Guiding Principles of English Language Teaching (ELT) Facilitated By: Daniel Lopez, Senior English Language Fellow Office of English Language Programs United States Embassy, Mexico Getting to know the facilitator Below are 6 statements about me. Read each statement and decide which three statements are true and which three statements are false:
Daniel..... 1. is related to Jennifer Lopez. 2. is half Mexican. 3. is allergic to chocolate. 4. lives in Washington D.C. 5. loves to hike and ski. 6. speaks Portuguese. What purpose do these get-to-know-you activities serve? Why English is so hard to learn
Writers write, but fingers dont fing and hammers dont ham. Buick doesnt rhyme with quick. Iron how many syllables? The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert. The plural of tooth is teeth, so the plural of booth is??? If teachers taught, why didnt preachers praught? How can a slim chance and a fat chance mean the same thing, while a wise man and a wise ass are opposites? Daniels Top 10 Guiding Principles:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Professional development is an ongoing process. Both students AND teachers have to be motivated. Classroom materials have to be relevant and meaningful. Experiential learning works wonders.
Skill development must be integrated. Language = Culture. Variety is the spice of life! Preparation is the key. Teachers need support from Coordinators and SEP. Teachers need support from each other. 1. Professional development is an ongoing process. Benefits of Life-Long Learning Teaching is a process of becoming that continues throughout life, never completely
achieved, never completely denied. This is the challenge and the fun of being a teacher there is no ultimate end to the process. (Frances Mayforth) 2. Both students and teachers have to be motivated. THINK, PAIR, SHARE: What are some DE-motivators for each? What are the consequences? What
motivates YOU? What motivates your STUDENTS? 3. Classroom materials have to be relevant and meaningful. Adapted If to Local Reality no text, what then? REALIA!
Students are the experts of their own lives. SAMPLE ACTIVITIES: 4-Corners Drawing, 5-Finger Grammar, Back to Back, Perfect Teacher, In the Ghetto Song 4-Corners Drawing A favorite hobby Someone who is special to me
An interesting place Ive been to What animal I would be Back to Back: What Am I Wearing? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Two players stand and observe each other for a minute. Then, have each turn around, back to back. Partner A describes what Partner B is wearing. Partner B then asks 3 questions concerning any information Partner A has not mentioned. Partner B then describes what Partner A is wearing. Partner A asks 3 questions. Partners turn around and talk about what they did not see. A Grab Bag of Communicative Techniques: Brainstorming / Film Team Problem Field Trips Role Plays / Skits
Solving Discussions / Debates Information Gaps Small-Group Work Giving Advice Telephone Conversations Games Giving Directions Commercials Which do you already use in Surveys / your classes? Questionnaires Music / Songs Interviews
Videos Example #3: The Perfect Teacher INSTRUCTIONS - With a partner, put the following qualities in order, from 1 (the least essential) to 9 (the most essential). ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______
______ Maintains strong discipline and control. Knows his/her subject thoroughly, and keeps up to date. Really likes his/her students and socializes with them. Tries to give his/her students moral guidance. Tries to make lessons interesting and fun. Shares his/her own ideals and experiences with the students. Treats all students fairly and does not have favorites. Makes the students work hard in and out of class. Encourages the students to think for themselves. A little music goes a long way
You can find music all over the internet. Some popular sites are: http://www.youtube.com/ and http://www.myspace.com/. You can download music for free using the freeware realplayer sp. Realplayer sp can be downloaded at http://www.real.com/realplayer There are many websites for finding the lyrics to songs. Some popular sites are: http://www.lyrics.com/ & http://www.azlyrics.com/ Elvis Presley was known as The King of
Rock n Roll. He was born in a two-room house in Mississippi. The family was very poor. Elvis became one of the most successful recording artists of all time. He had 33 #1 singles and made over 60 films. This song was recorded in 1969. In the Ghetto Variations: Listen to the song and watch video. Fill in the blanks (information gap activity). In small groups, make a timeline of events in the order they happened; Compare your timeline with another group. Have a discussion about the effects of poverty in America. What else??
Some Possible Challenges of CLT: One or more students dominate the conversation. You find yourself doing almost all of the talking. Students are too shy or speak too quietly. The students become so embroiled in a controversial topic that the atmosphere becomes tense. The students lapse into their native language. The group is too large, and the levels are mixed. Any attempt at error correction inhibits the students. Does not fit into the established curriculum. It takes too much time & effort to prepare.
4. Experiential learning works wonders. LESSON PLAN ACTIVITIES CONE OF EXPERIENCE People generally remember 10% of what they read. 20% of what they hear. 30% of what they see. 50% of what they hear and see. 70% of what they say or write. 90% of what they say as they do something. What would help them remember 100%? EXAMPLE: Students can teach
each other how to do something Chinese Proverb: Tell me, I forget. Show me, I remember. Involve me, I Collaborative and Task-Based Learning Discussion Questions (Shaping, Module 4): 1. 2.
3. These 2 video segments showed examples from a class of young learners and also university-level students. Which of the activities would work well for both age groups? What kind of adjustments might be necessary? How were the principles of experiential education being utilized in these examples? What skills were being practiced in these classes? 5. Skill development must be integrated. How often do you talk without listening?
How often do you write without reading? Which of the 4 skills are most difficult to teach? Which are given the most emphasis in your class? Using Language Communication Skills
Can you listen? Can you speak? Can you read? Can you write? In Can you grammar? What happens when we emphasize Knowledge of Language forms (grammar) over Use of Language
(communication)? Read the text below then answer the questions: Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe; All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. What was it like? What were the slithy toves doing? Where did they do this? How were the borogoves described? What did the mome raths do? How did you do?
How about these questions: What does brillig mean? Is the wabe a nice place to be? Can you draw a borogove? Why did the mome raths outgrabe? Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe; All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. Now, how did you do? Which was harder? Why? Grammar Awareness Activity Begin with a two or three word sentence. Examples: I ran. or Close the door.
2. Ask students to expand it with one word. 3. Ask students to expand the new sentence with a specific grammatical structure. Examples: with a prepositional phrase, with an adjective, or with a clause that answers the question WHY? 4. See how long you can make the sentence through expansions with specified grammatical terms. 1. Running Dictation Text 1.The oldest person is a fisherman. 2.The 50-year-old lives above the doctor. 3.Ms. Lee is the youngest person. 4.Two people are 40 years old. 5.The youngest person lives on the 5th floor.
6.The 20-year-old lives on the 4th floor. 7.Mr. Edwards lives on the 2nd floor. 8.The teacher is one year younger than the person on the 4th floor. 9.The person who lives below Mr. Edwards is a doctor. 10.Mrs. Smith is an accountant. 11.Mr. Hudson lives immediately above a woman. 12.The teacher is one year younger than the policeman. Activity Five people with five different jobs live in this apartment building. Use the clues to complete the chart and answer this question: What floor does Mr. Mason live on? Floor 5th
4th 1st floor 3rd 2nd 1st Name Age Job Shaping Module 3 Discussion Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What language skills were used? What activities were used to integrate them? What was the teacher doing? How would you adapt this activity for a larger class? What are some possible follow-up activities? What might come before? How might you evaluate student work?
6. Language = Culture Hablar dos idiomas es vivir dos vidas. Bilingual = Bicultural? What is language for? (conveying meaning and perception, describing the world, self-expression, recalling the past, thinking) Culture is a system of beliefs, values, and assumptions about life that guide behavior and are shared by a
group of people. It is transmitted from generation to generation, either explicitly or implicitly. (Source: Building Bridges: A Guide to Cross-Cultural Understanding, Peace Corps World Wise Schools, 2003) How Culturally Aware Are You? True or False: I Know That Culture Influences 1. How close people stand to one another. 2. How to deal with problems & conflict. 3. Whether to give a soft or sturdy handshake. 4. How to say no. 5. How loudly or softly someone speaks. 6. When to be casual and when to be formal. 7. What are appropriate topics for discussion. 8. When to make eye contact. 9. How to praise and/or criticize someone.
10. What time to arrive for an appointment. A Sampling of Activities Proverbs / Idioms Survey/Questionnaires Articles: Body Rituals Among the Nacirema
Values Clarification: The Drawbridge Rites of Passage Comparisons Debates Role-Plays
Global Speak Games: Value Topics Simulations: Chispa and Pandas Storytelling Model UN Scenarios / Foreign Observations Songs / Poetry Case Studies (ESP) Coat of Arms English Proverbs
(and the values they represent) Time is money. Dont cry over spilt milk. Youve made your bed, now sleep in it. Dont count your chickens before theyve hatched.
The squeaky wheel gets the grease. If at first you dont succeed, try, try again. Theres more than one way to skin a cat. Punctuality Practicality Personal responsibility
Practicality Competition Work Ethic
Creativity / Problem-Solving STEREOTYPES True or False: All Americans are like the tourists you see in Cancun? are tall with blue eyes? eat hamburgers? drive big cars? always agree with US foreign policy? speak English as their native language? (Is there any such thing as a typical Mexican?)
Counteracting Stereotypes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Avoid Making Broad Generalizations Go Deeper! Look under the surface Increase Awareness of Self & Others Be Objective (watch language patterns & implicit judgments / ethnocentrism)
Actively Question Sources (Media?) Challenge False Interpretations Dont Take It Personally Role Model: Practice What You Preach! Top 8 Cross-Cultural Skills: (According to Richard Kohls) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
8. Open-Mindedness Non-Judgmentalness Flexibility Curiosity Tolerance for Ambiguity A Sense of Humor Low Goal/Task-Orientation An Ability to Fail 7. Variety is the spice of life! Not all students are the same (learning styles
visual, auditory, kinesthetic, tactile, emotional); Its all about BALANCE! Learner-centered The vs. Teacher-centered importance of small group work Teacher = Facilitator Tea cher-Centered:
The main objective is to convey information. Philosophical View: Language is a system of repeated habits. Learner role is passive. Methodology: lectures, demonstrations, drills, reading aloud, largely deductive (show & tell). Learner-Centered:
The main objective is to change behavior. Philosophical View: Language has to be practiced authentically. Learner role is active. Methodology: question & answer, problemsolving, small-group tasks, largely inductive. Which are these activities? Students
take turns reading aloud. Students read silently. Discussion in pairs. Whole class discussion. SS prepare a role-play in small groups. Students present their role-play. SS copy information from the board. Teacher Centered
- Centered What is the Teachers Role in a Learner-Center Context? Introduce topics/discussion questions Pre-teach vocabulary Moderate/Facilitate Nudge/ Suggest Focus discussion Focus on form and accuracy (error correction) Play devils advocate
Discussion Questions: How are the two lessons the same? How are they different? In which class would you prefer to be a student? The teacher? Which lesson outline gives more students the opportunity to participate? How so? Which lesson do you think would be harder for the teacher to plan? Why? How many minutes of each is learner-centered? What are some of the challenges of using a L-C approach? How can you overcome them?
Students Learn Best When they are involved in the design of learning and given the chance to make choices. their needs are addressed. a conducive learning environment is established. the course material builds upon what they already know. the topic is of direct relevance and utility to their lives. the learning process is an active and engaging one. 8. Preparation is the key. Lesson Planning / Learning Objectives
Environment: Evaluation Academic Syllabus time, materials, space, etc. (rubrics) http://rubistar.4teachers.org Calendar Design / Curriculum The Three Levels of Planning Program
Planning = Consists of developing a curriculum and content map for the entire year. Unit Planning = Medium-range plans corresponding to the extension of each learning segment considered in the long-term planning. Lesson Planning = Daily actions that reflect the different parts of the medium-range plans or unit planning.
(Corteso and Torres, 1994) 3 Stages of a Lesson I. PREPARATION attracts learners attention connects new content to what they already know II. PRESENTATION III. EVALUATION checks for comprehension asks learners to use new content in context Good Learning Objectives Should Ask learners to use information/skills theyve learned.
Be seeable, hearable, and holdable. Tell specifically what learners will do. Be achievable in one lesson. Describe a result that requires higher level thinking. What grade (A through F) would you give the following objectives? 1. Learners willknow about present-perfect. 2. Predict the training needed for their chosen professions. 3. Take turns while working in groups.
4. speak clearly in perfect English. 5. Write a timeline and use it to tell a story. D (no application) B+ (connected to real life, requires higherlevel thinking) C (no connection to a curricular goal)
D (too general, not achievable in 1 lesson) A+ Jose Manuels Super Slide: Blooms Taxonomy Affective Realm Psychomotor Realm Remembering Knowledge
Action Words Related to BT: Which level are these activities? Making a poster Multiple choice quiz Classifying objects Making a list Role-Play Creating a commercial Repeating after the teacher
3 Application 2 Comprehension 4 Analysis 1 Knowledge 3 Application 5 Synthesis 0 - Does not require ANY level of thinking! The Process of Critical Thinking: State your
Precise your PURPOSE QUESTION Identify your ASSUMPTIONS Identify your POINT OF VIEW
Support with DATA Trace IMPLICATIONS & CONSEQUENCES INFER, INTERPRET, CONCLUDE Define KEY CONCEPTS
LESSON PLAN CHECKLIST CRITERIA Does the lesson plan include: Objectives? Timing? Preparation, presentation and evaluation? A variety of learner-centered activities? Creative, higher-level thinking activities? Activities for students with different learning styles? I did a good job of: I need to do a better job of: YES NO 9. Teachers need support from Coordinators and SEP.
Supervisors need training too (giving/receiving feedback, how to conduct classroom observations) Mentoring is about one person helping another to achieve something. More specifically, something that is important to both of them. It is about giving help and support in a nonthreatening way, in a manner that the recipient will appreciate and value and that will empower them to move forward with confidence towards what they want to achieve. Mentoring is also concerned with creating an environment in which one person can feel encouraged to discuss their needs
and circumstances openly and in confidence with another person who is in a position to be of positive help to them. (Source: Pelletier, Carol. A Handbook of Techniques and Strategies for Coaching Student Teachers. Allyn & Bacon, 1995.) What Are Features of an Effective Supervisor?
Clarifies Expectations Non-Judgmental (constructive criticism) Two-Way Communication (dialogue) Assesses Needs Encourages staff to identify their own areas of growth Links feedback to wider ELT and educational issues Positively Reinforces Creativity and Best Practices Delegates Responsibility Holds Teachers Accountable Follows up What else??
10. Teachers need support from each other. Sharing (collaboration, best practices) Solidarity (teacher associations) Submissions (FORUM) Here they are again
Daniels Top 10 Guiding Principles: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Professional development is an ongoing process. Both students AND teachers have to be motivated. Classroom materials have to be relevant and meaningful.
Experiential learning works wonders. Skill development must be integrated. Language = Culture Variety is the spice of life! Preparation is the key. Teachers need support from Coordinators and SEP. Teachers need support from each other. Which resonated the most with you? Some Final Thoughts People who have positive feelings about English, and are in a supportive environment, are more
likely to learn faster. People learn at different rates, but everyone must ultimately take responsibility for his/her own learning. L1 interference in inevitable, but you are not helping your student(s) by speaking to them in Spanish. Just make sure to adapt your language to their abilities. The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.
William Arthur Ward It is noble to teach oneself; it is still nobler to teach others. Mark Twain A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops. - Henry Brooks Adams BIBLIOGRAPHY Harmer, Jerry. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Longman, 1988. Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press, 1986. Paulston, Christina and Mary Bruder. Teaching English as a
Second Language: Techniques and Procedures. University of Pittsburgh, 1976. Teaching and Learning Are Lifelong Journeys, Blue Mountain Arts Collection, 1999. Woodward, Tessa. Models and Metaphors in Language Teacher Training. Cambridge University Press, 1994. Thank You and Good Luck! Contact Information: [email protected][email protected]
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