struggling against the pride and spiritual ignorance of ones heart. Being a Christian can, if it doesnt make one a great deal better, make one a great deal worse: - For the Supernatural, entering a human soul, opens to it new possibilities both of good and evil. - From that point the road branches: one way to sanctity, humility, the other to spiritual pride, selfrighteousness, persecuting zeal. - And no way back to the mere humdrum virtues of the unawakened soul. - If the Divine call does not make us better, it will make us very much worse. - Of all bad men religious bad men are the worst. Pride is the great sin, the one which leads to every other vice, and it can crop up in the redeemed with far more disastrous results than in the unregenerate. The unregenerate self is one that wills to be separate, to be autonomous, to put self first. The same free will that makes such an evil possible in the first place can, at any stage of the spiritual life, cease to choose the good and again choose itself. Our escape from [spiritual] Death consists largely in our learning to die daily to the old man and in regular acts of repentance followed by receptions of Gods forgiveness. Repentance and the reception of Gods forgiveness, far from being merely a set of emotions or feelings about oneself, is a definite act, a healing transaction between man and God. The need for this act, no matter in what stage of the spiritual journey one finds oneself, never lessens. The seasoned saint, no less than the initiate, needs this frequent exercise. Real Presence 27 of 53 6. Weve Been Undragoned (3 of 4) Furthermore, this exercise should form a pattern woven into the ongoing spiritual life. This pattern is necessary because, though there may be no conscious awareness of sin, there is always that within us which the Christ-life would heal and forgive. We need to reserve a special time, preferably before receiving Communion, to be deeply quiet before the Lord

and to ask Him to descend into our deep heart, our unconscious, and to bring up those things that are displeasing to Him. We then confess these things specifically, avoiding generalities as far as possible, as well as any justifications we might be tempted to make. We can have pen and paper ready to record any sin that is brought to our conscious minds. We then simply confess it, and, as a definite act, receive forgiveness. This is not introspection: this is our interaction with God, and it constitutes a definite act of the Holy Spirit in our lives. We must, of course, be careful to forgive others, and to release any resentment or bitterness that we have against those who have injured either ourselves or those we love. Also, there are times when apologies and reparations are in order. But the point to be stressed is, these are definite acts, part of a rhythm to be built into our lives. This interaction with God, with our fellow man, and with those things within ourselves is not to be replaced by a permanent, daily, and lifelong scrutiny and horror of the self. Such would constitute a practice of the presence of the old man and fail to comprehend the presence of the new man or the higher self. We are therefore careful to rise up out of the depths of confession and of our posture as repentant sinner into the joy and power of the forgiven child of God. Our prime identity is that of a child of God, and we exult in our forgiven and redeemed state. There are griefs that need to be confessed to a priest or minister who can in turn pronounce the forgiveness of Christ in such a way that the deep heart (or the unconscious mind) can receive it. Lewis realized the value of this act as it has been worked out in the Church, and therefore he took advantage of the Confessional or the Sacrament of Penance, and of regular Communion. Lewis also came to understand, with great clarity, that all times are eternally present to God, and he labored to dispel our strange illusions about time and forgiveness. He understood how the divine forgiveness, the eternal efficacy of the work of Christ accomplished in Gethsemane and on the Cross, works all the way backward in time to the first man, Adam, and all the way forward to the last man who will ever be born: - We have a strange illusion that mere time cancels sin. - I have heard others, and I have heard myself, recounting cruelties and falsehoods committed in boyhood as if they were no concern of the present speakers, and even with laughter. - But mere time does nothing either to the fact or to the guilt of sin. - The guilt is washed out not by time but by repentance and the blood of Christ. Lewis therefore understood how God, outside of time, heals our oldest and deepest sorrows. By our repentance and the shedding of His Blood, Christ walks back in time as we know it, forgiving our sins and healing our sorrows, so that we may find wholeness. To be God is to enjoy an infinite present where nothing has yet passed away and nothing is still to come. To be Christian man is to experience the healing Christ as He walks back in time and forgives our blackest sins and heals our deepest hurts. Furthermore, we find that His Presence was there all along had we only known it, and we merely appropriate the Love that had even then, at the very moment, been there. This is the heritage of the sons [and daughters] of God, this is the peace promised by Jesus Christ: and, when it is received, it floods the finite soul the dweller in chaotic time. It is possible, once we have begun on the road to sanctity and humility, to forget whence we have come. We must never forget that, through pride and self-will, we can once again cater to the old nature. The most important thing is to keep on, not to be discouraged however often one yields to temptation, but always to pick yourself up again and ask forgiveness. In reviewing your sins dont either exaggerate them or minimize them. Call them by their ordinary names and try to see them as your would see the same faults in somebody else no special blackening or white-washing. Remember the conditions on which we are promised forgiveness: we shall always be forgiven provided that we forgive all who sin against us. Real Presence 28 of 53

6. Weve Been Undragoned (4 of 4) If we do that we have nothing to fear: if we dont, all else will be in vain. It is only by remembering that Another lives in me that we can die daily to that old, false, usurping self, and that we continue to be drawn further in and higher up into the life of God. To practice the Presence is to call to mind, continually, this great reality. Lewis writes of this Reality Whose presence we are to practice as it is experienced in Christian prayer: - The thing that matters is being actually drawn into that three-personal life - An ordinary, simple Christian kneels down to say his prayers. He is trying to get in touch with God. - But if he is a Christian he knows that what is prompting him to pray is also God: God, so to speak, inside him. - But he also knows that all his real knowledge of God comes through Christ, the Man who was God -- that is Christ standing beside him, helping him to pray, praying for him. - You see what is happening. God is the thing to which he is praying the goal he is trying to reach. - God is also the road or bridge along which he is pushed to that goal - The whole threefold life of the three-personal Being is actually going on in that ordinary little bedroom where an ordinary man is saying his prayers. - The man is being caught up into the higher kind of life what I call Zoe or spiritual life: he is being pulled into God, by God, while still remaining himself. Once again we see that the secret is incarnational. One dies to the old self and lives to the new by continuing to receive of that Other Life. Even our prayers, in true prayer, are really His prayers. He speaks to Himself through us. And it is the same with all the virtues and all the fruits* and gifts** of the Spirit. All are equally derivative. We must never forget this, and we must practice, always, this Holy Presence, even though we can do it only for moments at first: - That is why the problem of the Christian life comes where people do not usually look for it. - It comes the very moment you wake up each morning, - All your wishes and hopes for the day rush at you like wild animals. - And the first job each morning consists of shoving them all back; in listening to that other voice, taking that other point of view, letting that other larger, stronger, quieter life come flowing in - We can do it (practice the Presence) only for moments at first. - But from those moments the new sort of life will be spreading through our systems because now we are letting Him work at the right part of us. And, as Lewis says, This is the whole of Christianity. There is nothing else. Christianity isnt a covenant or a law but it is a life Another Life being lived in and through us. Our human spirit, when in union with this Holy Other, is the higher self. The practice of the Presence leads to the knowledge of this higher self, and away from either the wrong kind of self-love or self-hatred. It is in this New Life that we find our souls as well as our spirits indeed, the whole of our nature raised. This is why, Where other systems expose our total nature to deathChristianity demands only that we set right a misdirection of our nature, and has no quarrel, like Plato, with the body as such, nor with the psychical elements in our makeup. We do not fear our intellects, our imaginations, our emotions, our intuitive beings, our bodies. We simply offer them wholly to God and find them revitalized and redirected. By the principle of the incarnation the Highest is transposed into the lowest and man finds himself resurrected in every faculty of his being. This is the true, the whole self. * "But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control." (Galatians 5:22) ** Gifts of the Spirit are special abilities provided by the Holy Spirit to Christians for the purpose of building up the body of Christ. The list of spiritual gifts in 1 Corinthians 12:8-10 includes wisdom, knowledge, faith, healing, miracles, prophecy, discerning of spirits, speaking in tongues, and interpretation of tongues. Similar lists appear in Ephesians 4:7-13 and Romans 12:3-8. The gifts of the Spirit are simply God enabling believers to do what He has called us to do. Real Presence 29 of 53

7. The Great Dance (1 of 4) You do not fail in obedience through lack of love, but have lost love because you never attempted obedience. Quote from Lewiss novel, That Hideous Strength Lewis tells us that when he first seriously attempted to obey his conscience he found himself struggling with a Spirit or a Real I who was showing an alarming tendency to become much more personal and is taking the offensive, and behaving just like God. And it was in this Real Presence that he first knew himself to be no one: Presently you begin to wonder whether you are yet, in any full sense, a person at all; whether you are entitled to call yourself I (it is a sacred name) You find that what you called yourself is only a thin film on the surface of an unsounded and dangerous sea. But not merely dangerous. Radiant things, delights and inspirations, come to the surface as well as snarling resentments and nagging lusts. Ones ordinary self is, then, a mere facade. Theres a huge area out of sight behind it. So it was that as Lewis discovered God to be no impersonal force, he found his view of human personality changed. Each mans personality is divided within him and needs to become one before he can know who he is. Lewis saw that whatever else is involved, finally our human will determines whether or not our personality is made one. He expresses this insight in terms of Christs soul: This human soul in Him was unswervingly united to the God in Him in that which makes a personality one, namely, Will. As Lewis understands it, the human will is linked with the conscious mind of man that which most obviously distinguishes him from the rest of nature. It is consciousness that gives man choice to obey or not to obey. And it is when man is obedient, when he wills to unite himself with God, that he finds himself to be one person a person whose choices are continually changing him from the very center of his being into that perfected person that shall be. For, of course, the personality is being perfected. That man or woman who we really are will come into its ultimate personhood only in heaven. This is one reason why, while we are being perfected, obedience is not an option, but an imperative: Personality is eternal and inviolable. But then, personality is not a datum from which we start. The individualism in which we all begin is only a parody or shadow of it. True personality lies ahead We are marble waiting to be shaped, metal waiting to be run into a mold. We are Gods work of art, and we must suffer ourselves to be molded. Only with our willing it can He create in us the person He intends us to be. Paradoxically, it is only as we obey, as we become slaves to obedience, that we come into that incredible freedom of the realized and integrated personality. Only then, by virtue of our being indwelt by God, are we fully free to collaborate with the Holy Spirit; only then are we truly creative: Human will becomes truly creative and truly our own when it is wholly Gods, and this is one of the many senses in which he that loses his soul shall find it. In all other acts our will is fed through nature, that is, through created things other than the self through the desires which our physical organism and our heredity supply to us. When we act from ourselves alone that is, from God in ourselves we are collaborators in, or live instruments of creation: and that is why such an act undoes with backward mutters of dissevering power that uncreative spell which Adam laid upon his species. The realized and integrated personality, finding its identity only in God, and no longer seeking it in a role (wife, mother, father, churchwoman), in a career or profession (doctor, lawyer, pastor, artist), or in a class (woman, white-collar worker, African-American) is no longer shaped or determined by fears of failure or by what others think of it. Its justification is in God alone. This redeemed personality is freed from the superimposition of the sins, mistakes, and foibles of others and of those of its own past; it is freed from the rejections it has experienced, both in its past and in its present. Real Presence

30 of 53 7. The Great Dance (2 of 4) It is truly free: free to love even its own enemies; free to create in spite of the fears and the hate surrounding it. This personality no longer attempts to relate to others (much less to the Body of Christ) on the basis of expertise of any kind, for it no longer finds its identity in that expertise. Fears, outward pressures, undue domination by others, no longer shape its inner life, nor even over too long a period the circumstances of its outer life; secure within its inner being, it is enabled to confront and to deal with these things rather than be shaped by them. It has, insofar as its finiteness permits, willed to be one with God. Its will one with its Creators, it can therefore perfectly collaborate with its Creator. Paradoxically appearing to have lost itself, the personality finds itself for the first time truly creative. This creativity springs forth from God in us, and, as the New Testament reveals, originality is the prerogative of God alone. Man the artist, collaborating with the Holy Spirit, listens to the work; he gets self out of the way and discovers, rather than creates, the work that is waiting to be released from chaos, waiting to be given its form. This listening does not involve only the intuitive part of man. Christ in man resurrects the whole of man: his intellectual, his sensory, his emotional, as well as his intuitive being. It is the whole man to whom the living Jesus relates Himself; and it is the whole man who collaborates with Him in the act of creative discovery. This, of course, is what the Great Dance is all about. Committed absolutely to Him, our will becomes one with His. We enter into union and communion with the Source of all creativity, and we find, within ourselves, that we have become persons. Love flows down from the uncreated into the created, and thence into all other created beings. To continue to receive of the bright metal being poured into it, each creature must become a channel of this love to others. Gods Love in us is the divine energy that overcomes the Fall in each individual life, and it is also the energy that overcomes the death that intruded into all of nature. The mode of mans redemption is to be drawn into that Three-Personal life; he is to be pulled into God. The Christian hypothesis, Lewis writes, is that God has come down into the created universe, down to manhood and come up again, pulling it up with Him. This is the message of Love flowing down to us and taking us up into It. This is the message of the Cross, where the great reversal of the Fall began. At the Cross Love and Life were injected into a dying creation and from there we begin to tread Adams dance backwards. The Great Dance has been from all eternity and first and foremost in the love that has always been going on between the Father and the Son. Lewis says, What grows out of the joint life of the Father and the Son is a real Person, is in fact the Third of the three Persons who are God. To enter into the Dance, then, is to enter the Holy Spirit and to enter the living, dynamic activity of Love that has always been between the Father and the Son. Obedience is the holy courtesy required for entering into the divine relationship. To choose this obedience is, in fact, to choose joy. That is why we first see the joy of obedience in the Godhead. The Trinity is a co-inherence in Love: Being Christians, we learn from the doctrine of the blessed Trinity that something analogous to society exists within the Divine being from all eternity that God is love, not merely in the sense of being the Platonic form of love, but because, within Him, the concrete reciprocities of love exist before all worlds and are thence derived to the creatures. But it is in the incarnate Christ that we first see the pattern of perfect obedience. Lewis had a keen sense of the humanity, as well as the divinity of Christ: God could, had He been pleased, have been incarnate in a man of iron nerves, the Stoic sort who let no sigh escape him. Of His great humility He chose to be incarnate in a man of delicate sensibilities who wept at the grave of Lazarus

and sweated blood in Gethsemane. Otherwise we should have missed the great lesson that it is by his will alone that a man is good or bad, and that feelings are not, in themselves, of any importance. Real Presence 31 of 53 7. The Great Dance (3 of 4) The key to our own obedience: Not only must we listen in the presence of the Father, but we must let the Son and the Holy Spirit respond in obedience through us. Here is where we learn that obedience and rule are more like a dance than a drill, and that to listen is the exciting key. He that is at once both further away (Sovereign over all) and closer to us than our breathing (Immanent God) can speak to us. With all our being therefore we must learn to listen to Him. To fail to listen is to lose the harmony of communion with Him Who is Ultimate Reality. To be obedient is to choose joy, that is, utter reality. And the choosing of joy is, of course, the choosing of Love Himself. St. John says that loving God and obeying Him is proof that we love our brothers and sisters; and conversely, that loving our brothers and sisters is proof that we love God. To step outside the Great Dance is to step outside of Love and back into the hell of self and separation; it is to step from the co-inherence of all things, animated by the Love of God, back into in-coherence. We see, therefore, that love and the choice to obey are inextricably intertwined and related. We choose to love God and others; or, pridefully, we choose self love instead. We are able to step outside the Dance because weve been given the freedom to do so. We were given a free will because as mere automata we could never love, and therefore we could never know infinite happiness. If a thing is free to be good it is also free to be bad. And free will is what has made evil possible. Why, then did God give them free will? Because free will, though it makes evil possible, is also the only thing that makes possible any love or goodness or joy worth having. A world of automata of creatures that worked like machines would hardly be worth creating. The happiness which God designs for His higher creatures is the happiness of being freely, voluntarily united to Him and to each other in an ecstasy of love and delight compared with which the most rapturous love between a man and a woman on this earth is mere milk and water. And for that they must be free. This love, of course, is not a feeling: Christian Love, either towards God or towards man, is an affair of the will. If we are trying to do His will we are obeying the commandment, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God. We know that the incarnate Christ rejoiced always in doing the will of the Father. We know also that we are to imitate Him and that there is nothing in life so important as the learning of this day-by-day and moment-by-moment obedience. We know that it is only when our will is perfectly one with His that we are one with the Divine Trinitys purpose for all creation, or that we know any degree of wholeness and healing. Why then, if all our joy depends upon it, is obedience such a dreadfully hard thing to learn? This brings us to the very crux of the matter of obedience. Our self-will, swollen with pride, is dreadfully diseased and blemished. It has dark spots in it. It requires radical conversion. This conversion is painful, for it is the surrender of an inflamed self-will that has been, for years, the usurper; for it to surrender is a kind of death. The full acting out of selfs surrender to God therefore demands pain: this action, to be perfect, must be done from the pure will to obey, in the absence, or in the teeth, of inclination. Obedience, even after a thorough conversion of the will, is an ongoing thing.

There is a necessity to die daily to the old self, for however often we think we have broken the rebellious self we shall still find it alive. Real Presence 32 of 53 7. The Great Dance (4 of 4) It would be hard to stress too much the unique place of mans will, for it stands, as Lewis says, at the very frontier, that place where man meets God, that place which is at the mysterious point of junction and separation where absolute being utters derivative being. Here man wills to relate to his Creator or, turning to love only the self, wills separation: There are only two kinds of people in the end: those who say to God, Thy will be done, and those to whom God says, in the end, Thy will be done. All that are in Hell choose it. Without that self-choice there could be no Hell. No soul that seriously and constantly desires joy will ever miss it. Those who seek find. To those who knock it is opened. [Matthew 7:7] Lewis says of the damned soul that there is always something it prefers to joy, and that it wills to choose it though it gain all the illusions of Hell and lose the utter reality of Heaven. To enter into a loving, obedient relationship with God is not only to find oneself a child of God, it is also to find oneself, even as the incarnate Lord, a servant to all. Servanthood does not come easily to the proud, that is, to the fallen: Milton was right:The choice of every lost soul can be expressed in the words Better to reign in Hell than to serve in Heaven. On the other hand, even the best Christian, that one who most consistently chooses to serve others, is not a man who never goes wrong, but a man who is enabled to repent and pick himself up and begin over again after each stumble because the Christ-life is inside time, repairing him all the time. He therefore differs from others trying to be goodThe Christian thinks any good he does comes from the Christ-life inside him. The Great Dance is centered in incarnational reality. And obedience, that great theme in Lewis, is the key to joy and harmony with God for all who have been empowered by the Spirit. Mans will, on the frontier, chooses either to be indwelt by the real presence of Gods Spirit, dying to self-will and self-love; or it chooses to be its own god. The will can reject Love, and prefer something else to joy. If we reject God, we reject the union that completes us, that brings us into personhood, and that grants access to all true creativity. In rejecting God, we step outside of the Great Dance and into the Bent Will which is the ruler of the in-coherent planet [Satan, the ruler of this world our planet Earth]. There is no way out of the center, Lewis writes, save into the Bent Will which casts itself into the Nowhere. Real Presence 33 of 53 8. The Way of the Cross (1 of 5) In Christ a new kind of man appeared: and the new kind of life which began in Him is to be put into us. How is this to be done?...There are three things that spread the Christ life to us: baptism, belief, and that mysterious action which different Christians call by different names Holy communion, the Mass, the Lords Supper. At least, those are the three ordinary methods. I am not saying there may not be special cases where it is spread without one or more of these. Quote from Lewiss book, Mere Christianity All of mans wisdom, good works, and searching out are incapable of finding God. Instead, God and His way of redemption found man. And this is why the Cross and it way of saving man stands at the heart of the Christian faith, for it is here that the Life that came into the world in the incarnation is poured out for us. Lewis once wrote , Pagan stories are God expressing Himself through the minds of poets, using such images as He found there, while Christianity is God expressing Himself through what we call real things.

The real things are the actual Incarnation, Crucifixion, and Resurrection of Christ (and our participation in them). Christs descent into His own creation, His good example, and His teachings were not enough. He had to die and rise again. It is by virtue of what happened in His death that our sins are forgiven, and we receive the Christ-life (the uncreated Zoe life as Lewis calls it) into ourselves. At the cross we who believe are initiated into Christs death and resurrection so that we die to our old sinful natures and are taken into Him. That is why to believe in Christ crucified is Gods way of saving us. Some too quickly reject the symbol of the crucifix as a valid symbol for today, forgetting that we must daily take our place in His death as well as in His Resurrection. That is why to believe is to become a Christian. Satan and the evil spirits hate the incarnation (and incarnational reality) because in it the God of the old Testament, He Who is faithful and full of loving kindness, is made present to our world. In Jesus Christ the full revelation of God is made present to man. This, as Johns Gospel shows, is a revelation of light. To be in sin is to be in darkness, and to fail to believe in Jesus is to remain in ones sins and in the kingdom of darkness. This believing is manifestly an experiential knowing, a relationship with a Person, as Luther says, closer to us than we are to ourselves. Believing, therefore, is more than intellectual assent by the conscious mind, for it includes experience of the reality believed in. It is knowing that is experiential, that includes the deep heart (the unconscious intuitive faculty), and that results in a new creation. An idiom the Scriptures employ to denote sexual union expresses the deeper meaning inherent in the word: And Adam knew Eve his wife: and she conceived and bore Cain. [Genesis 4:1] And (Joseph) knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name Jesus. [Matthew 1:24-25] We moderns have trouble with the words knowing and believing for to us these suggest merely intellectual conceptual understanding or assent to propositions without the substantive content of the King Jamess to know. [The Authorized King James Version is an English translation of the Christian Bible begun in 1604 and first published in 1611 by the Church of England.] A believing heart, then, is not one with a mere rational understanding of Christs being and mission, but one that has entered into a relationship of trust and love with a Person. Of course the conceptual belief ought to be there too, but a child or a simple person can be a Christian without understanding what, logically or theologically speaking, a Christian is. We now know that an infant, even as an embryo, can experience rejections by his parents when unwanted and unloved, and can, by the same token, experience their affirmation and love. This receiving, of either rejections or of love, is not on a conceptual level, but is a very real message written into the infants unconscious mind. Insofar as divine Love is concerned, an infant can believe can, in other words, experientially know or receive love long before he can conceptually comprehend it. Real Presence 34 of 53 8. The Way of the Cross (2 of 5) Experiential knowing is, in a way beyond our understanding, connected with the blood of Christ shed for us. The Old Testament commanded the faithful to abstain from blood for the life of the flesh is in the blood, and it is the blood that makes atonement for the soul. [both from Leviticus 17:11] Knowing this, our Lord instituted the communion meal after blessing the wine and giving thanks for it: Drink from it, all of you. For this is my blood, the blood of the covenant, shed for many for the forgiveness of sins. [Matthew 26:28] In [the Book of] John, Christ emphasizes the central importance of His blood to regeneration: In truth, in very truth I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood you can have no life in you. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood possesses eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last

day. My flesh is real food; my blood is real drink. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood dwells continually in me and I dwell in him. [John 6:53-56] And St. Pauls epistles include frequent reminders of this mystery in reference to salvation, e.g., through faith in His blood [Romans 3:25], justification by His blood [Romans 5:9], redemption through His blood [Ephesians 1:7]. In the work of the Cross there is an ongoing reality, one that must ever be proclaimed in the present tense as well as in its historical past; and that is why Lewis, knowing the human mind can only fully grasp the static, is careful not to speculate too closely on the great mystery of the Cross and of the Atonement. In fact, he is anxious to relieve those whose understanding has been limited or obscured by doctrines that present a static or stunted view of what believing the message or receiving the life of the Cross really is. It is here, at the Cross, that His blood was shed in order that our sins might be remitted. And, in a mysterious way we can never fully understand, as He gave His blood, He gave His Life, and that Life enters into all who truly believe He died for them. This is why to believe in the message of a crucified Christ is Gods way of saving us. We are told that Christ was killed for us, that His death has washed out our sins, and that by dying He disabled death itself. That is the formula. That is Christianity. That is what has to be believed. It is before the Cross, and in no other way, that men are made equal, for the way of the Cross bypasses mans highest wisdom and his greatest and most noble works. This way of receiving the Novitas, the new life, the way of Christ crucified, is sheer folly to those who are on their way to ruin, but to us who are on the way to salvation it is the power of God. [1 Corinthians 1:18] Human wisdom cannot apprehend God; it will always be climbing the stairs of a new knowledge (a new gnosis) without ever reaching the top; but by the preaching of the Cross God finds man. We cannot by our own efforts climb up to God; instead, He descends to us. That is why it is always safer to dwell on His love for us rather than on our love for Him. What love we have is derivative: what we give to Him in praise, worship, and service, we truly give back, as it comes from Him in the first place. Reality is, as Lewis says, odd. It is not what one would ever have guessed it to be. And no one ever guessed Gods way of redeeming man; in fact, not even His own chosen people, the Jews, had even an inkling of it. A cross was, for them, a symbol of cursedness and the ultimate in abasement. They had a picture in their minds of a Messiah who would not only act in power but who would restore their nation to a position of power, and the awful weakness of one hanging on a cross was, especially in connection with their longed-for Messiah, scandalous beyond words. The Greeks sought a rational God, one whom they could comprehend with their minds. Therefore the idea of a God on a cross was sheerest folly to them. But the very weakness or foolishness of God, as St. Paul says, is stronger than all the wisdom of man. [I Corinthians 1:25] All of mans wisdom and searching proved, and still proves, to be incapable of finding this reality out. Yet, at the proclamation of the message of the Cross, this reality, when believed, is poured into the heart of man. We have been considering the believing that does indeed guarantee salvation in that it is an active reception of Anothers Life. Christ in us, the New Man, takes the place of the old man (Adam) or the evil principle in us. We learn to yield always to the presence of this New Man and die daily to the old. We learn to let Him live His life through us, incarnationally, and to collaborate with Him fully, because we discover as soon as we attempt to practice the Christian virtues on our own that we are bound to fail. This believing does not cancel out the moral effort on our part nor the striving to imitate Christ: Real Presence 8. The Way of the Cross (3 of 5) 35 of 53 Do not think I am setting up baptism and belief and the Holy Communion as things that will do instead of your own attempts to copy Christ. Your natural life is derived from your parents; that does not mean it will stay there if you do nothing about it. You can lose it by neglect, or you can drive it away by committing suicide.

You have to feed it and look after it: but always remember you are not making it, you are only keeping up a life you got from someone else. In the same way a Christian can lose the Christ-life which has been put into him, and he has to make efforts to keep it. But even the best Christian that ever lived is not acting on his own steam he is only nourishing or protecting a life he could never have acquired by his own efforts. So we have the paradox: In one sense, the road back to God is a road of moral effort, of trying harder and harder. But in another sense it is not trying that is ever going to bring us home. All this leads up to the vital moment at which you turn to God and say, You must do this. I cant. To say this to God is to cease from ones own works and to allow the indwelling Christ to take over. This surrender is not an abstract theory but a substantive reality as the Zoe life within us issues forth as supernatural faith, wisdom, knowledge, and agape love: in other words, as all the fruits and as all the gifts of the Holy Spirit. [Galatians 5:22-23: But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control.] [I Corinthians 12:8-10: To one there is given through the Spirit the message of wisdom, to another the message of knowledge by means of the same Spirit, to another faith by the same Spirit, to another gifts of healing by that one Spirit, to another miraculous powers, to another prophecy, to another distinguishing between spirits, to another speaking in different kinds of tongues, and to still another the interpretation of tongues.] This incarnational understanding of Christ doing His works through His people should heal the disputes that Christians have often had over whether what leads the Christian home is good actions, or Faith in Christ. They are but the works of Another. Those acts we do on our own in an unregenerate state have a special purpose Lewis describes in a letter: - The bad (material) tree cannot produce good fruit. But oddly, it can produce fruits that by all external tests are indistinguishable from the good ones: the act done from ones own separate and unredeemed, tho moral will looks exactly like the act done by Christ in us. - And oddly enough, it is the trees real duty to go on producing these imitation fruits till it recognizes this futility and despairs and is made a new (spiritual) tree. Although it is obvious that we must cease from our own works, we cant separate what exactly God does and what man does when God and man are working together. The Bible, as Lewis says, puts the two things together into one amazing sentence. The first half is, Work out your salvation with fear and trembling which looks as if everything depended on us and our good actions: but the second half goes on, For it is God who worketh in you which looks as if God did everything and we nothing. [Philippians 2:12-13] I and my Father are One, said Christ [John 10:38], and so too is man one with the Father when Christ and man are in union. This union is the believing that Lewis calls faith in the higher sense. Besides this higher sense in which Christians understand faith, or the act of believing, there is another, and that too is valid. On this lower level, faith simply means the acceptance of Christian doctrines as true; and for a long while Lewis could not understand why this should be regarded as a virtue. After all, one believes the Christian creeds are true, or one does not believe. And certainly one should not in any way work up a subjective state which, if successful, could be described as faith. Later Lewis understood that this level of belief involved virtue to the extent that it is the art of holding on to things your reason has once accepted, in spite of your changing moods. It turns out that our emotions and our imagination, our wishes and our desires often carry out a blitz on our belief, that is, our conscious, reasoning acceptance, and we must therefore train the habit of Faith. Once the human mind has accepted a thing as true it does not necessarily or automatically go on regarding it as true. The battle is between faith and reason on the one hand, and avarice, lust, greed, and the like on the other, the imagination and the emotion wavering between the two sides like untrustworthy soldiers. Now that I am a Christian I have moods when the whole thing looks very improbable: but when I was an atheist I had moods in which Christianity looked terribly probable. This rebellion of the moods against your real self is going to come anyway. That is why Faith is such a necessary virtue. Real Presence

36 of 53 8. The Way of the Cross (4 of 5) Unless you tell your moods where they get off, you can never be either a sound Christian or even a sound atheist, but just a creature dithering to and fro, with its beliefs really dependent on the weather and the state of its digestion. Christ has provided in Holy Communion a way for us to continue to participate in His dying and rising again. The efficacy of the Eucharist lies in the fact that it is, in effect, an extension of the ongoing work of the Cross. It is not the only means available to us but it is the one commanded by Christ and its efficacy, like that of the Cross itself, bypasses the reasoning mind. Since we contain this new life in an earthen vessel, [2 Corinthians 4:7] we must continue not only to confess our sins and weaknesses, but to receive of that life through the Lords Supper. Likewise, just as we continue to participate in Christs death, dying daily to our old sinful natures, we are also called to participate in His continuing Presence through the indwelling Spirit. His Life is further formed in us by participation in this His Resurrection Life. This He poured out on believers at Pentecost, and this He continues to pour out as vessels are open to receive it. This life is His Spirit. Christ was fully present in His disciples only after He ascended to the Father. This is a great truth of the Ascension. From His seat at the right hand of the Father, His resurrection Life is poured out; it is Christ really present within us, both individually and corporately. Participating then in the life of the risen Lord makes us an extension of the Incarnation. It is then that we can truly live the life of the servant, for Christs very power and love flows through us when the channels are cleansed and open [which occurs only to the extent that we are healed of our wounded souls and spirits]. Similarly, this is what carrying the Cross means becoming channels through which His redeeming life can flow. [Therefore, get thee Healed!] The way of the Cross is ultimately the incarnational pattern of the life of obedience in Christ: The Father eternally begets the Son and the Holy Ghost proceeds. From this we see how Lewis perceives the Spirit. Besides being the spirit of Love that has, from all eternity, been between the Father and the Son, He is the Real Presence of Jesus in the believer. The theme of St. Johns Gospel illustrates this: Jesus, once lifted up in His Crucifixion and Resurrection communicates the Spirit to man. The Father then continues Jesus work through those in whom He is formed. St. Paul determined to know nothing among the Greeks and the Hebrews but Jesus Christ and Him Crucified. This is the only way man is released from the Law and his own works, is taken into union with Christ, and is given His Spirit. Pauls preaching was empowered, not by human wisdom or eloquent rhetoric, but by a manifestation of the Spirit and power. This is the way of the Cross, the way that becomes a channel through which the very life of Christ can flow. By such preaching, true belief is ignited in the spirit of the unbeliever, and entering into Christ, his spirit leaps alive. This kind of preaching, the kind that literally imparts the Presence, is apostolic preaching. Wherever or whenever this preaching occurs, new churches are born. In an essay first published in 1946, entitled the Decline of Religion, Lewis lamented the absence of such preaching. He first affirms the work of the Christian apologists. Their work is important, but, Their share is a modest one; and it is always possible that nothing nothing whatever may come of it. Far higher than they stands that character whom, to the best of my knowledge, the present Christian movement has not yet produced the Preacher in the full sense, The Evangelist, the man on fire, the man who infects. The propagandist, the apologist, only represents John the Baptist: the Preacher represents the Lord Himself.

He will be sent or else he will not. But unless he comes we mere Christian intellectuals will not effect very much. Real Presence 37 of 53 8. The Way of the Cross (5 of 5) The entire Body of Christ needs the renewal that can come only by and in the Presence of the Holy Spirit. Whether in the preached word or in the sacraments, it is the presence and power of the Spirit that makes the difference. Herein is the (dreadful to some) exclusiveness of the Church. There is no possibility of eclecticism in it. In the Presence, unless they will to remain separate, men are born anew. Moslems, Hindus, Jews [and Atheists] who walk into the presence and power of the Holy Spirit are quickly remade they become Christians. By definition, says Charles Williams, Christendom cannot fundamentally admit the right of an Opposition (to its dogma) to exist; to refuse the Co-inherence (of God and man by His Spirit) is to separate oneself from the very nature of things. To be separate from the Presence is indeed to be separate from all that finally is real. Only through the Churchs cry for incarnation, for the presence and the power of the Holy Spirit in her midst, can she hope to reach those who are separated from the very nature of things. And in this the believing Church is to be as one. Our corporate unity is in the same Spirit that individually indwells us all. This is the co-inherence of Heaven and Earth. Lewis clearly understood that both the sacraments and preaching are efficacious only as they are transmitters of the Life of God only as they participate fully in the way of the Cross, the way God has chosen to redeem man. Because of this knowledge he further understood wherein the true unity of the Body of Christ lies. Never denominational, he lamented the carnal schisms in what should truly be the fellowship of the Holy Spirit on earth. Real Presence 38 of 53 9. The Whole intellect (1 of 5) For what can be known about God is perfectly plain to them, since God has made it plain to them: ever since the creation of the world, the invisible existence of God and his everlasting power have been clearly seen by the mind's understanding of created things. And so these people have no excuse: they knew God and yet they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but their arguments became futile and their uncomprehending minds were darkened. Romans 1:19-21,Jerusalem Bible. [This translation uses a literal approach that has been admired for its literary qualities, perhaps in part due to its most famous contributor, J.R.R. Tolkien (his primary contribution was the translation of Jonah). It is funny how mortals always picture us as putting things into their minds: in reality, our best work is done by keeping things out. --Screwtape, in Lewiss book, The Screwtape Letters From believing rational man to be a pawn in a meaningless and irrational world, Lewis came to understand that rationality itself is a gift from outside the system. In fact, mans rationality became the telltale rift in Nature which shows that there is something beyond or behind her. This outcropping, this incarnation of mind in nature, turned out to be the rock on which the case for naturalism founders; for in assuming the mind to be part of nature and hence irrational, it falls into self-contradiction. It is nonsense when one uses the human mind to prove the irrationality of the human mind Dr. Clyde Kilby. But beyond this, Lewis understood that the Spirit of God, descending into the heart of man, could not only illumine a faltering and faulty intellect but could put it in touch with divine Reason. In 1931, three years after his conversion to theism [but not, yet, Christianity] he explains in a letter how he has penetrated the last intellectual barrier to belief. What has been holding me back (at any rate for the last year or so) has not been so much a difficulty in

believing as a difficulty in knowing what the doctrine meant: you cant believe a thing when you are ignorant what the thing is. My puzzle was the whole doctrine of Redemption: in what sense the life and death of Christ saved or opened salvation to the world. I could see how miraculous salvation might be necessary: one could see from ordinary experience how sin (e.g. the case of a drunkard) could get a man to such a point that he was bound to reach Hell (i.e. complete degradation and misery) in this life unless something quite beyond mere natural help or effort stepped in. And I could well imagine a whole world being in the same state and similarly in need of a miracle. What I couldnt see was how the life and death of Someone Else (whoever he was) 2000 years ago could help us here and now except in so far as his example helped us. And the example business, tho true and important, is not Christianity: right in the center of Christianity, in the Gospels and St. Paul, you keep getting something quite different and very mysterious, expressed in those phrases I have so often ridiculed (propitiation sacrifice the blood of the lamb) expressions which I could only interpret in senses that seemed to me either silly or shocking. Now what Dyson ["Hugo" Dyson, 1896-1975, considered by Lewis to be one of "the immediate human causes of my conversion] and Tolkien [1892-1973, author of The Lord of the Rings] showed me was this: that if I met the idea of sacrifice in a Pagan story I didnt mind it at all: again, that if I met the idea of a god sacrificing himself to himself I liked it very much and was mysteriously moved by it: again, that the idea of the dying and reviving god (Balder, Adonis, Bacchus) similarly moved me provided I met it anywhere except in the Gospels. The reason was that in Pagan stories I was prepared to feel the myth as profound and suggestive of meaning beyond my grasp even tho I could not say in cold prose what it meant. Now the story of Christ is simply true myth: a myth working on us in the same way as the others, but with this tremendous difference that it really happened; and one must be content to accept it in the same way, remembering that it is Gods myth where the others are mens myths: i.e. the Pagan stories are God expressing Himself through the minds of poets, using such images as He found there, while Christianity is God expressing Himself through what we call real things. Therefore it is true, not in the sense of being a description of God (that no finite mind can take in) but in the sense of being the way in which God chooses to (or can) appear to our faculties. The doctrines we get out of the true myth are of course less true: they are translations into our concepts and ideas of that which God has already expressed in a language more adequate, namely the actual incarnation, crucifixion, and resurrection. Does this amount to a belief in Christianity? At any rate I am now certain, a) That this Christian story is to be approached, in a sense, as I approach the other myths. And b) That it is the most important and full of meaning. I am also nearly certain that it really happened. Real Presence 39 of 53 9. The Whole intellect (2 of 5) As Lewis journeyed on into certainty and began to write about it, he was, especially in view of the current climate of unbelief, mindful of the enormity of the claim he was making. He could never have made it had he not by then safely hurdled certain intellectual barriers and fully satisfied himself that reason, as well as experience, rode with him. It is mind-boggling to consider that the God who created the billions of suns with their own planets and moons is the same God who called out an Abraham, a Moses, and an Apostle Paul into intimate communion with Himself, the same God whom the prophet Daniel identifies as the Revealer of mysteries to man. This creator, who causes the stars to move in harmony in their own far-flung galaxies, some as many as 500 million light-years away from the planet earth, is the same God who tells a Daniel not only what a pagan king named Nebuchadnezzar had dreamt, but also what the dream means. [The Old Testament Book of Daniel.] This interference of Absolute Being in His own creation is what we call miracle, but perhaps from the perspective of most twentieth century minds, the real miracle consists in the fact that Daniel believed and acted on his belief. Had he been hampered by the naturalistic view that thought is essentially a phenomenon of the same sort as his other secretions he would have had a considerably harder time of it. In fact, Daniel would have been like the kings other advisors: his sages, enchanters, and magicians who said that none could divine the mystery of the kings dreams except he be a god and a gods dwelling was not, they

said, with creatures of flesh. And this is what all misunderstanders of the incarnation say: God is too big, and we are too small: and besides that, He does not dwell with creatures of flesh. The incarnation is staggering to the mind. That the Creator of all worlds yearns to be our Father, that he gave Himself to us in such a special way in His Son the Son whom He sent into our dark world through the womb of Mary, there to grow in the form and flesh of man that this, the greatest of all myths, happens to be the true one is a thing only to be grasped as the Father Himself gives the power. And we, like Mary, believe in order to receive that Holy Thing. It is then that we find ourselves to be extensions of the incarnation by the pouring out of Gods Spirit upon us. This too we can only grasp as our Father gives it to us, pouring out upon us our personal Pentecost. Even then it is staggering to the imagination. That the God of all that is, not only redeems, but reveals His mysteries and His Presence to mite-sized man, is almost more than the human mind can at first receive. Yet though Lewiss path to God was that of the intellect, his feelings, heart, and imagination kept pace. Belief in the sense of intellectual assent was accompanied by belief in the second sense as experience of, and trust in, a Person. Never has an age been more hostile to the Faith than this modern one, nor more completely afflicted with what Lewis calls chronological snobbery the uncritical acceptance of the intellectual climate common to our age and the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited. Truth is still truth and error is still error no matter what the date on the calendar is. I claim that the positive historical statements made by Christianity have the power, elsewhere found chiefly in formal principles, of receiving, without intrinsic change, the increasing complexity of meaning which increasing knowledge puts into them. With a passion for honoring truth, Lewis therefore never tires of pointing up the effects of these prejudices on the souls of men. In effect, he takes the blinders off sense-imprisoned men and thereby presents heaven to their sight. The intellect, in association with the real and the true noumenal (the Holy Spirit), becomes the Holy Intellect, and replaces the glib rationalism of man confined to the world of sense perceptions. Our period, as Lewis shows, has had no satisfactory theory of knowledge. That we know reality by Gods Spirit within us is an idea simply so foreign to the modern mind-set that even the archetype memory of it has a hard time emerging in the consciousness of Christian man. That man can know God, the Ultimate reality, by His Spirit in-Gracing him, by prayer and sacrament, repentance and adoration and that this is not fantasy is a truth lost to modern man, who has, (as Lewis once had) an epistemology that accepts as rock-bottom reality [only] the universe revealed by the senses. [Epistemology: a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.] Our educational systems, drawing their theories increasingly from materialist philosophy, have claimed heaven to be off-limits and have taught us to look within ourselves and to this earth for the ultimate good. Worse, they often flatly claim man is only a product of biological, psychological, and social forces. There is no Object, they assume, no objective meaning outside of our senses. Real Presence 40 of 53 9. The Whole intellect (3 of 5) Therefore, all the meaning, all the reality we had once attributed to the objective order of the universe, seen and unseen, we attempt to transfer to the Subject, that is, to ourselves and to our sense-world. Having done this, we find the Subject to be as empty as we have made the Object appear to be: - At the outset, the universe appears packed with will, intelligence, life and positive qualities: every tree is a nymph and every planet a god. - Man himself is akin to the gods. - The advance of knowledge gradually empties this rich and genial universe: first of its gods, then of its colors, smells, sounds, and tastes, finally of solidity itself as solidity was originally imagined. - As these items are taken from the world, they are transferred to the subjective side of the account: classified

as our sensations, thoughts, images or emotions. - The subject becomes gorged, inflated, at the expense of the Object. - But the matter does not end there. - The same method which has emptied the world now proceeds to empty ourselves. - The masters of the method soon announce that we were just as mistaken (and mistaken in much the same way) when we attributed souls, or selves, or minds to human organisms, as when we attributed Dryads to treesWe, who have personified all other things, turn out to be ourselves mere personifications - And thus we arrive at a result uncommonly like zero. - While we were reducing the world to almost nothing we deceived ourselves with the fancy that all its lost qualities were being kept safe (if in a somewhat humbled condition) as things in our own mind. - Apparently we had no mind of the sort required. - The subject is as empty as the Object. - Almost nobody has been making linguistic mistakes about almost nothing. - By and large, this is the only thing that has ever happened. Man the subject thus finds himself devastated and utterly without hope in a meaningless cosmos. Lewis traces this gradual change from medieval to modern thought in [his scholarly book] The Discarded Image and says, To understand this process fully would be to grasp the great movement of internalization, and that consequent aggrandizement of man and desiccation of the outer universe, in which the psychological history of the West has so largely consisted. This progressive subjectivization has resulted in an evil enchantment of worldliness which has been laid on us for nearly a hundred years, silencing the shy, persistent, inner voice within us that cries for heaven. Almost our whole education has been directed to silencing this shy, persistent, inner voice; almost all our modern philosophies have been devised to convince us that the good of man is to be found on this earth. Physicists, in accepting Dr. Einsteins mathematical description of nature, rejected as inadequate the Newtonian and Darwinian theories that gave rise to the mechanistic and sensate view of man, his mind, and his cosmos; but not before both these theories had profoundly influenced Freud, and through him, the whole of American psychology, the rest of the social sciences, and the humanities. It is strange that the epistemological implications of the new intellectual light, which dawned over four decades ago [from 1979], have been so very slow to penetrate (when at all) the social sciences and the humanities. Even so, the modern physicists, by their loss of faith in Newtons mechanistic universe, have opened wide a window through which this light can shine. By virtue of this new light and the humility that accompanies it (the loss of certainty that science can explain what physical reality is and how all things happen), there is power to exorcise at least some of the illusions and barriers which have impeded mans metaphysical desires. In his book The Universe and Dr. Einstein, the physicist-writer, Lincoln Barnett, states that the materialists are unavoidably faced with the fact that the prime mysteries of nature dwell in those realms farthest removed from sense-imprisoned man, and that by accepting Dr. Einsteins theory, they are forced to abandon their materialistic epistemologies: In accepting a mathematical description of nature, physicists have been forced to abandon the ordinary world of our experience, the world of sense perceptions. To understand this retreat it is necessary to step across the thin line that divides physics from metaphysics. Meanwhile, the more direct concern we face is the complete secularization of our systems of education, which operate ever more consistently on naturalistic assumptions that would finally reduce the intellect itself to an elaborate computer. In his book, The Abolition of Man, Lewis chronicles this reductio ad absurdum of the intellect and the consequent drain of meaning and value from his world view as western man has yielded to the spell of materialism. Real Presence 41 of 53 9. The Whole intellect (4 of 5) Broadly speaking, until recently there were two different views of man vying one with the other: the Christian and Classical view versus the scientific or biological view. It is the specifically Christian (incarnational) view of man, however that we are most concerned with here. Suffice it to say that the Classical saw man, through his reason, as a thing above nature and certainly allowed for the supernatural, if it did not always focus on it.

Although the industrial and technological revolutions have lent their momentum to the ongoing alteration in educational philosophy, it is partially through deteriorating and even erroneous ideas of what the term democratic means that the supernaturalist view of man is dropping out of education. In societies that separate Church from State, any supernaturalist point of view seems to threaten this division and falls into the category of religion. Yet, if we define religion as those principles of belief underlying any world view, we find that the naturalists assumption that nature is all there is involves a commitment of faith equally as religious. It cannot be proven by science any more than the assumption that God exists can. Both are matters of faith. Yet the loss in our educational system of a transcendent view of man and his cosmos has brought about a crisis in the very spirit of man and is the real basis for the cries of irrelevancy and despair that we hear in connection with higher learning. The problem now confronting higher education is that of restoring the dimension of transcendence. Traditionally, the central purpose of a college or university has been the preservation, discovery, and transmission of knowledge. As a sanctuary for scholarship, it was to mold qualified persons, persons who would be prepared for changes the future would bring. Ethical leadership, respected and trusted, would exercise judgment and govern wisely. Milton describes as generous the education which molds this kind of leader, an education which liberally enlightens the whole man: A generous education is that which fits a man to perform justly, skillfully, magnanimously all the offices, both public and private, of peace and war. This literary education involved learning the languages of those industrious after wisdom, and it held a solid recognition of objective and moral values to be attained. T. H. Huxleys words, A scientific education is as good as a literary, point up the modern contrast to Milton and the traditional understanding of the purposes of education. An exclusively scientific education, materialistic or empirical, by its very nature excludes moral and ethical values and purposes. The present purposes to produce knowledge, to impart skills, to created trained intelligence though necessary, are materialistic and pragmatic when separated from the greater purpose of imparting ultimate values. The aims of a college or university are closely tied to its philosophy, and its philosophy is tied, ultimately, to a religious belief or presupposition, whether or not this is understood or acknowledged. Our prevailing naturalistic presuppositions, not to mention the full-blown materialistic philosophies drawn from our scientific methodologies, are apparently considered to be secular or neutral and therefore, at least in the popular imagination, democratic. These have erected prejudicial barriers against the supernatural view of man, while at the same time they have reinforced the naturalistic view. Contradictory as it may seem, this view may lead to various pantheistic religious views, for naturalism is not necessarily opposed to the notions of an indwelling god or cosmic consciousness arising from the biological process. Also, barriers that once held back occult teachings and practices may no longer stand when the biological view of man and mind predominates, because such phenomena are considered to be merely extrasensory and therefore not metaphysical or religious. Actually, pantheistic ideas and practices, as well as those of the occult, have within them the possibility of a real, though destructive, supernatural power, and they have this because man is, in fact, a supernatural being with the capability of opening himself to supernatural powers, both good and evil. These pantheistic and occult teachings, when practiced, constitute a development or opening of the intuitive part of man apart from the safeguard of reason and the power and Presence of the Holy Spirit. Many devotees thus open themselves unwittingly and without fear to forces that can bring them into the bondage of a very real and evil supernatural power. The god that naturalism spawns is beyond good and evil in that it includes both. Real Presence 42 of 53

9. The Whole intellect (5 of 5) Not only may pantheistic and occult ideologies thus find an entrance into our educational systems under the cover of naturalism, but due to pressure on those systems to remain democratic and neutral, moral and ethical values go unstated and neglected. It is a common complaint that the loss of transcendent values has brought about a breakdown of the home, of the church, and of community. Some would see the university as the place where values and transcendent meaning might be restored to society. The fact that the community of scholars is now an anachronism belies this arid hope. Scholars themselves complain of how the various disciplines are cut off from each other and share no common values; denying supersensory truth, the best minds cannot agree on any standard of truth. Like many another man, the scholar himself is often resigned to a cosmic relativism while trying to solve his personal problems through a patchwork of psychological theories. In a democratic and pluralistic state such as ours there are, of course, diverse ideas of what constitutes truth and reality. Yet, today, rather than a political or religious point of view threatening to dominate our system, we are in implicit danger from an unquestioned naturalism. Naturalism, when it ousts the ideologies common to Christianity and to the classical view of man, becomes itself a dogma and a cult. It becomes the religion. In a state where all choices are made scientifically, that is, by the truth of nature alone, there finally will be no place for democratic disagreement as B. F. Skinners Beyond Freedom and Dignity forecasts. Even worse, man will perforce be cut off from reason and from spirit, since the transcendent sides of his intellect will not even be recognized. Not to acknowledge the presuppositions or the limitations of science is to raise science to the level of dogma, where it becomes an absolute and is conceived as the only worthy basis of thought and action. In short, it becomes a god. Herein lies a strange paradox: while the physical sciences themselves are no longer given the uncritical veneration they once commanded, the sensate view of man to which their empirical methodologies gave rise is widely held whether consciously or unconsciously. Though the culture itself is in some ways more pluralistic than ever, its common underlying supposition is a sensate view of truth and reality. This uniformity of ideology has come about largely through the almost exclusively naturalistic education characteristic of the West since the rapid ascension of science in the nineteenth century. Due to our dependence upon scientific methodologies for determining truth, we no longer have the diversity that is truly the hallmark of a democratic system of education. It is not the books written in direct defense of Materialism that makes the modern man a materialist; it is the materialistic assumptions in all the other books. The acceptance of a model of man that is materialistic necessarily undermines ethics based on both the practical reason and on revelation, since they are not quantifiable. Sensate man, faced with a breakdown in his system, is now forced to find an ethic purely material made in his own image. Since nature is of itself amoral, it would seem that Dostoyevskys gloomy prediction has come true: if God does not exist (i.e., is not believed to exist) anything is possible. We may recall the ethics created by the Nazis to justify exterminating the Jews. Traditional man man spiritual and reasonable as well as physical, man morally and ethically responsible is the man for whom academic freedom was envisioned. Science, though it never made the claim to be the absolute, has been lifted to the status of dogma. The People, in their gratitude for what technology could do, committed the awful error of making an idol of science, Though no longer bowing down to the scientific method, contemporary man is yet chained to the view of man which arose from its precepts. Real Presence 43 of 53

10. The Whole Imagination I, Surprised by Joy (1 of 3) Lewis defined three uses of the word, imagination. Reverie daydream, wish-fulfilling fantasy. Invention from the age of three, Lewis and his older brother invented the world of Boxen, a world replete with maps, histories and water color-and-ink illustrations of its two constituent countries, Animal-Land and India. But in neither reverie nor invention does Lewis locate the truly imaginative experience. In my day dreams I was training myself to be a fool; in mapping and chronicling Animal-Land I was training myself to be a novelist. Note well, a novelist, not a poet. My invented world was full (for me) of interest, bustle, humor, and character; but there was no poetry, even no romance, in it. It was almost astonishingly prosaic. Thus if we use the word imagination in a third sense, and the highest sense of all, this invented world was not imaginative. There was no Joy that which leads one into the regions of awe; there was none of the numinous or the transcendent in his wish-fulfilling fantasy or in the world of his invention But other experiences contained the truly imaginative, those which call for the third and highest definition of the word imagination: that of awe at the presence of the Objective Real; that of an intuition of objective truth lying outside of ourselves. Joy best describes it. Sharply distinguishing these experiences of Joy from both happiness and pleasure, Lewis said that the quality common to each was that of an unsatisfied desire which is itself more desirable than any other satisfaction. The images of Joy were not to be idolatrously mistaken for Joy as Object: they were simply the images through which the Reality could shine and not the true object of desire. And herein for Lewis is the place of the greatest art. Like the icon it consists of images through which the transcendently real is, as it were, sacramentally channeled. If the image is mistaken for the real, it can no longer be the vehicle through which transcendent truth shines. Instead it becomes self-conscious and so a dumb idol. Joy, the truly imaginative experience, at its highest level is the creaturely experience of receiving from the Holy Other. This Joy calls one up out of the mists of self and subjectivity into an objective and suprapersonal Presence. It calls the real I forward. Lewis, closed into the world of self, was the receiver of that which would never be in his power to control, for the wind of the Spirit blows where it wills. [John 3:8] When Joy darted down into his soul and just as quickly left again, he after floundering awhile in the bog of introspection began looking outward in search of the Object whence these experiences came. Lewis was thereby obliged to forsake that alienated status we often prize so highly and wretchedly and come up out of the prison of subjectivity. There is no doubt that Joy has to do with the work of the Holy Spirit, and that the experience of Joy is linked with the word imagination in its third and highest sense. But there are several levels even to the truly imaginative, and we must differentiate between that which begins in merely poetic awe and that which includes religious awe. Similarly, we intuit the Real in at least three kinds the realms of Nature, Super-nature, and the Real Presence of God. The awe differs as the kinds of reality to be intuited differ, though Absolute Reality, in the person of the Holy Spirit, can find His way through any one of the three. It is in the Object, that which invokes the awe, that the difference lies. The form of the desired is in the desire. When the heavens were opened in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, on the fifth day of the month and the prophet Ezekiel saw visions of God he fell on his face in worshipful awe. [Ezekiel 1:1] In the midst of this he heard a Voice speaking: And when He spoke to me, the Spirit entered into me and set me upon my feet. [Ezekiel 2:1] Ezekiel was then indwelt by the Object. This is religious awe, and the Object that inspired it was God. In poetic awe the artist sees, with his newborn intuition, one blade of grass or one dewdrop as it really is. His experience differs from Ezekiels in that the object giving rise to the awe differs. But the parallels are definitely there. Looking to the object, the artist forgets himself, and in loving that which he sees he becomes totally absorbed in it. Possessed by the creative idea, he feels compelled to transpose it into material form.

This is poetic awe, capable at any moment of becoming not less, but more, than poetic awe. Real Presence 44 of 53 10. The Whole Imagination I, Surprised by Joy (2 of 3) It is often with a profound sense of transfigured awe that the artist or the mystic perceives the truths of super-nature or, on a higher level, of God. Then, sometimes flat on his face over what he feels to be his utter inadequacy, he attempts to pass the vision on. Always, too, there is the gap between that which is seen and heard and that which is finally captured on canvas, in stone, in poetry, in melody. To one who is not an artist or a mystic it seems incredible that Michelangelo felt himself to be a fumbler, and that Isaiah, when he saw the Lord sitting high and lifted up, felt himself to be lost and a man of unclean lips [Isaiah 6:1-5]. Even so, it is in humility and awe, and with a plea for incarnation, a plea for enablement to be a servant to the work, that the mystic, priest, or artist sees the Real and desires to capture at least a gleam of it in his visions and creations, in his relationships with people, and in his worship. To capture this within the mountains, stars and seas, the eternal splendor, rhythm, and melody inherent in the very fabric of the universe; within the individual person, a universe enclosed in human form; within the communion cup, the living body and blood of Christ! that is his desire. For Lewis, the principal value of great art is that man is not only brought out of himself, but is also revealed to himself. In this sense, imagination can be a means of grace: Good fiction, by showing us ourselves, can actually produce in us good emotions, good sentiments. But bad fiction and bad uses of the imagination, can serve to aggrandize the self, to lock it up in itself. That is why Lewis found it essential that imagination lead us beyond ourselves to the Source whence we came. And the purpose of the highest art he says along with Plato and a host of other voices not often heard these days is to do just that. As the Shining One says to the artist newly arrived in heaven [in Lewiss book, The Great Divorce,] When you painted on earth, it was because you caught glimpses of Heaven in the earthly landscape. The success of your painting was that it enabled others to see the glimpses too. But here you are having the thing itself. It is from here that the messages came. The misuse of the imagination is especially tempting in an anthropocentric age when mens faculties are already directed toward themselves. Within any anthropocentric framework, man is tempted to view himself as creator and originator and easily loses the capacity to see himself in the creative process as he really is a servant out to discover what is already there. Michelangelo viewed the Moses and the David as already inside the stone, waiting to be freed. As servant to the object, he chipped away the stone, releasing the figures. Modern man can too easily draw a circle about himself, and closed in, discover only a subjective cosmos. With the loss of theocentricity and objectivity, he is necessarily self-centered and becomes god, as well as creator. Charles Williamss statement about the shift that began with the Renaissance is relevant here: Homohad entered religionThe cry of Another is in me had faded, the Renascence glory was not attributed to the Acts of that Other. The cry of Another is in me is thus replaced by I myself am enough for myself. The anthropocentric view leads to hubris, to tragic pride; the theocentric view leads to a proper humility and a right interpretation of the awe the creature experiences in the presence of the numinous. Lewis wrote: There seems, in fact, to be only two views we can hold about awe. Either it is a mere twist in the human mind, corresponding to nothing objective and serving no biological function, yet showing no tendency to disappear from that mind at its fullest development in poet, philosopher, or saint: or else it is a direct experience of the really supernatural, to which the name Revelation might properly be given. Lewiss view held that awe presupposes an object (while at the same time, such a view doesnt necessarily ignore the subjective aspect). Objectivity is essential both to Christian theology and mysticism, and to a right understanding of creativity.

The anthropocentric view can lead to a quest for greater and greater originality and a fragmented subjectivism that approaches complete solipsism. [Solipsism: extreme preoccupation with and indulgence of one's feelings, desires, etc.; egoistic self-absorption. Also, the philosophical theory that the self is all that you know to exist.] Originality is, as Lewis has said, the property of God alone. When we act from God in ourselves we are collaborators in, or live instruments of, creation. Real Presence 45 of 53 10. The Whole Imagination I, Surprised by Joy (3 of 3) Madeleine LEngle, renowned American author, playwright, and poet, endorses this incarnational view of creativity: - The Spirit comes into us and does it, - The artist, she said, is discoverer; he listens to the book that is clamoring to be written; as servant he serves the work. - His part is to get rid of self, get self entirely out of the way, so that the work, which has an existence apart from himself, might be released from chaos. - He then collaborates, listening always to the work, and gives to it its form, its being. - Art is communion, and a writer who so communes, will always write better than he knows. She agreed with Lewis that an author does not necessarily understand his own work better than those who read it. She pointed out that it takes her five to seven years to catch up with the spiritual truth in her own books. Listening to the work, she writes. Her understanding follows. Here she is in accord with the majority of artists who from the Greeks up to our century, generally believed that inspiration came from sources outside and higher than themselves, and that what they presented was more than the subjective excrescence of their own imaginations. [American fiction writer Madeleine L'Engle (1918-2007) is the accomplished author of numerous plays, poems, novels, and autobiographies for children and adults. She is perhaps best known for her children's book, "A Wrinkle in Time", written in 1962 and winner of the 1963 Newbery Medal for Children's Literature. Two later works, A Wind in the Door and "A Swiftly Tilting Planet", continued the theme and form a trilogy. In the early 1990s, after my conversion to Christianity, I attended the same church as Madeleine LEngle and knew her well enough to meet for lunch once and to participate in a creative writing class held in her home on Manhattans Upper West Side.] Real Presence 46 of 53 11. The Whole Imagination II, The Two Minds (1 of 4) In the preceding chapter we discussed the misuses of the imagination arising from mans pride, his tendency to put himself at the center, rather than finding his true center in God. But equally serious problems arise from our failure to understand and appreciate the ways of knowing peculiar to the so-called unconscious mind. This is the intuitive rather than the reasoning faculty, the seat of the creative imagination, the memory, and the gifts of the Holy Spirit. It has much to do with belief in the sense of relationship, discussed in chapters 2 and 8. This failure is also rooted in our inheritance of Greek thought, particularly from Aristotle. Aristotles epistemology confined mans ways of receiving knowledge to the data received through his sense experience and his reason. [Epistemology: a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.] By synthesizing experience, reason was thought capable of putting man in touch with the real. From these two ways of knowing (experience and reason), both belonging to the conscious mind, he developed his first principles of knowledge. He thus ruled out Platos third way of knowing, which included the ways of divine inspiration, of the poet and the

prophet, of the dream and of the vision, and most important of all, the way of love. These of course, are the ways of the unconscious mind: the way of picture, metaphor, symbol, myth, and with love the way of Incarnation: that way which brings myth and fact together. Had this way of knowing been retained, we no doubt would not have the somewhat self-contradictory term unconscious mind in our vocabulary today, since this way is really not unconscious at all, but involves several different sorts of consciousness. As the Church came to accept the Aristotelian epistemology and incorporate it into its theology, the Judeo Christian understanding of the deep heart (the unconscious mind and its ways of knowing) simply dropped from sight. There were no categories by which to recognize it. Christians and non-Christians alike came to value exclusively the conscious mind and its ways of knowing over those of the unconscious. This not only greatly hampered the Western Christians understanding of the creative imagination, but it has mightily suppressed our understanding of the work of the Holy Spirit in man. Indeed, the development and integration of the whole man in his relationship to God, to other men, and to those things within himself have not been fully understood because of our failure to understand our two minds. Our two minds, so very different, are both vital in the creative process one as the matrix of the creative idea and the mythopoeic imagination; the other as the seat of the rational powers which must, after the creative idea is given material form, bring to bear on it a shaping critique. The two minds do not work in ways at all comparable. Intuitive revelations of nature, super-nature, and God are one thing; conscious thinking about them is quite another. As thinkers we are cut off from what we think about; as tasting, touching, willing, loving, hating, we do not clearly understand. The more lucidly we think, the more we are cut off; the more deeply we enter into reality, the less we can think. You cannot study Pleasure in the moment of the nuptial embrace, nor repentance while repenting, nor analyze the nature of humor while roaring with laughter. Our dilemma, because the conscious intellect is incurably abstract, is either to taste and not to know or to know and not to taste or, more strictly, to lack one kind of knowledge because we are in an experience or to lack another kind because we are out of it. Plain, rational abstractions about truth are not truth. Failure to differentiate between the two kinds of knowing can lead to that disease called introspection (a looking inward to find reality), and, because of this, to an art that is self conscious. The conscious mind, turned inward on itself, destroys creativity, and ultimately, the good of reason as well, as suggested by the babbling senilities of the aged characters in Samuel Becketts End Game. Finally endless, the introspective abstract analysis of the self becomes a kind of drug to ease the pain of alienation from the experience of truth. After a while, the act of hopeless introspection seems to exist for its own sake, exemplified as well in other plays of the Theater of the Absurd. Real Presence 11. The Whole Imagination II, The Two Minds (2 of 4) 47 of 53 The poet sometimes receives his poem very nearly as a whole. Likewise, an entire plot is on occasion given to the novelist in a moment of time. The scientist, in a creative flash, sees his discovery dancing before his eyes. The creative idea, as Dorothy Sayers points out in The Mind of the Maker, contains the whole; the book is there whether it is given form or not, and so with the poem, the sculpture, the painting or the musical motif. Writing about the Creative Idea, she likens it to God the Father passionless, timeless, beholding the whole work complete at once, the end in the beginning. This, she says, is how we are makers in the Creators image. It is in the glow of this inspiration that the creative work is set down. Only afterward is the critical, reasoning, conscious mind brought to bear on it, the true rewriting begun. Many a poem has been lost, many a plot destroyed because a man, though in the image of God and therefore a

maker, has not understood his two minds, and their proper work, and their different ways of knowing. To be introspective is, of course, to have ones eyes off the Object from which the truly imaginative experience comes and on oneself. The conscious mind, is, so to speak, looking into the unconscious, and mistaking the track or the sensations which the experience of Joy leaves in its wake for the experience itself. When practiced, this introspection can lead to conscious attempts at reproducing within oneself the experience to try to have it again. This terrible conscious effort then actually inhibits the unconscious, that very faculty of the mind that would receive the vision of truth. Had Ezekiel determined consciously to see Yahweh, saying, I want to have a vision of God, he never would have. Love is the way: love for the Object. This is why, if we seek to be original, we shall never be. If in love for the Object, however, we forget ourselves, and look only to the Object, theres a possibility that we may become original without knowing it. We may, in a manner, become incarnate of the Object; for as we look to the Object, loving it, we participate in its being. Only by loving that which is outside ourselves can we ourselves be whole and free to create. Some misunderstand Dorothy Sayerss emphasis on creative work. She is not saying, Find your identity in what you do. Rather, she is saying that in knowing yourself as a maker free to function in the image of God, you are actualized drawn out of the hell of self and into freedom. For us to truly know the real, both minds need freedom to function and both also need to be trained on the Object. The way of worship and of love is the only way for the artist as well as for the mystic. Further, it is with our two minds that we, the subject receivers, not only know but are enabled to believe. Pictures, metaphor, symbol, myth, dreams and visions; these are the language of the imagination of the unconscious mind. This dimension of awe and of the numinous had been missing from Lewiss childhood religion; that religion had been all rules, and so had commanded no imaginative response; its transcendent level had been sheared off. Therefore God had to use such images as He found in the minds of poets to arouse the adoration and the worship for that which was outside, and Other than the young Lewis. - The Muse is a real thing. A faint breath, as Virgil says, reaches even the late generations. - Our mythology is based on a solider reality than we dream; but it is also at an almost infinite distance from that base. - And when they told him this, Ransom [the protagonist in Lewiss 3-volume space trilogy: Out of the Silent Planet, Perelandra, and That Hideous Strength,] at last understood why mythology was what it was gleams of celestial strength and beauty falling on a jungle of filth and imbecility. We see that Lewis never placed reality within art as image, or in the imagination as such. On the psychological level, Joy was a desire or intense longing for an Object (Reality) which he could never quite grasp. Joy as Object or Reality itself always eluded him. Reality only darted through the myth: Joy itself, considered simply as an event in my own mind, turned out to be of no value at all. Real Presence 11. The Whole Imagination II, The Two Minds (3 of 4) 48 of 53 All the value lay in that of which Joy was the desiring. And that object, quite clearly, was no state of my own mind or body at all. God was indeed the source from which the arrows of Joy shot through the deep heart of Lewis but, in turning to grasp the transcendent, he found only the physical sensations it had left as it winged its way through. Turning inward to find the reality rather than outward, he instantly destroyed the experience by introspection. Turning to the track that Objective Reality leaves in search for the Reality itself is an error that appears on

every level of life and is equally deadly on all. Modern man, imprisoned in his anthropocentric sphere of subjectivity, is especially liable to this error and is especially plagued by the disease of introspection. Another error lurks in the occasionally capricious nature of the imagination of the pictures as they occur to us. Without the governing influence of Reason and the Holy Spirit, the Muse can mislead. The veridical character of either imaginative experience or of the discursive reason is not to be supposed apart from the work and presence of the Holy Spirit both in the individual and in the corporate Body of Christ. There are diabolical as well as divine elements in the art of our mythmakers and in the dialectic of our finest logicians, because our capacities to reason and to imagine are fallen [humans are a fallen species (fallen into sin), living in a fallen world]. The key, therefore, is in the continuing presence of the Holy Spirit in the midst of Gods peoplein the Church as the Fellowship of the Holy Spirit, as that mystical body in which man is both individually and corporately indwelt by the Spirit of Truth. The Holy Spirit, promised Christ, shall lead you into all truth. [John 16:13] Both mans reason and his imagination, apart from the indwelling Spirit, are lacking in Grace. Both need this infusion of the Holy Spirit and both need the wisdom and the balance provided only by the ingifted, indwelt Body Corporate. Here, in the Fellowship of the Holy Spirit, in light of the Holy Scriptures, are both reason and imagination to be verified. Lewis argued for our accepting every dimension of the reason as well as the imagination, fully recognizing the value of each. The two minds, infused by grace, are to work together as one man: If you are suggesting that the Hebrew consciousness was just right and the Greek wrong, this seems to me to be quite foreign to the tenor of St. Pauls teaching. He seems to hold quite definitely (a) That our Lord has broken down the middle wall of partition and made one Man, which is quite different from simply bringing errant Hellenism back to Hebraic rectitude, (b) That the reasonings of the Pagans (see the Book of Romans) are related to the new Faith much as the Jewish Law is. In [the book of] Galatians he even seems to equate the Pagan bondage to (elemental spirits) with bondage to the Law That is why I have a great objection to any theory that would set parts of us at loggerheads with one another The Pagans, by their lights may wisely have constructed a hierarchical scheme of Man, Reason ruling Passion politically and soul ruling body despotically. But in Christ there is neither male nor female, bond nor free [quote from Galatians 3:28]. If the whole man is offered to God, all disputes about the value of this or that faculty are, as it were, henceforward out of date. You said in your letter (going further than some would go) that every natural desire per se should be regarded as an attraction of grace. But if so, how much more every natural faculty. The power to visualize is not to be mistaken for the true imagination. The power indeed, the compulsion to visualize is not imagination in the higher sense, not the Imagination which makes a man either a great author or a sensitive reader. Ridden on a very tight reign this visualizing power can sometimes serve true imagination; very often it merely gets in the way. There is a difference in the power or compulsion to visualize and the reception of free and unbidden intuition or revelation. Lewis wrote, All I can tell you is that pictures come into my head and I write stories about them. That the power to visualize is not in itself the imagination is important to keep in mind when considering the image-making faculty as an emitter of mans bentness. Much of the contents of the deep heart or of the unconscious needs healing. Medical missionary and psychiatrist Dr. James Stringham, lecturing on guilt and the need for confession in the healing of the psyche, speaks of the unconscious mind as the original computer. If fifty years of ones financial history were computerized, he says, the one time the person failed to pay a bill Real Presence 11. The Whole Imagination II, The Two Minds (4 of 4) 49 of 53

And so it is with guilt and experiences of rejection, as well as diseased or unnatural feelings in the unconscious. These old unhealed memories come up and are often accompanied by images or pictures. The unconscious mind banks our emotions, our feelings of anger, hatred, desire, joy, and love, as well as our memories. And like the computer, it never forgets the unpaid bill, the unforgiven or the unhealed. Desires or thoughts that the conscious mind has repressed are still very active in the subconscious, and as a further complication, the truly repressed materials come before the conscious mind only in disguised and unrecognizable forms. Such images, if confused with art, can dangerously mislead the artist even as they do the mental patient. A strongly intuitive approach to art, one that lacks a correspondingly strong logical or philosophical approach, or that fails to understand the Person and work of the Holy Spirit, is dangerous. The reasoning, conscious mind needs to be fully informed and developed in order that the intuitive mind might not be led astray; and both minds, the soul in other words, must be under the control of and illumined by the indwelling Spirit. Although Lewis is recognized as one of the most logical minds of the twentieth century, he was also an outstanding Christian mystic. His mysticism consists of the knowledge of an indwelling Christ, and the practice of the Presence of God within and without. Like the mysticism of Saints Paul and John the Beloved, it is Christocentric. The pattern of this life is, again, the Perfect Mans. Like Christ, one learns to listen always to the Father and to collaborate with the Holy Spirit. This makes mystics of all those who know the Spirit of God and are indwelt by Him. Christ did his redemptive work exactly as we are to do ours, by listening. A root meaning of the term to obey is to listen. He listened always to the Father and always did what He heard the Father say. The Scriptures teach that Christ listened to the Father; trusting the Holy Spirit, He taught and healed through the power of the Spirit. The Apostles learned this from Him. This capacity to collaborate with the Holy Spirit is also given to us. Herein we see the artist and the Christian brought together. The artist, to free the work, must get self out of the way; he must die to self. So it is with the Christian. To do the works that Christ commanded, he must first get self out of the way; he must die to the old man. And, just as the Spirit gave form and beauty back to the earth which was without form, and void, when darkness was upon the face of the deep, [book of Genesis, chapter 1] so the Christian, listening to God and collaborating with the Holy Spirit, frees the souls of men. Chaotic, fallen like the earth after the angelic fall, without form and void, the soul cries out to be delivered from chaos, to be given back its form and beauty. The Christian, proclaiming liberty to the soul held captive, calls forth the real person; he frees the prisoner as Michelangelo freed the Moses. The true artist and the true Christian collaborate with the Spirit: The Spirit comes into us and does it. This is Lewiss mysticism. Perhaps he would prefer the term supernaturalism. Incarnational Christianity is supernatural, and Christians are both called and empowered to be extensions of the Incarnation. In this and in this alone the mysticism that acknowledges the Presence of God with us, within us, empowering us do we find all the substitutes for the Real unmasked and stripped away. Lewis not only understood, but experienced, all reality as sacramental, as incarnational that is, as a channel through which Gods grace can be known and received. In his Pentecost Sunday sermon, Transposition, he suggests the pattern of it. We catch sight of a new key principle the power of the Higher, just in so far as it is truly Higher, to come down, the power of the greater to include the less. To return to where we began, Joy, which first lured Lewis to seek again after God, is in the Christians life the authentic seal and promise of the Spirit the evidence, even in times of deep need and sorrow, that we are in communion with Christ, that our Spiritual Marriage with Him is being consummated. Such Joy is the seal of Lewiss mysticism: one that never bypasses the Incarnation, one which recognizes

Real Presence 12. Selected Lewis Bibliography Autobiography Pilgrim's Regress Surprised by Joy A Grief Observed Chronicles of Narnia The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe The Magician's Nephew The Horse & His Boy Prince Caspian Voyage of the Dawn Treader The Silver Chair The Last Battle Novels Out of the Silent Planet Perelandra That Hideous Strength Till We Have Faces Theology The Problem of Pain Mere Christianity The Abolition of Man Miracles Reflections on the Psalms The Four Loves Letters to Malcolm Theological Fantasy The Screwtape Letters The Great Divorce Anthologies Christian Reflections C. S. Lewis' Letters to Children God in the Dock: Essays on Theology and Ethics Letters of C. S. Lewis Letters to an American Lady The Weight of Glory The Worlds Last Night and Other Essays Books about C.S. Lewis Mere Theology 50 of 53 Real Presence 51 of 53 13. Found in Space: How C. S. Lewis has shaped my faith and writing. Philip Yancey | posted 7/22/2008 08:41AM I first encountered C. S. Lewis through his space trilogy. Though perhaps not his best work, it had an undermining effect on me. He made the supernatural so believable that I could not help wondering, What if it's really true? What if there is a God and an afterlife and what if supernatural forces really are operating behind the scenes on this planet and in my life? I was attending college in the late 1960s, just a few years after Lewis's death. I ordered more of his books from second-hand bookshops in England because many had not yet made it across the Atlantic. I wrestled with them as with a debate opponent and reluctantly felt myself drawn, as Lewis himself had, kicking and screaming all the

way into the kingdom of God. Since then Lewis has been a constant companion, a kind of shadow mentor who sits beside me, urging me to improve my writing style, my thinking, and my vision. Lewis has taught me a style of approach that I try to follow in my own writings. To quote William James, " in the metaphysical and religious sphere, articulate reasons are cogent for us only when our inarticulate feelings of reality have already been impressed in favor of the same conclusion." In other words, we rarely accept a logical argument unless it fits an intuitive sense of reality. The writer's challenge is to nurture that intuitive senseas Lewis had done for me with his space trilogy before I encountered his apologetics. Lewis himself converted to Christianity only after sensing that it corresponded to his deepest longings, his Sehnsucht. Lewis's background of atheism and doubt gave him a lifelong understanding of and compassion for readers who would not accept his words. He had engaged in a gallant tug of war with God, only to find that the God on the other end of the rope was entirely different from what he had imagined. Likewise, I had to overcome an image of God marred by an angry and legalistic church. I fought hard against a cosmic bully only to discover a God of grace and mercy. "My idea of God is not a divine idea," Lewis wrote in A Grief Observed. "It has to be shattered time after time. He shatters it Himself. He is the great iconoclast. The Incarnation is the supreme example; it leaves all previous ideas of the Messiah in ruins." That book, conceived as his wife lay dying a most cruel death from bone cancer, unsettles some readers. Lewis had dealt with theodicy philosophically in The Problem of Pain, but tidy arguments melted away as he watched the process of bodily devastation in the woman he loved. I believe the two books should be read together, for the combination of ultimate answers and existential agony reflects the biblical pattern. The Cross saved the world, but, oh, at what cost. [Theodicy: a vindication of the divine attributes, particularly holiness and justice, in establishing or allowing the existence of physical and moral evil.] Lewis saw the world as a place worth saving. Unlike the monastics of the Middle Ages and the legalists of modern times, he saw no need to withdraw and deny all pleasures. He loved a stiff drink, a puff on the pipe, a gathering of friends, a Wagnerian opera, a hike in the fields of Oxford. The pleasures in life are indeed good, just not good enough; they are "only the scent of a flower we have not found, the echo of a tune we have not heard, news from a country we have never yet visited." I found in Lewis that rare and precarious balance of embracing the world while not idolizing it. For all its defects, this planet bears marks of the original design, traces of Beauty and Joy that both recall and anticipate the Creator's intent. Alone of modern authors, Lewis taught me to anticipate heaven: "We are half-hearted creatures, fooling about with drink and sex and ambition when infinite joy is offered us, like an ignorant child who wants to go on making mud pies in a slum because he cannot imagine what is meant by the offer of a holiday at the sea. I doubt Lewis ever anticipated that almost half a century after his death several million people each year would buy one of his dozens of books still in print, and that Disney Studios would release movies based on Narnia with spinoff products available in every shopping mall. If informed of that fact, he would likely have shrunk back in alarm. We writers are not nouns, he used to say. We are mere adjectives, pointing to the great Noun of truth. Lewis did that, faithfully and masterfully, and because he did so, many thousands have come to know and love that Noun. Including me. Adapted from Mere Christians: Inspirational Stories of Encounters with C. S. Lewis, forthcoming from Baker Publishing. Philip Yancey (born 1949) is an American Christian author. Fourteen million of his books have been sold worldwide, making him one of the best-selling evangelical Christian authors. Two of his books have won the Christian Book of the Year Award: The Jesus I Never Knew (1996) and What's So Amazing About Grace (1998) Real Presence 14. Books of the Bible Cited in this Summary in Boldface OLD TESTAMENT Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges

Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi NEW TESTAMENT Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews

James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Revelation 52 of 53 53 of 53 Real Presence 15. Leanne Payne Bibliography Leanne Payne (1979, pp. 192) Mrs. Paynes first book on Incarnational Reality in the works of C.S. Lewis. Leanne Payne (1985, pp. 144) Explores the philosophical and theological roots of masculinity and femininity and how these are ordered and healed within the soul. Leanne Payne (1991, pp. 256) Companion to The Healing Presence, focuses on the virtue of self acceptance, the forgiveness of sin, and "the gift of battle". This is the story of Leannes life and ministry. The book will be released soon (September 2008), and Leanne is grateful for all the prayers that have strengthened her during the process of writing. Her preface, which follows, explains the reason for telling her story. Leanne Payne (1981, pp. 176) A classic work on the healing of homosexuality and gender identity. Leanne Payne (1989, pp. 288) Mrs. Paynes foundational teaching on curing the soul through union with Christ. Leanne Payne (1994, pp. 264) Insightful and practical instruction

on learning to hear God's voice and how to keep a prayer journal. Truth Truth is always about something, but reality is that about which truth is. C. S. Lewis, Myth Became Fact, in God in the Dock A wise man is one who savors all things as they really are. Bernard of Clairvaux From the preface to Heavens Calling: It is my prayer that sharing my story will open others more fully to their own if need be, and that most especially it will strengthen many in the understanding of Gods call, His ongoing faithfulness to call us into relationship and wholeness in Himself, and thereby into His service. I close this preface with the profound words of William Barclay, the twentieth-century Scottish theologian: The call that comes to a Christian has a double direction. It is a calling from heaven and it is a calling to heaven. It is a voice which comes from God and calls us to God. It is a call which demands concentrated attention because of both its origin and its destination. A man cannot afford to give a disinterested glance to an invitation to God from God. Summary of Real Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Works of C. S. Lewis (Original title subsequently changed to Real Presence: The Christian Worldview of C.S. Lewis as Incarnational Reality) and Real Presence: The Glory of Christ With Us and Within Us) This is Leanne Payne's first book, published in 1979, and republished in 1988 and 1995. Originally her Masters Thesis at Wheaton College, this book focuses on the deep truths of Christianity that Lewis highlighted in his writings. Use it to assess the completeness, depth, and orthodoxy of your own Christian journey. Summarized by Clifford S. Rote January 2009 [C.S. Rote clarification or comment] Key points are bold, underlined, or flagged .

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Of Plymouth Plantation - SCHOOLinSITES

    Of Plymouth Plantation - SCHOOLinSITES

    Of Plymouth Plantation ... Maybe out of modesty or to seem more trustworthy to his readers Biblical Allusions ~God's providence Classical Allusions ~Roman Stoic philosopher, Seneca Other imaginative comparisons: ~Plight of the Pilgrims/Paul's shipwrecked company. ...
  • Harvard Ludwig Cancer Collaborative

    Harvard Ludwig Cancer Collaborative

    Opportunity at HMS and HMS-affiliated Institutions. With senior leaders across HMS and the Boston academic community, we have discussed extensively how best to build the HMS Ludwig Center within the unique environment of the Harvard community in order to have...
  • Sensors and Transducers - Harvey Mudd College

    Sensors and Transducers - Harvey Mudd College

    Apply Sensors Checklist to the Theodolite. Physics: pendulum points down and user points at rocket. Second order system calculation ?0=??=9.80.1≈10 ???/?. Flights take 2-3 seconds before apogee. ~90 notches: 1/degree. I can't aim to 1 degree. Readout is manual /...
  • Positively Proportionate

    Positively Proportionate

    To solve algebraic proportions, follow these steps: 1.) Cross-multiply. 2.) Set the products equal to each other. 3.) Solve for . x. 4.) Box your answer. Solving Algebraic Proportions. The most important thing to remember is to: Kris Kross. Solving...
  • 12th Grade Physical Education Jacob Wainwright GOLF HISTORY

    12th Grade Physical Education Jacob Wainwright GOLF HISTORY

    history. 1950: the LPGA is formed in the US. 1976: Women's British open played for the first time. 2000's: New materials such as graphite and carbon fiber are used to construct golf clubs
  • The Fifty First Dragon - Methacton School District

    The Fifty First Dragon - Methacton School District

    The Fifty First Dragon By Heywood Broun Vocabulary Words & Definitions Joust Verb To fight with lances on horseback Expulsion Noun Forcing out someone from a group Dexterity Noun Skillfulness with hands or feet; cleverness Timorously Adverb Timidly; shyly Restive...
  • Clausulas adverbiales

    Clausulas adverbiales

    Práctica Repasar con toda la clase> Tarea en CP , p. 163, ##s 10-17 Trabajar en Parejas> Pasajes Lengua, p. 216: Ejercicio de Práctica Modo y lugar Aunque although Como as, how De manera que in such a way that...
  • Medical University of South Carolina Office of the

    Medical University of South Carolina Office of the

    iPhone, Android or Windows Mobile . 300 . are Blackberry. How can we transform healthcare? The mobility space has seen dramatic change in the last few years. Imagine, a year and a half ago the iPad didn't exist. Last year...