Constraints Foreign Keys Local and Global Constraints Triggers 1 Constraints and Triggers A constraint is a relationship among data elements that the DBMS is required to enforce. Example: key constraints. Triggers are only executed when a
specified condition occurs, e.g., insertion of a tuple. Easier to implement than many constraints. 2 Kinds of Constraints Keys. Foreign-key, or referential-integrity. Value-based constraints. Constrain values of a particular attribute. Tuple-based constraints.
Relationship among components. Assertions: any SQL boolean expression. 3 Foreign Keys Consider Relation Sells(bar, beer, price). We might expect that a beer value is a real beer --- something appearing in Beers.name . A constraint that requires a beer in
Sells to be a beer in Beers is called a foreign -key constraint. 4 Expressing Foreign Keys Use the keyword REFERENCES, either: 1. Within the declaration of an attribute, when only one attribute is involved. 2. As an element of the schema, as: FOREIGN KEY ( ) REFERENCES ( ) Referenced attributes must be declared
PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE. 5 Example: With Attribute CREATE TABLE Beers ( name CHAR(20) PRIMARY KEY, manf CHAR(20) ); CREATE TABLE Sells ( bar CHAR(20), beer
CHAR(20) REFERENCES Beers(name), price REAL ); 6 Example: As Element CREATE TABLE Beers ( name CHAR(20) PRIMARY KEY, manf CHAR(20) ); CREATE TABLE Sells ( bar CHAR(20),
beer CHAR(20), price REAL, FOREIGN KEY(beer) REFERENCES Beers(name)); 7 Enforcing Foreign-Key Constraints If there is a foreign-key constraint from attributes of relation R to the primary key of relation S, two violations are possible:
1. An insert or update to R introduces values not found in S. 2. A deletion or update to S causes some tuples of R to dangle. 8 Actions Taken -- 1 Suppose R = Sells, S = Beers. An insert or update to Sells that introduces a nonexistent beer must be rejected. A deletion or update to Beers that removes a beer value found in some
tuples of Sells can be handled in three ways. 9 Actions Taken -- 2 The three possible ways to handle beers that suddenly cease to exist are: 1. Default : Reject the modification. 2. Cascade : Make the same changes in Sells.
Deleted beer: delete Sells tuple. Updated beer: change value in Sells. 3. Set NULL : Change the beer to NULL. 10 Example: Cascade Suppose we delete the Bud tuple from Beers. Then delete all tuples from Sells that have beer = Bud.
Suppose we update the Bud tuple by changing Bud to Budweiser. Then change all Sells tuples with beer = Bud so that beer = Budweiser. 11 Example: Set NULL Suppose we delete the Bud tuple from Beers. Change all tuples of Sells that have beer = Bud to have beer = NULL. Suppose we update the Bud tuple
by changing Bud to Budweiser. Same change. 12 Choosing a Policy When we declare a foreign key, we may choose policies SET NULL or CASCADE independently for deletions and updates. Follow the foreign-key declaration by: ON [UPDATE, DELETE][SET NULL CASCADE] Two such clauses may be used. Otherwise, the default (reject) is used. 13
Example CREATE TABLE Sells ( bar CHAR(20), beer CHAR(20), price REAL, FOREIGN KEY(beer) REFERENCES Beers(name) ON DELETE SET NULL ON UPDATE CASCADE ); 14
Attribute-Based Checks Put a constraint on the value of a particular attribute. CHECK( ) must be added to the declaration for the attribute. The condition may use the name of the attribute, but any other relation or attribute name must be in a subquery. 15 Example CREATE TABLE Sells (
bar CHAR(20), beer CHAR(20) CHECK ( beer IN (SELECT name FROM Beers)), price REAL CHECK ( price <= 5.00 ) ); 16 Timing of Checks An attribute-based check is checked only when a value for that attribute is inserted or updated.
Example: CHECK (price <= 5.00) checks every new price and rejects it if it is more than $5. Example: CHECK (beer IN (SELECT name FROM Beers)) not checked if a beer is deleted from Beers (unlike foreign-keys). 17 Tuple-Based Checks CHECK ( ) may be added as another element of a schema definition. The condition may refer to any
attribute of the relation, but any other attributes or relations require a subquery. Checked on insert or update only. 18 Example: Tuple-Based Check Only Joes Bar can sell beer for more than $5: CREATE TABLE Sells ( bar CHAR(20), beer
CHAR(20), price REAL, CHECK (bar = Joes Bar OR price <= 5.00) ); 19 Assertions These are database-schema elements, like relations or views. Defined by: CREATE ASSERTION CHECK ( );
Condition may refer to any relation or attribute in the database schema. 20 Example: Assertion In Sells(bar, beer, price), no bar may charge an average of more than $5. CREATE ASSERTION NoRipoffBars CHECK ( Bars with an NOT EXISTS ( average price SELECT bar FROM Sells
above $5 GROUP BY bar HAVING 5.00 < AVG(price) )); 21 Example: Assertion In Drinkers(name, addr, phone) and Bars(name, addr, license), there cannot be more bars than drinkers. CREATE ASSERTION FewBar CHECK ( (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM Bars) <= (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM Drinkers)
); 22 Timing of Assertion Checks In principle, we must check every assertion after every modification to any relation of the database. A clever system can observe that only certain changes could cause a given assertion to be violated. Example: No change to Beers can affect FewBar. Neither can an insertion to
Drinkers. 23 Triggers: Motivation Attribute- and tuple-based checks have limited capabilities. Assertions are sufficiently general for most constraint applications, but they are hard to implement efficiently. The DBMS must have real intelligence to avoid checking assertions that couldnt possibly have been violated. 24
Triggers: Solution A trigger allows the user to specify when the check occurs. Like an assertion, a trigger has a general-purpose condition and also can perform any sequence of SQL database modifications. 25 Event-Condition-Action Rules
Another name for trigger is ECA rule, or event-condition-action rule. Event : typically a type of database modification, e.g., insert on Sells. Condition : Any SQL boolean-valued expression. Action : Any SQL statements. 26 Example: A Trigger There are many details to learn about triggers.
Here is an example to set the stage. Instead of using a foreign-key constraint and rejecting insertions into Sells(bar, beer, price) with unknown beers, a trigger can add that beer to Beers, with a NULL manufacturer. 27 Example: Trigger Definition CREATE TRIGGER BeerTrig The event
AFTER INSERT ON Sells REFERENCING NEW ROW AS NewTuple FOR EACH ROW The condition WHEN (NewTuple.beer NOT IN (SELECT name FROM Beers)) INSERT INTO Beers(name) The action VALUES(NewTuple.beer); 28 Options: CREATE TRIGGER CREATE TRIGGER
Option: CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Useful if there is a trigger with that name and you want to modify the trigger. 29 Options: The Condition AFTER can be BEFORE. Also, INSTEAD OF, if the relation is a view. A great way to execute view modifications:
have triggers translate them to appropriate modifications on the base tables. INSERT can be DELETE or UPDATE. And UPDATE can be UPDATE . . . ON a particular attribute. 30 Options: FOR EACH ROW Triggers are either row-level or statement-level. FOR EACH ROW indicates row-level; its absence indicates statement-level.
Row level triggers are executed once for each modified tuple. Statement-level triggers execute once for an SQL statement, regardless of how many tuples are modified. 31 Options: REFERENCING INSERT statements imply a new tuple (for row-level) or new set of tuples (for statement-level). DELETE implies an old tuple or table. UPDATE implies both.
Refer to these by [NEW OLD][TUPLE TABLE] AS 32 Options: The Condition Any boolean-valued condition is appropriate. It is evaluated before or after the triggering event, depending on whether BEFORE or AFTER is used in the event. Access the new/old tuple or set of tuples through the names declared
in the REFERENCING clause. 33 Options: The Action There can be more than one SQL statement in the action. Surround by BEGIN . . . END if there is more than one. But queries make no sense in an action, so we are really limited to modifications. 34
Another Example Using Sells(bar, beer, price) and a unary relation RipoffBars(bar) created for the purpose, maintain a list of bars that raise the price of any beer by more than $1. 35 The Trigger The event
only changes to prices CREATE TRIGGER PriceTrig AFTER UPDATE OF price ON Sells REFERENCING Updates let us talk about old OLD ROW as old Condition: and new tuples a raise in NEW ROW as new We need to consider price > $1
FOR EACH ROW each price change WHEN(new.price > old.price + 1.00) INSERT INTO RipoffBars When the price change VALUES(new.bar); is great enough, add the bar to RipoffBars 36 Triggers on Views Generally, it is impossible to modify a view, because it doesnt exist.
But an INSTEAD OF trigger lets us interpret view modifications in a way that makes sense. Example: Well design a view Synergy that has (drinker, beer, bar) triples such that the bar serves the beer, the drinker frequents the bar and likes the beer. 37 Example: The View Pick one copy of each attribute
CREATE VIEW Synergy AS SELECT Likes.drinker, Likes.beer, Sells.bar FROM Likes, Sells, Frequents WHERE Likes.drinker = Frequents.drinker AND Likes.beer = Sells.beer AND Sells.bar = Frequents.bar; Natural join of Likes, Sells, and Frequents 38
Interpreting a View Insertion We cannot insert into Synergy --- it is a view. But we can use an INSTEAD OF trigger to turn a (drinker, beer, bar) triple into three insertions of projected pairs, one for each of Likes, Sells, and Frequents. The Sells.price will have to be NULL. 39 The Trigger
CREATE TRIGGER ViewTrig INSTEAD OF INSERT ON Synergy REFERENCING NEW ROW AS n FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO LIKES VALUES(n.drinker, n.beer); INSERT INTO SELLS(bar, beer) VALUES(n.bar, n.beer); INSERT INTO FREQUENTS VALUES(n.drinker, n.bar); END; 40
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