Culture, gender, and morality - University of Northern Iowa

Culture, gender, and morality - University of Northern Iowa

Culture, gender, and morality Culture What is it? (and how big is it?) What are its functions? Bottom up vs. top down Dynamic social impact theory (Latan, 1996) Clustering, correlation, consolidation,

continuing diversity Why should we study culture? Why is psychology more American than other sciences? What problems do weird samples pose? What are examples of some things that are

more vs. less universal across cultures? Cultural differences in self Self-concept Self-concept consistency Prevention vs. promotion motivations Multicultural peoples selves Primary vs. secondary control Conformity

Honor Cultural differences in cognition Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, 2001 Analytic (field dependent) vs. holistic thinking (field interdependent) Attention to background Categorization

Attribution Cultural differences in emotion and relationships Emotion Happiness Relationships Why do these differences exist? (Miyamoto,

2013) Moderators Situational salience Diagnosticity of behavior Power (proximal-distal interactions) Powers effects on cognition Differences in power by culture and effects

on cognition Personal vs. social power General questions What do these differences mean for our theories? Why do East Asians show less self serving

biases than Westerners? Hofstedes approach Power distance Individualism-collectivism Masculinity-femininity Uncertainty avoidance Bond: Based on Chinese data, added

Confucian work dynamism (or Long-term orientation) Minkov: ingulgent-restraint What about levels in different countries? (www.geert-hofstede.com) 100 90

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

US China India France

Power distance Uncertainty avoidance Chile Individualism Long term orientation Russia

Masculinity Indulgence Ghana Saudia Arabia Schwartz world value survey At individual level (10 values):

Openness to change vs conservation Self-enhancements vs. self-transcendence http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/s chwartz_inventory.htm Schwartz model Tight vs. Loose cultures (Gelfand et al., 2011)

How does this concept relate to the others? How do they propose that it develops? (Fig. 1) Is this a country-level variable? Gender? Why are certain countries high or low? (Table 1) What other effects might this have? What does this add to our understanding of

culture? Gender (Eagly, Nater, Miller, Kaufmann, & Sczesny, 2019) Sex vs. gender What does social role theory say? What are gender stereotypes and how would you expect them to change over time?

Communion Agency Competence More questions What robustness tests did they do? What effects did they have? (Figure 2) What did they find? (Figures 1 and 3)

How do they explain the findings? Are there alternative explanations you can think of? Morality What is morality? Early research on morality Piaget (1932) Kohlberg (1969)

Gillian (1982) Turiel (1983) Haidt (2001) Greene et al. (2001) How useful are hypothetical moral scenarios? Alternatives? Moral foundations theory (Haidt, Graham)

whole number theory Care/harm Fairness/cheating Loyalty/betrayal Authority/subversion Purity/degradation (maybe liberty/oppression) http://www.moralfoundations.org/ Advantages?

Critiques? Dyadic morality model (Gray) Agent causes intentional harm to a suffering patient Constructivist approach Advantages? Critiques?

Moral motives model (Janoff-Bulman & Carnes) Proscriptive morality (avoidance) Prescriptive morality (approach) Advantages? Critiques? General questions

How would MFT, DTM, and MMM explain the liberal-conservative divide? What is moral balancing/licensing? What is the moral conviction idea (Skitka)? How do you induce it? How do morality and emotions relate to each other? Do you agree with her assessment of the

replicability of moral psychology? Next week Social cognition book chapter System justification Motivated cognition Emotional contagion

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