Culture and Gender Part 2 Perceptual/Spatial/Cognitive Differences Common American folklore is that males are better at mathematical and spatial reasoning tasks and females do better on verbal comprehension tasks This is not necessarily true for other cultures. No gender difference in spatial abilities in Inuit culture in Canada and in Ecuador (women
engage in tasks that require spatial abilities). Males did better in tight, sedentary, and agriculturally based cultures. Females did better in loose, nomadic, and hunting and gathering based cultures. Conformity and Obedience Common gender-role stereotypes is that females are more conforming and obedient than males.
This is not necessarily true for other cultures. In tighter cultures, females more conformists than males, but, In looser cultures, there are less gender differences in conformity or males can be more conforming. Aggressiveness Common gender-role stereotypes is that males more aggressive than females
There is support for this stereotype in many cultures. In study of physical aggression between partners in 52 countries, it was found: In developed Western cultures, both sexes displayed aggression. In individualistic, women empowered cultures, less female victimization was noted. Social role theory
Aggressiveness Many cultures did not show sex-related differences in teaching about aggression to children. Currently the mechanism accounting for gender differences in aggression unknown. Biology, culture, gender marking behavior
Gender Roles Androgyny: gender identity involving endorsement of both male and female characteristics. African-American males and females are more androgynous than European males and females. Adolescent girls in US, Israel, and Hong Kong with an androgynous identity have higher self
acceptance than feminine or masculine girls; for boys, masculine identity is associated with the highest level of self acceptance. Gender Roles What is the status of traditional gender roles for Asian Americans, Mexican Americans and Native Americans.. Loosening of rigid gender roles for Asians and Mexican Americans.
Despite lingering notions of machismo, culturally acceptable roles for Latina women are expanding. Gender role differentiation dependent on patriarchal or matriarchal nature of tribal culture of origin for Native Americans. Sex and Sexuality
Cultures differ on degree of importance placed on chastity for women and sexuality in general. Attitudes toward sex and sexuality are related to cultural values of dignity, purity, and honor. Culture is linked to practice of male circumcision and female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation is associated with honor and virtue in some cultures. Mate Selection, Mate Poaching, and Jealousy
Gender differences in preferences for mate and sexual jealousy are universal. Males are more jealous of sexual infidelity. Females are more jealous of emotional infidelity. Evolutionary model Personality
Universally, woman score higher on Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings. Men scored higher on Assertiveness, and Openness to ideas. Personality differences between men and women were largest in Europe and US.
Ethnicity and Gender in the US Most research is based on comparisons of African Americans with European Americans Gender identities of African Americans are more androgynous (gender identity that involves male and female characteristics) than those of European Americans. Asian American families carry on traditional
gender roles with women bearing the brunt of domestic duties.. Mexican American roles are similar to Asian roles The concept of Machismo - traditional expectation of the male gender role, such as being unemotional, strong, authoritative, aggressive, and masculine
Native Americans depend on the patriarchical or matriarchical nature of the tribal culture of origin. Empirical Research Questions What has been the effect of globalization and technology on attitudes about masculinity and domestic violence? What are some cross-cultural views about
choosing to stay single? Are there cross-cultural differences regarding extra marital affairs by men and women? Attitudes toward love across cultures: Do differences exist? Lees Six Stage Model of Love 1. Eros passionate love 2. Ludus game-playing love 3. Storge friendship love
4. Pragma practical love -a combination of ludus and storge Lees Model (cont.) 5. Mania possessive love a combination of eros and ludus 6. Agape altruistic love
a combination of eros and storge Summary Gender differences in psychological behaviors may stem from varying demands placed on culture by environment; therefore cultural differences exist in behaviors. Cultures are similar in stereotypes and attitudes concerning gender differences.
CHANGING CULTURES, CHANGING GENDER ROLES Changes in culture bring about changes in gender roles. This has both positive (e.g., women more economically independent) and negative consequences (e.g., higher divorce rates and higher health problems for women).
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