DATA WAREHOUSING AND DATA MINING S. Sudarshan Krithi Ramamritham IIT Bombay [email protected] [email protected] Course Overview The course: how what and 0. Introduction I. Data Warehousing II. Decision Support and

OLAP III. Data Mining IV. Looking Ahead Demos and Labs 2 0. Introduction Data Warehousing, OLAP and data mining: what and why (now)? Relation to OLTP A case study demos, labs 3 A producer wants to know.

Which Whichare areour our lowest/highest lowest/highestmargin margin customers customers?? What Whatisisthe themost most effective effectivedistribution distribution channel? channel?

What Whatproduct productpromprom-otions -otionshave havethe thebiggest biggest impact impacton onrevenue? revenue? Who Whoare aremy mycustomers customers

and andwhat whatproducts products are arethey theybuying? buying? Which Whichcustomers customers are aremost mostlikely likelyto togo go

to tothe thecompetition competition?? What Whatimpact impactwill will new newproducts/services products/services have haveon onrevenue revenue and andmargins? margins?

4 Data, Data everywhere yet ... I cant find the data I need data is scattered over the network many versions, subtle differences I cant get the data I need need an expert to get the data I cant understand the data I found available data poorly documented I cant use the data I found results are unexpected

data needs to be transformed from one form to other 5 What is a Data Warehouse? A single, complete and consistent store of data obtained from a variety of different sources made available to end users in a what they can understand and use in a business context. [Barry Devlin] 6 What are the users saying...

Data should be integrated across the enterprise Summary data has a real value to the organization Historical data holds the key to understanding data over time What-if capabilities are required 7 What is Data Warehousing? Information A process of transforming data into information and making it available to users in a

timely enough manner to make a difference [Forrester Research, April 1996] Data 8 Evolution 60s: Batch reports hard to find and analyze information inflexible and expensive, reprogram every new request 70s: Terminal-based DSS and EIS (executive information systems) still inflexible, not integrated with desktop tools 80s: Desktop data access and analysis tools

query tools, spreadsheets, GUIs easier to use, but only access operational databases 90s: Data warehousing with integrated OLAP engines and tools 9 Warehouses are Very Large Databases 35% Respondents 30% 25% 20% 15% 10%

Initial Projected 2Q96 5% 0% Source: META Group, Inc. 5GB 10-19GB 5-9GB 50-99GB 20-49GB

250-499GB 100-249GB 500GB-1TB 10 Very Large Data Bases Terabytes -- 10^12 bytes: Walmart -- 24 Terabytes Petabytes -- 10^15 bytes: Geographic Information Systems Exabytes -- 10^18 bytes: National Medical Records Zettabytes -- 10^21 bytes:Weather images Zottabytes -- 10^24 bytes:Intelligence Agency Videos 11 Data Warehousing -It is a process

Technique for assembling and managing data from various sources for the purpose of answering business questions. Thus making decisions that were not previous possible A decision support database maintained separately from the organizations operational database 12 Data Warehouse A data warehouse is a subject-oriented integrated time-varying non-volatile

collection of data that is used primarily in organizational decision making. -- Bill Inmon, Building the Data Warehouse 1996 13 Explorers, Farmers and Tourists Tourists: Browse information harvested by farmers Farmers: Harvest information from known access paths Explorers: Seek out the unknown and previously unsuspected rewards hiding in the detailed data 14 Data Warehouse Architecture

Relational Databases Optimized Loader ERP Systems Extraction Cleansing Data Warehouse Engine Purchased Data Legacy Data Analyze

Query Metadata Repository 15 Data Warehouse for Decision Support & OLAP Putting Information technology to help the knowledge worker make faster and better decisions Which of my customers are most likely to go to the competition? What product promotions have the biggest impact on revenue? How did the share price of software companies correlate with profits over last 10 years? 16

Decision Support Used to manage and control business Data is historical or point-in-time Optimized for inquiry rather than update Use of the system is loosely defined and can be ad-hoc Used by managers and end-users to understand the business and make judgements 17 Data Mining works with Warehouse Data Data Warehousing provides the Enterprise with a memory

Data Mining provides the Enterprise with intelligence 18 We want to know ... Given a database of 100,000 names, which persons are the least likely to default on their credit cards? Which types of transactions are likely to be fraudulent given the demographics and transactional history of a particular customer? If I raise the price of my product by Rs. 2, what is the effect on my ROI? If I offer only 2,500 airline miles as an incentive to purchase rather than 5,000, how many lost responses will result? If I emphasize ease-of-use of the product as opposed to its technical capabilities, what will be the net effect on my revenues?

Which of my customers are likely to be the most loyal? Data Mining helps extract such information 19 Application Areas Industry Application Finance Credit Card Analysis Insurance Claims, Fraud Analysis Telecommunication Call record analysis Transport Logistics management Consumer goods promotion analysis Data Service providersValue added data

Utilities Power usage analysis 20 Data Mining in Use The US Government uses Data Mining to track fraud A Supermarket becomes an information broker Basketball teams use it to track game strategy Cross Selling Warranty Claims Routing Holding on to Good Customers Weeding out Bad Customers 21 What makes data mining possible?

Advances in the following areas are making data mining deployable: data warehousing better and more data (i.e., operational, behavioral, and demographic) the emergence of easily deployed data mining tools and the advent of new data mining techniques. -- Gartner Group 22 Why Separate Data Warehouse? Performance Op dbs designed & tuned for known txs & workloads. Complex OLAP queries would degrade perf. for op txs. Special data organization, access & implementation methods needed for multidimensional views & queries.

Function Missing data: Decision support requires historical data, which op dbs do not typically maintain. Data consolidation: Decision support requires consolidation (aggregation, summarization) of data from many heterogeneous sources: op dbs, external sources. Data quality: Different sources typically use inconsistent data representations, codes, and formats which have to be reconciled. 23 What are Operational Systems? They are OLTP systems Run mission critical applications Need to work with stringent performance requirements for routine tasks

Used to run a business! 24 RDBMS used for OLTP Database Systems have been used traditionally for OLTP clerical data processing tasks detailed, up to date data structured repetitive tasks read/update a few records isolation, recovery and integrity are

critical 25 Operational Systems Run the business in real time Based on up-to-the-second data Optimized to handle large numbers of simple read/write transactions Optimized for fast response to predefined transactions Used by people who deal with customers, products -- clerks, salespeople etc. They are increasingly used by customers 26

Examples of Operational Data Data IndustryUsage Technology Volumes Customer All File Track Legacy application, flat Small-medium Customer files, main frames Details Account Finance

Control Legacy applications, Large Balance account hierarchical databases, activities mainframe Point-of- Retail Generate ERP, Client/Server, Very Large Sale data bills, manage relational databases stock Call Telecomm- Billing Legacy application, Very Large Record unications

hierarchical database, mainframe ProductionManufact- Control ERP, Medium Record uring Production relational databases, AS/400 27 So, whats different? Application-Orientation vs. Subject-Orientation Application-Orientation Subject-Orientation

Operation al Database Loans Credit Card Data Warehouse Customer Vendor Trust Savings Product

Activity 29 OLTP vs. Data Warehouse OLTP systems are tuned for known transactions and workloads while workload is not known a priori in a data warehouse Special data organization, access methods and implementation methods are needed to support data warehouse queries (typically multidimensional queries) e.g., average amount spent on phone calls between 9AM-5PM in Pune during the month of December 30 OLTP vs Data Warehouse OLTP

Application Oriented Used to run business Detailed data Current up to date Isolated Data Repetitive access Clerical User Warehouse (DSS) Subject Oriented Used to analyze business Summarized and refined Snapshot data Integrated Data Ad-hoc access

Knowledge User (Manager) 31 OLTP vs Data Warehouse OLTP Performance Sensitive Few Records accessed at a time (tens) Read/Update Access No data redundancy Database Size 100MB -100 GB Data Warehouse Performance relaxed

Large volumes accessed at a time(millions) Mostly Read (Batch Update) Redundancy present Database Size 100 GB - few terabytes 32 OLTP vs Data Warehouse OLTP Transaction throughput is the performance metric Thousands of users Managed in entirety

Data Warehouse Query throughput is the performance metric Hundreds of users Managed by subsets 33 To summarize ... OLTP Systems are used to run a business The Data Warehouse helps to optimize

the business 34 Why Now? Data is being produced ERP provides clean data The computing power is available The computing power is affordable The competitive pressures are strong Commercial products are available 35 Myths surrounding OLAP Servers and Data Marts Data marts and OLAP servers are departmental solutions supporting a handful of users Million dollar massively parallel hardware is needed

to deliver fast time for complex queries OLAP servers require massive and unwieldy indices Complex OLAP queries clog the network with data Data warehouses must be at least 100 GB to be effective Source -- Arbor Software Home Page 36 Wal*Mart Case Study Founded by Sam Walton One the largest Super Market Chains in the US Wal*Mart: 2000+ Retail Stores SAM's Clubs 100+Wholesalers Stores This case study is from Felipe Carinos (NCR Teradata) presentation made at Stanford Database Seminar 37

Old Retail Paradigm Wal*Mart Suppliers Inventory Management Merchandise Accounts Payable Purchasing Supplier Promotions: National, Region, Store Level Accept Orders Promote Products Provide special Incentives

Monitor and Track The Incentives Bill and Collect Receivables Estimate Retailer Demands 38 New (Just-In-Time) Retail Paradigm No more deals Shelf-Pass Through (POS Application) One Unit Price Suppliers paid once a week on ACTUAL items sold Wal*Mart Manager Daily Inventory Restock Suppliers (sometimes SameDay) ship to Wal*Mart

Warehouse-Pass Through Stock some Large Items Delivery may come from supplier Distribution Center Suppliers merchandise unloaded directly onto Wal*Mart Trucks 39 Wal*Mart System 24 TB Raw Disk; 700 1000 Pentium CPUs > 5 Billions 65 weeks (5 Quarters) Current Apps: 75 Million New Apps: 100 Million + Number of Users: Thousands Number of Queries: 60,000 per week

NCR 5100M 96 Nodes; Number of Rows: Historical Data: New Daily Volume: 40 Course Overview 0. Introduction I. Data Warehousing II. Decision Support and OLAP III. Data Mining IV. Looking Ahead Demos and Labs 41

I. Data Warehouses: Architecture, Design & Construction DW Architecture Loading, refreshing Structuring/Modeling DWs and Data Marts Query Processing demos, labs 42

Data Warehouse Architecture Relational Databases Optimized Loader ERP Systems Extraction Cleansing Data Warehouse Engine Purchased Data Legacy Data

Analyze Query Metadata Repository 43 Components of the Warehouse Data Extraction and Loading The Warehouse Analyze and Query -- OLAP Tools Metadata Data Mining tools 44 Loading the Warehouse

Cleaning the data before it is loaded Source Data Operational/ Source Data Sequential Legacy Relational External Typically host based, legacy applications Customized applications, COBOL, 3GL,

4GL Point of Contact Devices POS, ATM, Call switches External Sources Nielsens, Acxiom, CMIE, Vendors, Partners 46 Data Quality - The Reality Tempting to think creating a data warehouse is simply extracting operational data and entering into a data warehouse Nothing could be farther from the truth Warehouse data comes from disparate questionable sources

47 Data Quality - The Reality Legacy systems no longer documented Outside sources with questionable quality procedures Production systems with no built in integrity checks and no integration Operational systems are usually designed to solve a specific business problem and are rarely developed to a a corporate plan And get it done quickly, we do not have time to worry about corporate standards... 48 Data Integration Across Sources Savings

Same data different name Loans Different data Same name Trust Data found here nowhere else Credit card Different keys same data

49 Data Transformation Example encoding appl appl appl appl A - m,f B - 1,0 C - x,y D - male, female unit

appl appl appl appl A - pipeline - cm B - pipeline - in C - pipeline - feet D - pipeline - yds field Data Warehouse appl appl appl appl

A - balance B - bal C - currbal D - balcurr 50 Data Integrity Problems Same person, different spellings Agarwal, Agrawal, Aggarwal etc... Multiple ways to denote company name Persistent Systems, PSPL, Persistent Pvt. LTD. Use of different names mumbai, bombay Different account numbers generated by different applications for the same customer Required fields left blank Invalid product codes collected at point of sale

manual entry leads to mistakes in case of a problem use 9999999 51 Data Transformation Terms Extracting Conditioning Scrubbing Merging Householding Enrichment

Scoring Loading Validating Delta Updating 52 Data Transformation Terms Extracting Capture of data from operational source in as is status Sources for data generally in legacy mainframes in VSAM, IMS, IDMS, DB2; more data today in relational databases on Unix Conditioning The conversion of data types from the source to the target data store (warehouse) -- always a

relational database 53 Data Transformation Terms Householding Identifying all members of a household (living at the same address) Ensures only one mail is sent to a household Can result in substantial savings: 1 lakh catalogues at Rs. 50 each costs Rs. 50 lakhs. A 2% savings would save Rs. 1 lakh. 54 Data Transformation Terms Enrichment Bring data from external sources to

augment/enrich operational data. Data sources include Dunn and Bradstreet, A. C. Nielsen, CMIE, IMRA etc... Scoring computation of a probability of an event. e.g..., chance that a customer will defect to AT&T from MCI, chance that a customer is likely to buy a new product 55 Loads After extracting, scrubbing, cleaning, validating etc. need to load the data into the warehouse Issues huge volumes of data to be loaded small time window available when warehouse can be

taken off line (usually nights) when to build index and summary tables allow system administrators to monitor, cancel, resume, change load rates Recover gracefully -- restart after failure from where you were and without loss of data integrity 56 Load Techniques Use SQL to append or insert new data record at a time interface will lead to random disk I/Os Use batch load utility 57

Load Taxonomy Incremental versus Full loads Online versus Offline loads 58 Refresh Propagate updates on source data to the warehouse Issues: when to refresh how to refresh -- refresh techniques 59 When to Refresh? periodically (e.g., every night, every week) or after significant events

on every update: not warranted unless warehouse data require current data (up to the minute stock quotes) refresh policy set by administrator based on user needs and traffic possibly different policies for different sources 60 Refresh Techniques Full Extract from base tables read entire source table: too expensive maybe the only choice for legacy systems 61 How To Detect Changes

Create a snapshot log table to record ids of updated rows of source data and timestamp Detect changes by: Defining after row triggers to update snapshot log when source table changes Using regular transaction log to detect changes to source data 62 Data Extraction and Cleansing Extract data from existing operational and legacy data Issues: Sources of data for the warehouse Data quality at the sources Merging different data sources Data Transformation

How to propagate updates (on the sources) to the warehouse Terabytes of data to be loaded 63 Scrubbing Data Sophisticated transformation tools. Used for cleaning the quality of data Clean data is vital for the success of the warehouse

Example Seshadri, Sheshadri, Sesadri, Seshadri S., Srinivasan Seshadri, etc. are the same person 64 Scrubbing Tools Apertus -- Enterprise/Integrator Vality -- IPE Postal Soft 65 Structuring/Modeling Issues Data -- Heart of the Data Warehouse

Heart of the data warehouse is the data itself! Single version of the truth Corporate memory Data is organized in a way that represents business -- subject orientation 67 Data Warehouse Structure Subject Orientation -- customer, product, policy, account etc... A subject may be implemented as a set of related tables. E.g., customer may be five tables 68

Data Warehouse Structure base customer (1985-87) custid, from date, to date, name, phone, dob Time is base customer (1988-90) custid, from date, to date, name, credit rating, part of key of employer each table customer activity (1986-89) -- monthly summary customer activity detail (1987-89) custid, activity date, amount, clerk id, order no customer activity detail (1990-91)

custid, activity date, amount, line item no, order no 69 Data Granularity in Warehouse Summarized data stored reduce storage costs reduce cpu usage increases performance since smaller number of records to be processed design around traditional high level reporting needs tradeoff with volume of data to be stored and detailed usage of data 70 Granularity in Warehouse Can not answer some questions with summarized data

Did Anand call Seshadri last month? Not possible to answer if total duration of calls by Anand over a month is only maintained and individual call details are not. Detailed data too voluminous 71 Granularity in Warehouse Tradeoff is to have dual level of granularity Store summary data on disks 95% of DSS processing done against this data Store detail on tapes 5% of DSS processing against this data

72 Vertical Partitioning Acct. No Name BalanceDate Opened Interest Rate Frequently accessed Acct. Balance

No Address Rarely accessed Acct. No Name Date Opened Smaller table and so less I/ O Interest

Rate Address 73 Derived Data Introduction of derived (calculated data) may often help Have seen this in the context of dual levels of granularity Can keep auxiliary views and indexes to speed up query processing 74 Schema Design

Database organization must look like business must be recognizable by business user approachable by business user Must be simple Schema Types Star Schema Fact Constellation Schema Snowflake schema 75 Dimension Tables

Dimension tables Define business in terms already familiar to users Wide rows with lots of descriptive text Small tables (about a million rows) Joined to fact table by a foreign key heavily indexed typical dimensions time periods, geographic region (markets, cities), products, customers, salesperson, etc. 76 Fact Table Central table mostly raw numeric items narrow rows, a few columns at most large number of rows (millions to a billion)

Access via dimensions 77 Star Schema A single fact table and for each dimension one dimension table Does not capture hierarchies directly T i m e c u s t

date, custno, prodno, cityname, ... f a c t p r o d c i t y 78

Snowflake schema Represent dimensional hierarchy directly by normalizing tables. Easy to maintain and saves storage T i m e c u s t p r o d

date, custno, prodno, cityname, ... f a c t c i t y r e g i o

79 n Fact Constellation Fact Constellation Multiple fact tables that share many dimension tables Booking and Checkout may share many dimension tables in the hotel industry Hotels Travel Agents Booking Checkout Customer Promotion

Room Type 80 De-normalization Normalization in a data warehouse may lead to lots of small tables Can lead to excessive I/Os since many tables have to be accessed De-normalization is the answer especially since updates are rare 81 Creating Arrays Many times each occurrence of a sequence of data is in a different physical location Beneficial to collect all occurrences together

and store as an array in a single row Makes sense only if there are a stable number of occurrences which are accessed together In a data warehouse, such situations arise naturally due to time based orientation can create an array by month 82 Selective Redundancy Description of an item can be stored redundantly with order table -- most often item description is also accessed with order table Updates have to be careful 83 Partitioning

Breaking data into several physical units that can be handled separately Not a question of whether to do it in data warehouses but how to do it Granularity and partitioning are key to effective implementation of a warehouse 84 Why Partition? Flexibility in managing data Smaller physical units allow

easy restructuring free indexing sequential scans if needed easy reorganization easy recovery easy monitoring 85 Criterion for Partitioning Typically partitioned by

date line of business geography organizational unit any combination of above 86 Where to Partition? Application level or DBMS level Makes sense to partition at application level Allows different definition for each year Important since warehouse spans many years and as business evolves definition changes

Allows data to be moved between processing complexes easily 87 Data Warehouse vs. Data Marts What comes first From the Data Warehouse to Data Marts Information Individually Structured Departmentally Structured Organizationally

Data Warehouse Structured Less History Normalized Detailed More Data 89 Data Warehouse and Data Marts OLAP Data Mart Lightly summarized Departmentally structured

Organizationally structured Atomic Detailed Data Warehouse Data 90 Characteristics of the Departmental Data Mart OLAP Small Flexible Customized by Department Source is departmentally structured data warehouse

91 Techniques for Creating Departmental Data Mart OLAP Sales Finance Mktg. Subset Summarized Superset Indexed

Arrayed 92 Data Mart Centric Data Sources Data Marts Data Warehouse 93 Problems with Data Mart Centric Solution If you end up creating multiple warehouses, integrating them is a problem

94 True Warehouse Data Sources Data Warehouse Data Marts 95 Query Processing Indexing Pre computed views/aggregates SQL extensions

96 Indexing Techniques Exploiting indexes to reduce scanning of data is of crucial importance Bitmap Indexes Join Indexes Other Issues Text indexing Parallelizing and sequencing of index builds and incremental updates 97 Indexing Techniques Bitmap index: A collection of bitmaps -- one for each distinct value of the column Each bitmap has N bits where N is the

number of rows in the table A bit corresponding to a value v for a row r is set if and only if r has the value for the indexed attribute 98 BitMap Indexes An alternative representation of RID-list Specially advantageous for low-cardinality domains Represent each row of a table by a bit and the table as a bit vector There is a distinct bit vector Bv for each value v for the domain Example: the attribute sex has values M and F. A table of 100 million people needs 2 lists of 100 million bits

99 Bitmap Index M Y 0 1 0 F Y

1 1 1 F N 1 0 0 M

N 0 0 0 F Y 1 1 1

F N 1 0 0 Customer Query : select * from customer where 100 gender = F and vote = Y Bit Map Index Base

Table Cust C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 Region Rating N H S M W L

W H S L W L N H Region Index Row ID N S E W 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 1 5 0 1 0 0

6 0 0 0 1 7 1 0 0 0 Region = Customers whereW And Rating Index Row ID H M L 1 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 3 0

0 0 4 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 6 0 0 0 7 1 0 0 Rating = M 101

BitMap Indexes Comparison, join and aggregation operations are reduced to bit arithmetic with dramatic improvement in processing time Significant reduction in space and I/O (30:1) Adapted for higher cardinality domains as well. Compression (e.g., run-length encoding) exploited Products that support bitmaps: Model 204, TargetIndex (Redbrick), IQ (Sybase), Oracle 7.3 102 Join Indexes Pre-computed joins A join index between a fact table and a dimension table correlates a dimension tuple with the fact tuples that have the

same value on the common dimensional attribute e.g., a join index on city dimension of calls fact table correlates for each city the calls (in the calls table) from that city 103 Join Indexes Join indexes can also span multiple dimension tables e.g., a join index on city and time dimension of calls fact table 104 Star Join Processing Use join indexes to join dimension and fact table

Calls C+T Time C+T+L Location Plan C+T+L +P 105 Optimized Star Join Processing Time Location Plan

Apply Selections Calls Virtual Cross Product of T, L and P 106 Bitmapped Join Processing Bitmaps Time Location Plan Calls 1

0 1 Calls 0 0 1 Calls AND 1 1 0 107

Intelligent Scan Piggyback multiple scans of a relation (Redbrick) piggybacking also done if second scan starts a little while after the first scan 108 Parallel Query Processing Three forms of parallelism Independent Pipelined Partitioned and partition and replicate Deterrents to parallelism startup communication

109 Parallel Query Processing Partitioned Data Parallel scans Yields I/O parallelism Parallel algorithms for relational operators Joins, Aggregates, Sort Parallel Utilities Load, Archive, Update, Parse, Checkpoint, Recovery Parallel Query Optimization 110

Pre-computed Aggregates Keep aggregated data for efficiency (pre-computed queries) Questions Which aggregates to compute? How to update aggregates? How to use pre-computed aggregates in queries? 111 Pre-computed Aggregates Aggregated table can be maintained by the warehouse server middle tier client applications

Pre-computed aggregates -- special case of materialized views -- same questions and issues remain 112 SQL Extensions Extended family of aggregate functions rank (top 10 customers) percentile (top 30% of customers) median, mode Object Relational Systems allow

addition of new aggregate functions 113 SQL Extensions Reporting features running total, cumulative totals Cube operator group by on all subsets of a set of attributes (month,city) redundant scan and sorting of data can be avoided 114 Red Brick has Extended set of Aggregates

Select month, dollars, cume(dollars) as run_dollars, weight, cume(weight) as run_weights from sales, market, product, period t where year = 1993 and product like Columbian% and city like San Fr% order by t.perkey 115 RISQL (Red Brick Systems) Extensions Aggregates


Using SubQueries in calculations 116 Using SubQueries in Calculations select product, dollars as jun97_sales, (select sum(s1.dollars) from market mi, product pi, period, ti, sales si where pi.product = product.product and ti.year = period.year and = as total97_sales, 100 * dollars/ (select sum(s1.dollars)

from market mi, product pi, period, ti, sales si where pi.product = product.product and ti.year = period.year and = as percent_of_yr from market, product, period, sales where year = 1997 and month = June and city like Ahmed% order by product; 117

Course Overview The course: how what and 0. Introduction I. Data Warehousing II. Decision Support and OLAP III. Data Mining IV. Looking Ahead Demos and Labs 118 II. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP)

Making Decision Support Possible Limitations of SQL A Freshman in Business needs a Ph.D. in SQL -- Ralph Kimball 120 Typical OLAP Queries Write a multi-table join to compare sales for each product line YTD this year vs. last year. Repeat the above process to find the top 5 product contributors to margin. Repeat the above process to find the sales of a product line to new vs. existing customers.

Repeat the above process to find the customers that have had negative sales growth. 121 What Is OLAP? Online Analytical Processing - coined by EF Codd in 1994 paper contracted by Arbor Software* Generally synonymous with earlier terms such as Decisions Support, Business Intelligence, Executive

Information System OLAP = Multidimensional Database MOLAP: Multidimensional OLAP (Arbor Essbase, Oracle Express) ROLAP: Relational OLAP (Informix MetaCube, Microstrategy DSS Agent) * Reference: 122 The OLAP Market Rapid growth in the enterprise market 1995: $700 Million 1997: $2.1 Billion Significant consolidation activity among major DBMS vendors

10/94: Sybase acquires ExpressWay 7/95: Oracle acquires Express 11/95: Informix acquires Metacube 1/97: Arbor partners up with IBM 10/96: Microsoft acquires Panorama Result: OLAP shifted from small vertical niche to mainstream DBMS category 123 Strengths of OLAP It is a powerful visualization paradigm It provides fast, interactive response times It is good for analyzing time series

It can be useful to find some clusters and outliers Many vendors offer OLAP tools 124 OLAP Is FASMI Fast Analysis Shared Multidimensional Information Nigel Pendse, Richard Creath - The OLAP Report 125 Multi-dimensional Data HeyI sold $100M worth of goods

R eg io n Dimensions: Product, Region, Time Hierarchical summarization paths Product W S N Juice Cola Milk Cream Toothpaste

Soap 1 2 34 5 6 7 Product Industry Region Country Time Year Category Region Quarter

Product City Month Office Month Week Day126 Data Cube Lattice Cube lattice ABC AB AC BC

A B C none Can materialize some groupbys, compute others on demand Question: which groupbys to materialze? Question: what indices to create Question: how to organize data (chunks, etc) 127 Visualizing Neighbors is simpler 1 Apr May J un J ul Aug Sep Oct

Nov Dec J an Feb Mar 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 Month Apr Apr Apr Apr Apr Apr Apr Apr May May May May May May May

May J un J un Store 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 1 2 Sales 128 A Visual Operation: Pivot (Rotate) Y N LA SF th

n o M Cola 10 Milk 47 Crea m 30 12

3/1 3/2 3/3 3/4 Date Region Juice Product 129 Slicing and Dicing The Telecomm Slice Product

Household Telecomm Video Audio s n o i eg Europe R Far East India Retail Direct Special Sales Channel 130

Roll-up and Drill Down Sales Channel Region Country State Location Address Sales Representative Drill-Down

Roll Up Higher Level of Aggregation Low-level Details 131 Nature of OLAP Analysis Aggregation -- (total sales, percent-to-total) Comparison -- Budget vs. Expenses Ranking -- Top 10, quartile analysis Access to detailed and

aggregate data Complex criteria specification Visualization 132 Organizationally Structured Data Different Departments look at the same detailed data in different ways. Without the detailed, organizationally structured data as a foundation, there is no reconcilability of data marketing sales finance manufacturing

133 Multidimensional Spreadsheets Analysts need spreadsheets that support pivot tables (cross-tabs) drill-down and roll-up slice and dice sort selections derived attributes

Popular in retail domain 134 OLAP - Data Cube Idea: analysts need to group data in many different ways eg. Sales(region, product, prodtype, prodstyle, date, saleamount) saleamount is a measure attribute, rest are dimension attributes groupby every subset of the other attributes materialize (precompute and store) groupbys to give online response Also: hierarchies on attributes: date -> weekday, date -> month -> quarter -> year 135

SQL Extensions Front-end tools require Extended Family of Aggregate Functions rank, median, mode Reporting Features running totals, cumulative totals Results of multiple group by total sales by month and total sales by product Data Cube 136 Relational OLAP: 3 Tier DSS Data Warehouse

ROLAP Engine Database Layer Application Logic Layer Presentation Layer Generate SQL execution plans in the ROLAP engine to obtain OLAP functionality. Obtain multidimensional reports from

the DSS Client. Store atomic data in industry standard RDBMS. Decision Support Client 137 MD-OLAP: 2 Tier DSS MDDB Engine Database Layer MDDB Engine

Application Logic Layer Store atomic data in a proprietary data structure (MDDB), pre-calculate as many outcomes as possible, obtain OLAP functionality via proprietary algorithms running against this data. Decision Support Client Presentation Layer Obtain multidimensional reports from the DSS Client.

138 Typical OLAP Problems Number of Aggregations Data Explosion Data Explosion Syndrome 70000 65536 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000

16384 10000 (4 levels in each dimension) 0 16 2 256 1024 81 3 4

5 6 4096 7 8 Number of Dimensions Microsoft TechEd98 139 Metadata Repository Administrative metadata

source databases and their contents gateway descriptions warehouse schema, view & derived data definitions dimensions, hierarchies pre-defined queries and reports data mart locations and contents data partitions

data extraction, cleansing, transformation rules, defaults data refresh and purging rules user profiles, user groups security: user authorization, access control 140 Metdata Repository .. 2 Business data business terms and definitions ownership of data charging policies operational metadata data lineage: history of migrated data and sequence of transformations applied currency of data: active, archived, purged monitoring information: warehouse usage statistics, error reports, audit trails.

141 Recipe for a Successful Warehouse For a Successful Warehouse From Larry Greenfield, From day one establish that warehousing is a joint user/builder project Establish that maintaining data quality will be an ONGOING joint user/builder responsibility Train the users one step at a time Consider doing a high level corporate data model in no more than three weeks 143

For a Successful Warehouse Look closely at the data extracting, cleaning, and loading tools Implement a user accessible automated directory to information stored in the warehouse Determine a plan to test the integrity of the data in the warehouse From the start get warehouse users in the habit of 'testing' complex queries 144 For a Successful Warehouse Coordinate system roll-out with network administration personnel When in a bind, ask others who have done the same thing for advice

Be on the lookout for small, but strategic, projects Market and sell your data warehousing systems 145 Data Warehouse Pitfalls You are going to spend much time extracting, cleaning, and loading data Despite best efforts at project management, data warehousing project scope will increase You are going to find problems with systems feeding the data warehouse You will find the need to store data not being captured by any existing system You will need to validate data not being validated by transaction processing systems

146 Data Warehouse Pitfalls Some transaction processing systems feeding the warehousing system will not contain detail Many warehouse end users will be trained and never or seldom apply their training After end users receive query and report tools, requests for IS written reports may increase Your warehouse users will develop conflicting business rules Large scale data warehousing can become an exercise in data homogenizing 147 Data Warehouse Pitfalls 'Overhead' can eat up great amounts of disk space The time it takes to load the warehouse will expand

to the amount of the time in the available window... and then some Assigning security cannot be done with a transaction processing system mindset You are building a HIGH maintenance system You will fail if you concentrate on resource optimization to the neglect of project, data, and customer management issues and an understanding of what adds value to the customer 148 DW and OLAP Research Issues Data cleaning focus on data inconsistencies, not schema differences data mining techniques Physical Design

design of summary tables, partitions, indexes tradeoffs in use of different indexes Query processing selecting appropriate summary tables dynamic optimization with feedback acid test for query optimization: cost estimation, use of transformations, search strategies partitioning query processing between OLAP server and backend server. 149 DW and OLAP Research Issues .. 2 Warehouse Management detecting runaway queries resource management incremental refresh techniques

computing summary tables during load failure recovery during load and refresh process management: scheduling queries, load and refresh Query processing, caching use of workflow technology for process management 150 Products, References, Useful Links

Reporting Tools Andyne Computing -- GQL Brio -- BrioQuery Business Objects -- Business Objects Cognos -- Impromptu Information Builders Inc. -- Focus for Windows Oracle -- Discoverer2000 Platinum Technology -- SQL*Assist, ProReports PowerSoft -- InfoMaker SAS Institute -- SAS/Assist Software AG -- Esperant Sterling Software -- VISION:Data 152 OLAP and Executive Information Systems Andyne Computing -- Pablo

Microsoft -- Plato Arbor Software -- Essbase Oracle -- Express Cognos -- PowerPlay Pilot -- LightShip Comshare -- Commander OLAP Planning Sciences -Gentium Holistic Systems -- Holos

Platinum Technology -ProdeaBeacon, Forest & Trees Information Advantage -AXSYS, WebOLAP Informix -- Metacube Microstrategies --DSS/Agent SAS Institute -- SAS/EIS, OLAP++ Speedware -- Media 153 Other Warehouse Related Products Data extract, clean, transform, refresh

CA-Ingres replicator Carleton Passport Prism Warehouse Manager SAS Access Sybase Replication Server Platinum Inforefiner, Infopump 154 Extraction and Transformation Tools Carleton Corporation -- Passport Evolutionary Technologies Inc. -- Extract Informatica -- OpenBridge

Information Builders Inc. -- EDA Copy Manager Platinum Technology -- InfoRefiner Prism Solutions -- Prism Warehouse Manager Red Brick Systems -- DecisionScape Formation 155 Scrubbing Tools Apertus -- Enterprise/Integrator Vality -- IPE Postal Soft 156 Warehouse Products Computer Associates -- CA-Ingres Hewlett-Packard -- Allbase/SQL Informix -- Informix, Informix XPS

Microsoft -- SQL Server Oracle -- Oracle7, Oracle Parallel Server Red Brick -- Red Brick Warehouse SAS Institute -- SAS Software AG -- ADABAS Sybase -- SQL Server, IQ, MPP 157 Warehouse Server Products Oracle 8 Informix Online Dynamic Server XPS --Extended Parallel Server Universal Server for object relational applications Sybase Adaptive Server 11.5

Sybase MPP Sybase IQ 158 Warehouse Server Products Red Brick Warehouse Tandem Nonstop IBM DB2 MVS Universal Server DB2 400 Teradata 159 Other Warehouse Related Products Connectivity to Sources

Apertus Information Builders EDA/SQL Platimum Infohub SAS Connect IBM Data Joiner Oracle Open Connect Informix Express Gateway 160 Other Warehouse Related

Products Query/Reporting Environments Brio/Query Cognos Impromptu Informix Viewpoint CA Visual Express Business Objects Platinum Forest and Trees 161

4GL's, GUI Builders, and PC Databases Information Builders - Lotus -Approach Focus Microsoft -- Access, Visual Basic MITI -- SQR/Workbench PowerSoft -PowerBuilder SAS Institute -- SAS/AF 162 Data Mining Products DataMind -- neurOagent Information Discovery -- IDIS SAS Institute -- SAS/Neuronets

163 Data Warehouse W.H. Inmon, Building the Data Warehouse, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1996 W.H. Inmon, J. D. Welch, Katherine L. Glassey, Managing the Data Warehouse, John Wiley and Sons, 1997 Barry Devlin, Data Warehouse from Architecture to Implementation, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc 1997 164 Data Warehouse W.H. Inmon, John A. Zachman, Jonathan G. Geiger, Data Stores Data Warehousing and the Zachman Framework, McGraw Hill

Series on Data Warehousing and Data Management, 1997 Ralph Kimball, The Data Warehouse Toolkit, John Wiley and Sons, 1996 165 OLAP and DSS Erik Thomsen, OLAP Solutions, John Wiley and Sons 1997 Microsoft TechEd Transparencies from Microsoft TechEd 98 Essbase Product Literature Oracle Express Product Literature Microsoft Plato Web Site Microstrategy Web Site 166

Data Mining Michael J.A. Berry and Gordon Linoff, Data Mining Techniques, John Wiley and Sons 1997 Peter Adriaans and Dolf Zantinge, Data Mining, Addison Wesley Longman Ltd. 1996 KDD Conferences 167 Other Tutorials Donovan Schneider, Data Warehousing Tutorial, Tutorial at International Conference for Management of Data (SIGMOD 1996) and International Conference on Very Large Data Bases 97 Umeshwar Dayal and Surajit Chaudhuri, Data

Warehousing Tutorial at International Conference on Very Large Data Bases 1996 Anand Deshpande and S. Seshadri, Tutorial on Datawarehousing and Data Mining, CSI-97 168 Useful URLs Ralph Kimballs home page Larry Greenfields Data Warehouse Information Center Data Warehousing Institute OLAP Council 169

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