Darwin'S Evidence Ii

Darwin'S Evidence Ii

Remember Homework from the lab manual is due in lab next week. And you need to do the prelab. work for lab 2 Quizzes in lab start next week. There is a website for this section A of the course where the lecture material is posted. www.bio200.buffalo.edu To access the PowerPoint slides = username BIO200 password darwin

To see the lecture video = go to UB Learns & find Bio200 & click on classroom recordings If you missed lab 1, you can not make it up, but you need to do the homework, purchase a lab book and do the prelab work for lab 2. Contact your TA for instructions. DARWINS HYPOTHESIS

Individuals vary Populations tend to over-breed Struggle for existence Survival of the fittest

Variations are inherited New species develop DARWINS EVIDENCE II Deduction (Prediction) 6 If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then fossils should show evidence of change through time

Test: Study fossils at various depths in rock strata Paleontology= Paleontology study of ancient life (fossils) DATA Types of fossils Original material

Mammoth in ice DATA Types of fossils Original material Skeletal material from Australopithecus sediba (2 million years old) from

South Africa. Science, Sept. 8, 2011 DATA Types of fossils Original material Mummified humans

Bog people DATA Types of fossils Original material Mosquito in amber

DATA Types of fossils Permineralization = petrification = mineralization of organic matter. e.g. petrified forests buried in volcanic ash DATA Types of fossils Carbonized film = a silhouette of blackened

carbon residue of an organism DATA Types of fossils Mold = impressions of an organism in rock DATA Types of fossils

Cast = a mold filled-in with mud or stone leaving a replica of the organism DATA Types of fossils Chemical Fossil =

molecules produced by an organism left behind in rock DATA Types of fossils Trace fossil = evidence that an organism has left behind that it was present in the past. e.g. footprints, worm tubes, feces

Deduction (Prediction) 6 Evaluation: Many fossils of organisms exist that are no longer present on Earth e.g. dinosaurs, giant tree ferns, mammoths Conclusion: Life on Earth has changed through time. The data support the hypothesis

So is there any order in the fossil layers? Deduction (Prediction) 7 If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then older strata should have fewer modern species than younger strata. Test: Compare species in rock strata Deduction (Prediction) 7

Data: From Charles Lyell (1854) Mollusks Recent Pliocene ----------------2 mya Older Pliocene ---------------- 5 mya Miocene ------------------------25 mya Eocene --------------------------55 mya Fossils known

226 569 1,021 1,238 What do the data suggest? % Still alive

96% 42% 17% 3% Deduction (Prediction) 7 Data: From Charles Lyell (1854) Mollusks

Fossils % Still known alive Recent Pliocene ----------------2 mya 226 Older Pliocene ---------------- 5 mya 569 Miocene ------------------------25 mya

1,021 Eocene------------------------- 55 mya 1,238 96% 42% 17% 3%

Evaluation: Data support the evolution hypothesis Data do Not support the creation hypothesis DEDUCTION (PREDICTION) 8 If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then the simplest organisms should occur in the oldest strata Test: compare species in rock strata

DEDUCTION (PREDICTION) 8 Evaluation: Data are NOT consistent with Divine Creation (i.e. creation in a few days) Data are consistent with: Evolution Multiple creations (Cuviers Catastrophe Hypothesis) DEDUCTION (PREDICTION) 9

If the hypothesis of evolution is correct then intermediate links between fossils must exist. Test: Look for transitional species (missing links) Bird Features Wings True feathers

Wishbone Pneumatic bones Bipedal Reversed big toe Reptile Features Bony tail with free vertebrae 3 claws on wing

Flat breast bone Reptilian skull Long snout, no beak Jaws with teeth The data are too sparse. The hypothesis is neither supported nor rejected

SUMMARY At the time of Darwins death in 1882 at the age of 73 most biologists were convinced that evolution had occurred BUT SUMMARY

BUT, the mechanism of evolution was uncertain. Natural Selection Acquired Characteristics I Hate

arguments A miracle directed by God Creationists say: No one has ever seen organisms change through time. That is not true as the next lectures will

show, but even if we had not seen it, we would still be sure it had occurred. We dont have to see the whole process to know it happened. Suppose you see the train with Aunt Emma at various stops along its journey from Buffalo to NYC. You see it in Buffalo at 9:00 AM.

And Rochester at 10:00 AM And Syracuse at 12:00 noon And Albany at 2:00 PM And NYC at 4:00 PM Isnt reasonable to conclude that the train carried Aunt Emma from Buffalo to NYC? We dont have to see the whole journey. A man was charged with biting off another mans ear in a bar fight

He was arrested and brought to trial. An eye witness to the scene was brought to the stand The defense attorney asked: Did you actually see with your own eyes my client bite off the ear in question? To which the witness replied: No, but I saw him spit it out. We have the fossils, the intermediate forms, the comparative anatomy, the embryology, the genomic homologies In the next lectures well see what evolution spits out.

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