CWL

CWL

CWL A Common Web Language for Humans and Computers Hiroshi Uchida (Institute of Semantic Computing) CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Problems to be Solved - Language Barrier Almost all web pages are written in English People can not get information in their mother tongue. Machine translation is not a solution quality coverage CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Problems to be Solved -Machine Understandablility HTML tag information Insufficient to intellectually utilize contents of web pages

RDF and OWL No standard vocabulary to describe web contents CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Objectives of CWL For exchanging information through the web and also for enabling computers to process information semantically. To describe contents and meta-data of web pages written in natural languages. To realize a language barrier free world in the web and will also enable computers to extract semantic information and knowledge from web pages accurately. CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Requirements for CWL To be independent from any natural languages and shall enables users to develop conversion systems between CWL and each natural language. Different from natural languages, to be a formal

language playing the same role of natural languages for humans. - This allows easy bi-directional conversion between CWL and other formal languages used in the web. - Based on CWL, various kinds of controlled language can easily be developed because of unambiguous structure of CWL. To be able to be easily be implemented in RDF/OWL. CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 CWL representation CWL UNL CDL.nl CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 RDF/OWL

XML CDL The CDL (Concept Description Language) is a langua ge proposed by ISeC for Semantic Computing (SeC) R&D. CDL is fundamental language within SeC (Sem antic Computing) framework. CDL describes semantic/conceptual structure of cont ents (resources). CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 CDLs Applications: Intelligent services provided by intelligent systems and intelligent - environments Content: Multimedia contents and multimodal interaction (semantic structure)

Media: CDL. *** CDL .unl,.jpn,.eng,.chi,.. CDL .math,.prog, .movie,.music etc. CDL.nl (metadata) (syntactic structure) CDLs CDL.core

RDF/OWL XML CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 CDL.nl The CDL.nl (CDL for Natural Language) consists of g rammar, ontology and lexicons. Top ontology of CDL.nl is mainly based on the UNLK B. It is developed under funds from SCOPE of Japan ese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Ontology and lexicons are based on Universal Words (UWs) of UNL developed under the United Nations (U nited Nations University). CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Natural Language Representation in CDL.nl Ex.1 I received a report that a computer was purchased yesterday. {#A event: {#B event: <#11:yesterday>

<#12:computer> <#13:purchased> [#13 tim #11] [#13 obj #12] } <#2:report> <#3:received> <#4:I> [#2 cnt #B] [#3 obj #2] [#3 rec #4] } CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Top Ontology of CDL.nl CDD.nl concept nominal concept thing abstract thing attribute quality feature event

action mental action physical action process phenomenon mental phenomenon physical phenomenon process CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Top Ontology of CDL.nl CDD.nl concept nominal concept thing state mental state physical state group group(icl>volitional thing) set

information quantity rule way behavior manner method CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Top Ontology of CDL.nl CDD.nl concept nominal concept thing attributive thing concrete thing living thing human animal plant natural world

substance functional thing facilities tool volitional thing human animal CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Top Ontology of CDL.nl CDD.nl concept nominal concept thing place area relative place time period predicative concept do

act express make take change move put CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Top Ontology of CDL.nl CDD.nl concept predicative concept do mentally do physically do do(agt>thing) do(agt>thing,obj>thing) occur become happen

change move mentally happen physically happen occur(obj>thing) occur(gol>thing,obj>thing) CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Top Ontology of CDL.nl CDD.nl concept predicative concept be be(aoj>thing) be(aoj>thing,obj>thing) attributive concept (qua

how CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Relations of CDL.nl CDD.nl relation predicative relation agt (agent) aoj (thing with attribute) cag (co-agent) cao (co-thing with attribute) ptn (partner) ben (beneficiary) cob (affected co-thing) obj (affected thing) opl (affected place) ins (instrument) met (method) man (manner) CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007

Relations of CDL.nl CDD.nl relation predicative relation plc (place) plf (initial place) plt (final place) scn (scene) gol (goal, final state) src (source, initial state) via (intermediate place or state) dur (duration) tim (time) tmf (initial time) tmt (final time) CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Relations of CDL.nl CDD.nl relation inter concept relation

and (conjunction) or (disjunction, alternative) fmt (range) frm (origin) to (destination) equ (equivalent) icl (included, a kind of) iof (an instance of) inter event relation con (condition) coo (co-occurrence) pur (purpose) rsn (reason) CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Relations of CDL.nl CDD.nl relation inter event relation seq (sequence) qualification relation

bas (basis) cnt (content) mod (restriction) nam (name) per (proportion, rate, distribution) pof (part of) pos (possessor) qua (quantity) CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attributes of CDL.nl CDD.nl attribute attribute of nominal concept logicality view of reference attribute of predicative concept aspect @begin @complete @contine

time view of emphasis, focus and topic attitude(modality) feeling and judgement attribute for attribute modifying attribute on aspect CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 UNL a language for computers Artificial language (Semantic Network with Hyper Node) A node represents a concept An arc represents a relation A node can be annotated by attributes Consists of; Universal Words: Relations, Attributes: Knowledge Base: CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007

vocabulary syntax semantics Long ago, in the city of Babylon, the people begun to build a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens. long ago tim people agt huge agt aoj begun

obj build tower obj plc obj city reach mod gol Babylon

heaven CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 obj obj seemed Long ago, in the city of Babylon, the people begun to build a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens. {unl} tim(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing)[email protected]@past,long ago(icl>ago)) mod(city(icl>region)[email protected],Babylon(icl>city)) plc(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing)[email protected]@past,city(icl>region)[email protected]) agt(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing)[email protected]@past,people(icl>person)[email protected]) obj(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing)[email protected]@past,build(agt>thing,obj>thing) @past) agt(build(agt>thing,obj>thing),people(icl>person)[email protected])

obj(build(agt>thing,obj>thing)),tower(icl>building)) aoj(huge(icl>big),tower(icl>building)) aoj(seem(aoj>thing)[email protected],tower(icl>building)) obj(seem(aoj>thing)[email protected],reach(icl>come)[email protected]@soon) obj(reach(icl>come)[email protected]@soon,tower(icl>building)) gol(reach(icl>come)[email protected]@soon,heaven(icl>region)[email protected]@pl) {/unl} CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Relation Constitutes syntax of the UNL Expresses objectivity together with UWs Expresses how concepts(UW) constitutes a sentence related each other 46 relations agt, and, aoj, bas, ben, cag, cao, cnt, cob, con, coo, du r, equ, fmt, frm, gol, icl, ins, iof, man, met, mod, nam, o bj, opl, or, per, plc, plf, plt, pof, pos, ptn, pur, qua, rsn, s cn, seq, src, tim, tmf, tmt, to, via CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007

Attributes Mainly describe subjectivity Attributes group: - Describing logical characters and properties of cepts - Times with respect to the writer Writers view on aspects of event Writers view of reference to concepts Writers view of emphasis, focus and topic Writers attitudes Writers feelings and judgments CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 con

Attribute for Describing Logicality @transitive @symmetric @identifiable @disjointed has transitivity has symmetricity can identify the subject all element concept do not hold common instance. all connected concept do not share instances. CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attribute for Times Respect to Writer @past @present @future

happened in the past happening at present will happen in future CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attribute for Writers View on Aspect of Event @begin @complete @continue @custom @end @experience @progress @repeat @state beginning of an event or a state finishing/completion of a (whole) event continuation of an event customary or repetitious action

end/termination of an event or a state experience an event is in progress repetition of an event final state or the existence of the object on which an action has been taken CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attribute for Writers View of Reference on Concept @generic @def @indef @not @ordinal generic concept already referred non-specific class complement set

ordinal number CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attribute for View of Emphasis, Focus, and Topic @contrast @emphasis @entry @qfocus @theme @title @topic contrasted UW emphasized UW entry or main UW of a sentence or a scope focused UW of a question instantiates an object from a different class title topic

CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attribute for Writers Attitude @affirmative @confirmation @exclamation @humility @imperative @interrogative @invitation @polite @request @respect @vocative affirmation confirmation exclamation in a humility manner imperative

interrogation inducement polite way request respectful way vocative CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attribute for Writers Felling and Judgment @ability @get-benefit @give-benefit @conclusion @consequence @sufficient @consent g @dissent @grant

@grant-not ability, capability of doing something speakers feeling of receiving benefits through the fact or result of something (to be) done by somebody else speakers feeling of giving benefits by doing something for somebody else logical conclusion due to a certain condition logical consequence sufficient condition consent feeling of the speaker about somethin dissent feeling of the speaker about something to give/get consent/permission to do something not to give consent to do something CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attribute for Writers Felling and Judgment @although @discontented

@expectation @wish @insistence @intention @want @will @need @obligation @obligation-not something follows against [contrary to] or beyond expectation discontented feeling of the speaker about something expectation of something wishful feeling, to wish something is true or has happened strong determination to do something intention about something or to do something desire to do something determination to do something

necessity to do something obligation to do something according to (quasi-) law, contract, or obligation not to do something, forbid to do something according to (quasi-) law, contract or CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attribute for Writers Felling and Judgment @should @unavoidable @certain @inevitable @may @possible @probable @rare @unreal to do something as a matter of course

unavoidable feeling of the speaker about doing something certainty that something is true or happens logical inevitability that something is true or happens practical possibility that something is true or happens logical possibility that something is true or happens (practical) probability that something is true or happens rare logical possibility that something is true or happens unreality that something is true or happens CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attribute for modifying Attribute on Aspect @just @soon

@yet expresses an event or a state that has just begun or ended/completed expresses an event or a state that is about to begin or end/completed expresses an event or a state that has not yet started or ended/completed, together with @not CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attribute for Writers Felling and Judgment @admire @blame @contempt @regret @surprised @troublesome

admiring feeling of the speaker about something blameful feeling of the speaker about something contemptuous feeling of the speaker about something Regretful feeling of the speaker about something surprised feeling of the speaker about something troublesome feeling of the speaker about the occurrence of something CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Attribute for Convention @passive @pl @angle_bracket @brace @double_parenthesis

@double_quote @parenthesis @single_quote @square_bracket passive form more than one < > are used { } are used (( )) are used are used ( ) are used are used [ ] are used CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Types of UW

Basic UW Restricted UW Extra UW (Imported UW) Temporary UW CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Universal Word ::= [] ::= ::= ( [ , ] ) ::= { > | < } [] | { > | < } [] [ { > | < } [] ] ::= agt | and | aoj | obj | icl | ... CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007

A kind of UW Basic UW Express set of every concept an English phase/clause) can express ex) spring Restricted UW Restrict a concept by constraint ex) spring(icl>tool) spring(icl>season) spring(agt>person,obj>person) CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 word(/ Basic Category of UW UWs should belong to the following categories

Nominal Concept Verbal Concept Adjective Concept Adverbial Concept CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 UW Nominal Concept swallow(icl>thing) Verbal Concept change(agt>thing) change(obj>thing) remember(agt>thing) remember(aoj>thing) I changed my mind. The weather will

change. I cannot remember his name. Do you remember me? CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 UW Adjective Concept positive(aoj>thing) only(modhow) only(icl>how) Are you positive about that? a positive fact

the only person This class is held weekly. The child only cried. CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 UW If the ambiguity of an UW still remains, upper category lab els of UW system(hierarchy) or case relations will be used. Restrict using upper category swallow(icl>bird) the bird One swallow does not make a summer swallow(icl>action) the action of swallowing at one swallow swallow(icl>quantity) the quantity take a swallow of water

CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 UW Restrict using case relations spring(agt>thing,obj>wood) spring(agt>thing,obj>mine)) spring(agt>thing,obj>person, src>prison)) spring(agt>thing,gol>place) spring(agt>thing,gol>thing) spring(obj>liquid) bending something blasting something escaping (from) prison jumping up to spring up jumping on to spring on

gushing out to spring out CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 CWL representation CWL UNL CDL.nl CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 RDF/OWL XML UNL expression Table Form , List Form I

purchased a {unl} //Table Form of UNL expression agt(purchase(icl>buy(agt>person,obj>t hing))[email protected]@past), I) obj(purchase(icl>buy(agt>person,obj>t hing))[email protected]@past), computer (icl>m achine)) tim(purchase(icl>buy(agt>person,obj>t hing))[email protected]@pst), yesterday(icl>da y)) {/unl} computer yesterday. {unl}

// List Form of UNL expressio n [W] I :01 purchase (icl>buy(agt>person, obj>thing)). @[email protected]:02 computer (icl>machine):03 yesterday (icl>day):04 [/W] [R] 02agt01 02obj03 02tim04 [R] {/unl} CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 CDL I

purchased a CDL // Model&Syntax {#S Situation; {#A Event tmp='past'; {#A1 purchase (icl>buy(agt>perso n,obj>thing) ;} {#A2 I ral=def;} {#A3 computer(icl>machine) ral='d ef';} {#A4 yesterday(icl>day) ral='def';} [#A1 cdd.nl#agt #A2] [#A1 cdd.nl#obj #A3] [#A1 cdd.nl#tim #A4] } computer yesterday.

S#Situatio n; A#Event; A1#purchas e agt tim obj A4#yesterda y CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 A2#I A3#computer

RDF I purchased a computer yesterday. RDF // N-Triples representation: Subject Property Object. #S rdf:type Situation. #A rdf:type Event. #S hasComplexEntity #A. #A hasElementalEntity #A1. #A hasElementalEntity #A2. #A hasElementalEntity #A3. #A hasElementalEntity #A4. #A1 rdf:type purchase(icl>buy(agt>person,obj>thing). #A2 I rdf:type I.

#A2 I ral def. #A3 rdf:type computer(icl>machine). #A3 ral def. #A4 rdf:type yesterday(icl>day). #A4 ral def. #A1 agt #A2. #A1 obj #A3. #A1 tim #A4. #A tmp past. CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Platform We use the UNL System as a platform of CWL. CWL Platform - UNL System - Conversion system between UNL and CDL.nl - Conversion system between CDL.nl and RDF - Ontology (UNLKB) in CDD.nl - Ontology in OWL

CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 UNL System UNL Verifier UNL Encyclope dia E UD NI LT O R UNL Library UNL based application

E X UP NL LO R E R Language Server EnConverter UNLLanguage Dictionary UNL KCIC EnCo Rules DeCo Rules

DeConverter UNL Proxy UNL Documen t Base UW Gate CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 UNL KB UW Dictionar y Concept

Definition s (UNL) Annotation Editor Natural Language Texts Annotated Natural Language Texts Cooccurrence Dictionary UNL Verifier

UNL Document EnConverter Grammatical Word Rules Dictionary Natural Language Texts Universal Parser UNL KB

UW Dictionary Web Server HTML+XML UW Gate DeConverter CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 UNL Document CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007 Common Web Language Incubator Group CWL XG Participants W3C member can participate

Invited Experts Duration: Nov 2006 to Oct 2007 Objectives Specifications of CWL Pilot model of CWL Platform CWL Yerevan 25 Sep 2007

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