DCOM - Nuclear Energy Agency

DCOM - Nuclear Energy Agency

PHENIX: The irradiation programme for transmutation experiments J. Guidez Head of PHENIX reactor DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 1 GENERAL DESIGN of the PLANT DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 2 PLANT DATA First criticality: 31st August 1973 First connection to the grid: 13th December 1973 Commercial operation: 14th July 1974 Nominal Power: 563 MWth (250 MWe) Since 1993 Power limited to 350 MWth (145 MWe), on two secondary loop operation. Total number of Equivalent Full Power Days: 3990 Total operating hours: 106 000 h Gross electrical output: 23 123 400 MWh DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 3 PLANT LIFETIME EXTENSION WORK 6 years of work in two phases from 1994 to 1997 and 1999 to 2003, separated by one operating cycle. 250 million of studies and renovation works 5000 contract entered into, 350 sub-contracting companies 4500 agents working for the sub-contractors (up to 700 per day)

[PHENIX staff : 210 CEA + 70 EDF] DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 4 PLANT OPERATING DIAGRAM 2004 52 me cycle 51th cycle 350 300 200 AM1 AT2 100 2004 Janvier Fvrier Mars Avril Power operation Mai Juin Juillet 51th cycle: Aot Sept Oct Nov Dc

210 Days at nominal power 131 EFPD Operation schedule Availability factor: 94% Load factor: 85% DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 5 FUTURE OPERATION of the PLANT 6 cycles of 120 EFPD equivalent to about 5.5 years of operation 2004 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2005 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 52-1 51 - 2

2 3 4 5 6 7 54-2 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 53-1 52-2 2007 1 5 2006 4 9 10 11 12 55-1 1 2 55-2 3

4 5 6 7 6 7 8 53-2 2008 8 5 9 10 11 12 54-1 2009 8 56-1 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 56-2

80% Load factor DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 6 EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS AT PHENIX COMPARISON OF NEUTRON FLUX Fast flux (n/cm2.s) Thermal flux (n/cm2.s) Dose rate PWR power reactor 1.3.1014 0.9.1014 2 dpa/year OSIRIS, HFR, BR2 type research reactor 2 to 4.1014 4 7.1014 3 dpa/year 2.5.1015 4.4 . 10 15 Phnix reactor Type 1 moderate flux* 3.6.1015 Type 2 moderate flux* 1.5.1015

3.7.1013 18 dpa/ 6-month cycle 12 dpa/ cycle 4 dpa/ 6-mont cy cle * Types 1 and 2 correspond to the type of moderating carrier used : 1: 11B4C , 2: CaHx DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 7 EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS AT PHENIX TEMPERATURE Core inlet/outlet: 380/550C Device developed for material irradiation up to 1000C MEASUREMENTS Sodium inlet/outlet Temperature Sodium sampling at S/A outlet Argon gas blanket analysis DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 8 EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS AT PHENIX EXPERIMENTAL RIG AND CARRIER DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 9

PHENIX EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMUTATION PROGRAMM General irradiation data acquisition Neutronic data measurements Fuel irradiation for homogeneous transmutation mode Target irradiation for heterogeneous transmutation mode Constituent materials (Inert matrices, moderators) Irradiation of actinide-based compounds (primarily Americium) Irradiation of targets containing long-lived fission products (Technetium 99) Irradiation of high Pu content fuel Fuel irradiation for future systems (dedicated critical or sub-critical transmutation systems, GFR...) DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 10 PROFIL-R SUB-ASSEMBLY 1 Measurement of actinides and fission products cross sections in fast (PROFIL-R) and moderated (PROFILM) neutron flux 10 20 31 43 56 70 85 44 71 86 21 32 57 73 60 74

89 24 47 59 36 61 37 92 51 78 93 52 79 94 30 41 53 66 80 95 19 29 40 65 1 0 1 1 0 2 1 0 3 1 0 4 1 0 5 1 0 6 1 0 7 1 0 8 1 0 9 11 0 111 118 119 28 39 64 9

18 27 50 77 8 17 38 63 62 7 16 26 49 76 91 6 15 25 48 75 90 14 35 34 46 5 4 13 23 33

58 88 12 22 45 72 87 3 2 11 42 54 67 81 96 55 68 82 97 69 83 98 84 99 100 11 2 11 3 11 4 11 5 11 6 11 7 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175

176 177 178 179 Body 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 20 9 2 10 211 2 12 2 13 21 4 21 5 21 6 21 7 Cask Profil-R pins Isotope Height 10 mm 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 Reference standard pin PROFIL-R container Spacers PROFIL-R pins Containers DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 11 HOMOGENEOUS TRANSMUTATION EXPERIMENT METAPHIX: Irradiation of Actinides diluted in metal fuel (UPuZr+MA+RE) Contract with ITU Karsrhue for CRIEPI Core center plane 3 capsules containing 3 pins each Standard pins

Experimenta l pins 34 13 35 36 14 1 2 3 67U 19Pu 10Zr 2A.M. 2T.R . 4 15 15 16 5 4 38 19 3 4 6 M E T -3 20 16 21 4 S td Coeur 1 39 11

13 2 2 3 1 5 22 17 12 4 11 10 2 29 9 S td 4 C oeur 1 1 9 M E T -1 6 7 8 4 S td C oeur 1 4 4 S td C oeur 1 1

23 7 24 18 19 8 S td 4 Coeur 1 S td 4 C oeur 1 4 28 27 26 25 S td C oeur 1 S td C oeur 1 40 10 S td C oeur 1 S td 4 Coeur 1 3 30 31 4 S td C oeur 1 M E T -2

S td 4 C oeur 1 S td Coeur 1 14 4 4 17 18 32 12 S td 4 C oeur 1 S td C oeur 1 S td C oeur 1 37 71U 19Pu 10Zr 33 41 42 66U 19Pu 10Zr 5A.M. 61U 1 9Pu 10Zr 5A.M. 5T.R. DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Capsule content Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 12 INERT MATRIX TESTING

MATINA 1A: re-irradiation of MATINA 1 experiment dismantled in 1996 (first selection of most promising inert matrices for heterogeneous transmutation). MATINA 2-3 (scheduled in 2005): Testing of: CERCER targets with a MgO matrix and microdispersed and macro-dispersed particles, new materials (pyrochlore Ce2Zr2O7 and yttriated zirconia ZrYO compounds) DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 13 ECRIX EXPERIMENTS: OBJECTIVES First experiment of Am transmutation in specific target in a fast reactor Testing two concepts of once trough transmutation by using local moderation spectrum: 1. 11B4C : ECRIX-B 2. CaH2 : ECRIX-H 1. Fuel fabrication process (metallurgy powder) which can be applied to the industrial scale 2. Development of fabrication and characterisation techniques 3. Fabrication of 100 pellets 4. Property measurements* 5. Irradiation started at Phenix * Collaboration with ITU/Karlsruhe DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8 Information Exchange Meeting th Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 14 ECRIX EXPERIMENTS: SUB-ASSEMBLY DESIGN ECRIX B and H : Transmutation of Americium in MgO inert matrix, pins located inside special moderating carriers) ECRIX : moderator sub-assembly and capsule cross section DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix

NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 15 DMC 2 MODERATOR CARRIER AND CAPSULE Moderator CaHx thickness 9,5 mm height 300 mm Capsule KMC Steel cylinder Steel spacers DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting DMC 2 Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 16 TRANSMUTATION RATES IN PWR COMPARED TO PHENIX MODERATED FLUX Am ricium target in PWR : - Evolution of compositions - Evolution of Am transmutation rate et global f ission rate 100 Pu Am Cm taux de transmutation Am taux de fission 90 80 70 60 % At technological limit one obtains :

fission rate ~25% transmutation rate ~90% remaining mass contents : 55% Pu, 10%Am et 10% Cm 50 Technological limit 40 30 20 Am ericium target in PHENIX m oderating spectrum : - Evolution of compositions - Evolution of Am transmutation rate and global fission rate 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

1700 1800 1900 2000 100 EFPD 90 At technological limit one obtains : fission rate ~95% transmutation rate ~100% remaining mass contents : 3% Pu, 0%Am et 2% Cm 80 70 % 60 50 Technological limit (200 DPA NRT) 40 30 20 10 Pu Am Cm taux de fission taux de transmutation Am 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 EFPD DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 17 ECRIX EXPERIMENTS: PIN DESIGN Microstruture : type Inert matrix : Fuel Particles: Am content : Height density : CERCER Microdispersed MgO AmOx 0,7g of Am/cm3 97% Cladding UO2 pellets Fissile column with americium target - pellets Porosits en noir: porosities Black elements AmOelements White x en blanc : AmOx particle Grey area : MgO en gris UO2 pellets magnesia

500 m DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 18 LLFP TRANSMUTATION: ANTICORP 1 Capsule: 3 pins with two pieces of 99Tc metal Moderator carrier Transmutation rate target: 25% DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 19 CAPRIX 1 EXPERIMENT Irradiation of high Pu content fuel To assess: Thermal-mechanical behaviour of the pin Radial Pu redistribution Cladding Internal corrosion Reprocessing 2 pins: 45% Pu /(U+Pu) enrichment pellets with 17 driver fuel pins in a capsule Target burn-up : 10 at% DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 20 CORE LOCATION OF TRANSMUTATION EXPERIMENTS DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 21

FUTURE EXPERIMENTS Optimisation of target for Americium transmutation CAMIX (Compos dAMricium dans PhnIX) : optimisation of actinide compound COCHIX (Conception Optimise vis--vis des miCrostructures dans pHnIX) : testing of new microstructures (macromasses) dispersed in inert matrix MATINA 2-3 testing of CERamics/CERamics targets with a MgO matrix and macrodispersed particles and of new materials Fuel for future systems FUTURIX/FTA (FUels for Transmutation of transURanien elements in PhnIX/Fortes Teneurs en Actinides testing of Metal, nitride, CER/MET, CER/CER fuels with high TRU content Collaboration with US/DOE, ITU, CRIEPI three further experiments planned (fuel and materials for Gas-cooled FR) DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 22 CONCLUSIONS Successful re-start after a major safety upgrading of the PHENIX plant ( the unique fast breeder reactor in Europe ) (Availability factor 94% in 2004) Transmutation experimental programme in progress for: Americium , Technetium 99 ,inert matrix for heterogeneous transmutation(ECRIX, ANTICORP, MATINA) Homogeneous transmutation (METAPHIX ) High PU content fuel (CAPRIX) Neutronic datas (PROFIL) which shall provide a validation of a wide range of concepts Preparation of future experiments for the next cycles. DEN /Valrh /Centrale Phnix NEA 8th Information Exchange Meeting Las Vegas, 9th-11th of November 2004 23

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