Curing & Smoking of Meat ANSC 3404 Background & History Many methods of preserving meat have been used throughout history. Sumerians first to salt meat over 5,000 years ago. Ancient Hebrews used salt from Dead Sea to preserve meat 4000 years ago Possible that smoking of meats was accidentally discovered by Native Americans. Hung meat from tops of teepees In 1970s 80s ingredients used in curing and smoking were
heavily researched Possible health implications (cancer, etc.) What is Curing? Curing is addition of salt, sugar, and nitrite or nitrate to meats for purpose of preservation, flavor enhancement, or color development. Today curing is performed more for flavor development than for preservation Other functions of curing
Shelf life extension Development of unique properties Resistance to rapid deterioration Controlling microbial growth. Curing Ingredients Salt (NaCl) Contributes flavor Preservative effect
Controls microbial growth (doesnt kill bacteria) Osmosis (enhances transport of nitrate, nitrite, and sugar) Can be in granular or rock forms. Only difference is quantity of NaCl in the salt. Curing Ingredients Sugar (C12H22O11) Contributes flavor Counteracts salt Provides source of energy for nitrate converting bacteria Lowers the acidity of the cure Can be added in the form of:
Sucrose (table sugar/brown sugar) Dextrose (refined corn sugar) Corn syrup solids RRM uses powdered sugar Finer particle size easier to dissolve in water Commercial cures use corn syrup solids Cheaper May require more to get same flavor Curing Ingredients Nitrite (NaNO2) or Nitrate (NaNO3) Contributes flavor Prevents warmed-over flavor (WOF) in reheated products
Retards development of rancidity during storage Prevents growth of C. boltulinum in canned products Bacteriostatic Contributes cured-pink color to the product. Nitrites & Nitrates
Usually come in the form of potassium or sodium nitrites or nitrates. FSIS allows use of nitrate (NaNO3 or KNO3) ONLY in dry cured meats or dry sausage. FSIS permits use of Nitrites (NaNO2 or KNO2) in bacon Ingoing nitrite level cannot exceed 120 ppm Must be accompanied by 550ppm sodium ascorbate or sodium erythorbate Residual nitrite must not exceed 40 ppm Nitrites and Nitrates can be carcinogenic. MIT Study: 40 pounds of bacon/day for 40 years Currently seeing increase of No Nitrite or Uncured products Curing Reaction
NaNO3NaNO2 HONO NO Nitrate Nitrite Nitrous Acid Nitric Oxide Nitric Oxide myoglobin in unstable Color must be fixed by heating to 140 degrees. Curing Reaction Fixation Reaction Nitric oxide myoglobin +Heat = Nitrosylhemochromagen (red)
(cured pink) Nitrosylhemochromagen is responsible for stable cured-pink color. Very Heat Stable- pink color doesnt change with further cooking Only occurs with the addition of heat Overall Reaction Myoglobin + NO Nitric Oxide Myoglobin Nitrosylhemochromagen (purplish red) (red) HEAT
(cured pink) Curing Adjuncts Proper color development is a function of time Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Ascorbate and Sodium Erythorbate speed color development Ascorbates reduce Metmyoglobin to Myoglobin Metmyoglobin is unable to combine with NO, while Myoglobin can Ascorbates speed reduction of HONO to NO Greater quantities of NO available for production Treatment of cured cuts with 5-10% Ascorbic Acid Effective in reducing fading of cured color in displays
Alkaline Phosphates Usually Sodium Tripolyphosphate Added to decrease shrink during curing & smoking Cannot exceed 0.5% Increase water holding capacity (WHC) of muscle proteins Water Water is curing ingredient when doing Cover Pickle Curing (Brine) or Injection Curing Disperses cure throughout meat
Use of water reduces cost of products Products with more water are cheaper Water remaining in retail product is Added Water Protein Fat Free Method Method for calculating added water. Set Standards for measuring minimum meat-protein content in cured pork
on fat-free basis PFF Value = (Percent of meat protein)/(100-percent of fat) X 100 Use of Alkaline Phosphates Tremendous quantities of cure added to cuts and still remain normal FSIS uses PFF to regulate amount of moisture in final product Ham (Minimum 20.5% PFF) Ham with Natural Juices (Minimum 18.5% PFF) Ham, Water Added (Minimum 17% PFF) Ham and Water Product (Less Than 17% PFF) Application of Curing Ingredients Dry Curing Use of salt or salt plus nitrite or nitrate
Dry Sugar Curing Uses Sugar to overcome harshness of salt flavor Both methods involve rubbing cure mixture over surface Penetration of NaCl occurs through osmosis Bone Sour (souring around bones) occurs in hams Lack of rapid-enough salt penetration to interior High levels of shrinking Application of Curing Ingredients Curing With Liquid Can either be Cover Pickle (placing meat in brine) or Sweet Pickle (sugar added to brine) Penetration of cure occurs via osmosis
More uniform distribution of cure Can Result in Bone Sour Can result in yeast growth Injection Curing Three forms of injection curing 1. Stitch or spray pumping Cure directly injected into meat with needles 2. Artery Pumping Accomplishes best possible distribution of cure Cure dispersed via capillaries
3. Multi-needle Machine Injection Most commercial facilities use Rapid penetration of cure into meat (reduce spoilage) Less spoilage and shrinkage Not conducive to development of typical flavor, aroma, and texture Massaging & Tumbling
Massaging and Tumbling occur after Pumping Extract muscle proteins to bind the muscles together Allow for increased pickup & retention of moisture Function of Massaging and Tumbling Disruption of Tissue Structure Hastening of Cure-Ingredient Distribution
Solubilization of muscle proteins Massaging Relies on frictional energy Minimizes the tearing of muscles Minimizes particle size reduction Tumbling Relies on impact energy Extracts myofibrillar proteins Smoking of Meat Products Materials used for smoke come from hardwood sawdust or chips Softwood products result in sooty deposit.
Over 200 components comprise smoke At least 80 have been identified Almost all exhibit bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal properties Smoke consists of two parts Dispersed phase- consists of parts that are 2-3 micrometers in size Tars, soot, charcoal, and resins Gaseous phase- Not visible Phenols, acids, and carbonyl compounds Smoking of Meat Products Benefits of Smoking Flavor and Odor Enhancement
Color Development on Outside of Product Preservation of the product Liquid smoke- widely used in industry Wood combustion products dissolved in water Cheaper and quicker than the smokehouse process
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