Current Reniform Nematode Management in Mississippi

Current Reniform Nematode Management in Mississippi

Management of the Reniform Nematode in Cotton Kathy Lawrence, Associate Professor Plant Pathology Stan Usery, Jarrod Jones, Amy Dismukes and Taylor Boozer, Graduate research assistants Bill Gazaway, Dale Monks, Charlie Burmester, James Akridge, Don Moore, Yucheng Feng, Bob Goodman, Andy Price Nematodes Microscopic worm like animals that are parasites of plants and animals Nematodes Plant Parasites Marine Nematodes Beneficial Nematodes Animal Parasites Plant-Parasitic Nematodes All plant-parasitic nematodes possess a Stylet A stylet is a protrusable

mouth structure used to penetrate the cells of the plant. Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Are obligate parasites that require a living host on which to feed and complete their life cycle. Shape of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Spiral Nematode Plant-Parasitic Nematodes 300 to1000um long 15 to 35um wide Transparent Visible with a microscope Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Stems Pinewood Nematode

Roots Root-knot on Tomato Seed Seed Gall on Wheat Leaves White Tip on Rice Nematode Soil Sample Only true way to determine if nematodes are present Nematode Soil Sample Divide the field into manageable blocks. Sample in a zig-zag manner across each block. Nematode Population DEC NO V

O CT SEP AUG JUL JUN M AY APR M AR FEB 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300

200 100 0 JAN Nematodes / pint soil Nematode Population Density Seasonal Fluctuations Nematodes Associated With Cotton Root-knot Meloidogyne incognita Reniform Rotylenchulus reniformis Root-Knot Nematode Field Symptoms Elliptical areas in the field with stunted growth. Small to several acres in size.

Later in the season areas of excessive weed growth Root-Knot Nematode Field Symptoms Knots or galls on the roots. Root-Knot Nematode Each gall contains one or more adult root-knot females Root-knot Nematode Second-stage juveniles (J2). Small - 425um long Small delicate stylet but very damaging to the roots. The infective stage for the nematode Root-Knot Nematode Population Thresholds

Spring 10 J2 / 100cc soil. Fall 40 - 50 J2 / 100cc soil. Root-knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita Race 1, 2, 3, & 4 M. arenaria Race 1 & 2 M. javanica M. hapla Reniform Nematode Field symptoms Uneven or up and down plant heights Once established there are few to no symptoms. Crop continues to produce lower yields each year. Reniform Nematode on a Cotton Root

Reniform (kidney) in shape Anterior part of body is embedded in the root with the posterior to the outside. Reniform Nematode Root Symptoms Difficult to see Small egg masses covered with soil particles Root necrosis Gravid female Juvenile Male Female Reniform Nematode Vermiform female is the infective stage Small - 600um in length

Sclerotized cephalic region Reniform Nematode Population Thresholds S ta te Alabama Fall 1000 Spring 100 Florida Field history Soil type Georgia 250 none Mississippi

1000 200 Tennessee 1000 200 Plant-Parasitic Nematode Management Resistant/Tolerant Varieties Crop Rotations Chemical Management Resistant Varieties Root-knot - Cotton ST 5599 (resistant/tolerant) Soybean resistance available Reniform - Cotton - no resistance Soybean - resistance available Resistance and Tolerance Resistance: Resistance is the effect of the cotton host on nematode reproduction: a completely resistant plant allows no nematode reproduction.

Tolerance: Tolerance is the amount of cotton host injury: a tolerant plant suffers little yield loss when heavily infected with nematodes. Cotton cultivar Evaluation Reniform nematode 150cc of sterile soil Inoculated 1000 R. reniformis. 60 days Reniform were extracted combined gravity screening and sucrose centrifugal floatation. Eggs extracted sodium hypochlorite. Reproduction = Total reniform/initial number. 0 DP 488 BR DPLX 02X39BR FM 958 LL DPLX 02T57R

DP 5415 R FM 960 R FM 989 BR DP 451 BR FM 966 LL STX 5454 B2R DP 494 R DP 434 R FM 991 R SG 521 R ST 5599 BR STX 6848 R FM 989 R SG 105

Reproductive Factor Reniform reproduction on 52 cultivars in the greenhouse 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Cotton cultivar yield response to R. reniformis (tolerance). Varieties planted with and without a nematicide. Determine R. reniformis numbers.

Yield with and without the nematicide. Field Trials Materials & Methods Infested reniform nematode Nematicides; Temik + Vydate Telone Nematodes sampled at planting, mid-season, and harvest 12 varieties tested 4 reps Seed cotton yields recorded Limestone Co. 2003-2004 6500 5500 4500 3500 2500 1500 500 -500 -1.2; +7.5

+13.8; +2.1 +0.3; +19.4 DP DP PM ST ST DP 5415 451 1218 4793 4892 444 R BR BR R BR BR 2003 1,3 D 2003 Untreated 2004 1,3 D DP ST FM 449 5599 989 BR BR BR 2004 Untreated 2750 2250

1750 1250 Seed Cotton kg/ha Escambia Co., AL 2003 Seed Cotton Yields 3250 750 STX 0203 DP 444 BR BCG 28 R FM 966 ST 4892 BR ST 5599 BR SG 521 R ST 4793 R DP 436 R DP 451BR PHY 410 R PM 1218 BR FM 989 DP 493

FM 960 BR FM 958 B DP 491 FM 989 BR SG 215 BR SG 747 DP 449 BR ST 5303 R DP 5415 R PHY 510 R DP 448 B DP 5690 R DP Delta DP 458 BR DP 33 B FM 991R DP 555 BR FM 991BR Untreated 1,3 D 2004, Huxford, AL Thanks to a tropical storm and hurricane Ivan yields were not

recorded in 2002 or 2004 Cotton cultivars High yielding cultivars provide the most economic benefit currently Tolerance has varied by location and year. Crop Rotation Root-knot - resistant soybeans Reniform - resistant soybeans - corn, grain sorghum, peanut Soybean Variety Evaluations Reniform Nematode Mississippi State University Screened - 114 varieties MG IV, V, VI University of Arkansas Screened - 190 varieties MG III + IV - 190 Auburn University Screened - 126 varieties MG IV - VIII

Resistant 8 Resistant 4 Resistant 0 (8 MR) Average Seed Cotton Yield One Year Rotation- W. Gazaway Seed Cotton lb/a Escambia Co. AL 3,000 2,808 2,739 2,720 2,175 2,139 2,000 1,000 0 Reniform reproduction on common weeds 25 50+

20 15 10 5 0 Chemical Management Nematicide Tests - 2005 Small Plots - Nematicides - Telone II Vapam Temik 15G Vydate C-LV Experimental Temik Seed Treatments Avicta complete pack Gaucho L1489A FS EC Gaucho exp600003BFS SC Biological N-Hibit Material and Methods Small Plot Tests - 2005 Variety ST 5599 BG/RR DP 444 BG/RR

Exp. Design Randomized complete block 5 -6 replications Plot Design 2 -4 row plots 25 long & 36 -40 row spacing Planting Date April 29 and May 1, 2005 Nematodes Sampled Monthly Extraction Technique Gravity screening and centrifugal flotation Harvest Date Oct. 5, 2005 KSL 06 Avicta Complete Pak, Temik 15 G and Vydate C-LV 2005 Test 108A DP 444 BG/RR Treatment 1. Dynasty+Cruiser 2. AvictaCP 3. Dynasty+Temik 15G 4. AvictaCP+Temik 15G 5. Dynasty+Temik +Temik 15G 6. AvictaCP+Vydate 7. AvictaCP+Temik+Vydate 8. Dynasty+Cruiser+Vydate KSL 06

Rate --0.15 mg/seed 5.0 lb 0.15mg+5.0 lb 5.0+ 5.0 lb 0.15mg+17oz 0.15mg+5lb+17oz 0.15mg+17oz Application --Seed treatment In-furrow ST + IF ST + IF + SD ST+6LS ST+IF+6LS ST+6TL Seed cotton lb/A Effect of Avicta, Temik, and Vydate in Belle Mina, 2005 10000 9000 8000 7000

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Vydate 0 KSL 06 30DAP 60DAP Dynasty+Cruiser Dynasty+Temik Dynasty+Temik+Temik Dynasty+Temik+Vydate 90DAP 120DAP

Harvest AvictaB AvictaB+Temik AvictaB+Vydate Dynasty+Cruiser+Vydate C ru ise A vi as ty + r Seed cotton lb/A 3000 ct aB as ty +T

A em D vi yn ct ik aB as ty +T +T em em ik ik +T A vi D em yn ct aB ik as ty

+V D + yd Te yn at m as e ik ty + +C V yd ru at ise e r+ V yd at e KSL 06

4000 D yn D yn Effect of Avicta, Temik, and Vydate in Belle Mina, 2005 5000 LSD 657 3427 3625 3909 3009 3454 3966 4011 2854 2000 1000

0 Seed cotton over the control Belle Mina, 2005 1000 Seed cotton lb/A 483 500 27 0 -500 -1000 KSL 06 198 584 539 -418

-573 Effect of Avicta, Temik, and Vydate on Reniform in Escambia Co., 2005 Reniform/150cc soil 3000 Vydate 2000 1000 0 0 KSL 06 30DAP 60DAP Dynasty+Cruiser Dynasty+Temik Dynasty+Temik+Temik Dynasty+Temik+Vydate

90DAP Harvest AvictaB AvictaB+Temik AvictaB+Vydate Dynasty+Cruiser+Vydate Effect of Avicta, Temik, and Vydate in Escambia Co., 2005 3000 LSD 343 Seed cotton lb/A 2513 2539 2501 2488 2437 2364 2274 2255 2000

1000 0 r te ik ik te ik te aB a a a si e t m d e em em ic yd yd y ru

T T v T V V V + + + C A + + + y k + B r i B ik st ty ta a

se m a s t i m c e i n c a e T v y ru T vi + yn A D + C A

D ty + ty s y s a t s na a yn y D yn D D KSL 06 Seed cotton over the control Escambia Co., 2005 100 Seed cotton lb/A 25.7 0 -100

-75.5 -148.6 -200 -300 a n y D KSL 06 -11.6 -24.7 C + y st ru -258.4 r si e

-238.6 te te te ik ik ik a a a m m m d d d e e e y y y v T T V

+T + + A +V +V + y k r B k t i B i e s a ta s m a t i m c

e e u ic vi T yn r T v A D C + A y+ + y t t s ty as s a n y

yn na D y D D aB t ic Avicta Complete Pak 2005 Test 104A DP 444 BG/RR ST5599BGRR Treatment Rate 1. Dynasty + Cruiser 2. AvictaCP 3. Dynasty + Temik 15G 4. Dynasty + Temik 15G 5. Allegiance + Baytan + Thiram + Temik 15G

--0.15 mga/seed 5.0 lb 7.0 lb GWL 06 5.0 lb Reniform/150cc soil Effect of Avicta and Temik on Reniform in Belle Mina, 2005 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 KSL 06 30 DAP 60 DAP Dynasty+Cruiser Dynasty+Temik 5

Allegiance+RTUB-T+Temik 7 90 DAP 120 DAP Avicta Dynasty+Temik 7 150 DAP Effect of Avicta and Temik in Belle Mina, 2005 LSD 458 Seed cotton lb/A 4000 3000 3315 3487 3368 2000 1000

173 0 Dy KSL 06 3547 3428 ty s na r si e ru C + v A ta c

i Dy y+ t s a n 233 114 ik m Te 5 Dy y+ t s a n

g le l A ik m Te +R e c n ia 7 T BTU + ik m Te

54 7 Seed cotton over the control, 2005 Seed cotton lb/A 300 233 200 173 114 100 0 KSL 06 LSD 458 54 Average of four tests of Avicta and Temik in Belle Mina, 2005

Seed cotton lb/A 3300 3286 3473 3148 2800 2300 1800 1300 800 188 300 -137 -200 KSL 06 n y D

r si e ru C + ty as ic v A ta 5 .1 Dy + y t s a n

m e T ik 5 Reniform/150cc soil Effect of Bayer Experimentals on Reniform in Belle Mina, 2005 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 KSL 06 30 DAP

60 DAP Untreated Gaucho L1489A FS EC Gaucho exp600003BFS SC Temik 15G 90 DAP 120 DAP Harvest Gaucho FS Gaucho L1489A FS EC Gaucho exp600003BFS SC Seed cotton lb/A Effect of Bayer Experimentals in Belle Mina, 2005 2900 3192 3166 2753

2504 2447 2815 1900 900 688 662 249 -100 KSL 06 2702 LSD 786 -58 198

311 Effect of Bayer Experimentals on Reniform in Escambia Co., 2005 Reniform/150cc soil 3900 2900 1900 900 -100 KSL 06 0 30DAP 60DAP Untreated Gaucho L1489A FS EC Gaucho exp600003BFS SC Temik 15G 90DAP

Harvest Gaucho FS Gaucho L1489A FS EC Gaucho exp600003BFS SC Effect of Bayer Experimentals in Escambia Co., 2005 Seed cotton lb/A LSD 302 2119 1900 1998 2179 1827 900 377 -100 KSL 06

1741 1934 2085 193 257 343 438 85 Effect of Bayer Experimentals Temik Formulations on Reniform in Belle Mina, 2005 Reniform/150cc soil 7900 6900 5900 4900 3900 2900 1900

900 -100 0 Gaucho FS KC791230 Temik+Temik 30 60 Temik KC791232 +Temik 90 120 KC791232 KC791232 +KC791232 KSL 06 Effect of Bayer Experimentals Temik Formulations on Reniform in Belle Mina, 2005 3000 2000

1000 0 2525 2288 2203 2367 2354 2442 2398 Effect of N-Hibit on Reniform in Belle Mina, 2004 Reniform/150cc soil 1000 750 500 250

0 0 KSL 06 30 DAP Cruiser 60 DAP Vydate 90 DAP Temik N-Hibit 154 DAP Effect of N-Hibit on Reniform in Belle Mina, 2004 4900 Seed cotton lb/A 3900

LSD 451 3997 4215 4128 4175 2900 1900 900 217 131 178 -100 r si e u Cr Vy

te a d T ik m e H N- it b i KSL 06 Seed Cotton Yield (lbs/A) Effect of Telone II, Vapam and Temik 15G on Cotton Yields in Belle Mina, 2004 KSL 06 5000 4569 4657

4502 4416 4334 4273 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 384 296 500 229 143 61 0 0 Plant-Parasitic Nematode Management Resistant/Tolerant Varieties Crop Rotations Chemical Management

Root-knot Nematode Cotton Tobacco Pepper Watermelon Peanut Tomato M. i. R1 - - + + - +

M. i. R2 - + + + - + M. i. R3 + - + + - +

M. i. R4 + + + + - + M. a. R1 - + + + +

+ M. a. R2 - + - + - + M. j. M. h. + - + + +

+ - + + + Chemical Management Chemical Application Cost / Acre Aldicarb Temik In furrow $11.28-24.50 1,3-dichloropropene Telone II Fumigate

$18.75-62.50 Sodium methyldithiocarb Vapam Fumigate $19.50-40.00 Oxamyl Vydate Foliar Spray $10.65-11.29 Avermectin Avicta Seed $18.00-22.00 Seed Cotton Yield Loss by At-Plant Reniform Nematode Population Densities

Yield Reduction (% ) 40 35 30 30 21 25 20 15 7 10 5 0 0 27 22

Average of Avicta and Temik in Belle Mina, 2004+2005 Seed cotton lb/A 4000 3536.5 3587.5 3000 2000 1000 n y D r si e ru C y+ t as ta

c vi A .1 5 Dy 250 135 51 0 KSL 06 3786.5 3671.5 + ty s

na m e T ik 5 + ty s a yn D ik m Te 7 Economic Benefit Chemical Yield

Cost / A Gross/A Temik 5 7 lb/A 1259 $11.28-24.50 $612 Avicta 0.15mg/seed 1389 $18.00-22.00 $674 Dynsasty + Cruiser 1314 $657 KSL 06 Effect of Avicta and Temik on Reniform in Escambia Co., 2005

Reniform/150cc soil 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 KSL 06 30 DAP 60 DAP Dynasty+Cruiser Dynasty+Temik 5 Allegiance+RTUB-T+Temik 7 90 DAP Avicta Dynasty+Temik 7 Harvest Effect of Avicta and Temik in Escambia Co., 2005

Seed cotton lb/A 2000 1853 LSD 235 1741 1500 1514 1659 1000 500 0 -500 KSL 06 1908 55 -113

-339 -194

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