Defination and Brief History of Philiosophy of Realism

Defination and Brief History of Philiosophy of Realism

Philosophy of Realism Brief Definition & History FCPA 201 - Socio-Philosophical Foundations Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Prepared and Compiled by: JOHNY S. NATAD 01 August 2009 Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Johny S. Natad Surigao City Study Center Main Topic Brief Definition of Philosophy of Realism Brief History of Philosophy of Realism A. Aristotle B. Saint Thomas Aquinas

C. John Amos Comenius D. Ren Descartes E. Baruch Spinoza F. John Locke G.Immanuel Kant H. Johann Friedrich Herbart I. William James J. The Neorealist K. The Critical Realist Synthesis Idealist Idealist Idealist Pragmatist Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center BRIEF DEFINATION

Johny S. Natad Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 4 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad From Wikepedia.com Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. Philosophers who profess realism also typically believe that truth consists in a belief's correspondence to reality. We may speak of realism with respect to other minds, the past, the future, universals, mathematical entities (such as natural numbers), moral categories, the material world, or even thought. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_realism

Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 5 Johny S. Natad Surigao City Study Center From Dictionary.reference The doctrine that objective existence. universals have a real The doctrine that objects of sense perception have an existence independent of the act of perception.

The modern philosophical doctrine, opposed to idealism that physical objects exist independently of their being perceived. An approach to philosophy that regards external objects as the most fundamentally real things, with perceptions or ideas as secondary. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/realism Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 6 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad From Encarta.msn theory that things exist objectively: the theory that things such as universals, moral facts, and theoretical scientific entities exist

independently of people's thoughts and perceptions theory of objectively existing world: the theory that there is an objectively existing world, not dependent on our minds, and that people are able to understand aspects of that world through perception http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861700796/realism.html Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center BRIEF HISTORY Johny S. Natad 7 Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies

Surigao City Study Center Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE) Johny S. Natad 8 Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 9 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Biography Student of Plato Tutor of Alexander, 343-334 BCE Founds the Lyceum in Athens 334 BCE, starting rivalry between his school and the Academy. Wrote 27 Dialogues, for which he

was renowned in antiquity, and were considered the equal of Plato. Prof. D. Allen Dalton Known to modern world through his lecture notes (likely organized by pupils). Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 10 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Biography Aristotles Organon is his contribution

to logic and reasoning - consisting of six books. Senses are source of knowledge. Man forms universals, or categories, from many perceptions of like objects. Presents deductive reasoning based on experience as method of science and philosophy. Prof. D. Allen Dalton Universals are conceptions, not things (rejects Platos Idealism). Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 11

Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Biography Plato vs. Aristotle Plato Aristotle Dealing with universal Interested in particulars Fascinated by things Absorb in ideas Envisioned ideal ends Kept his nose to the grindstone of present actualities Recognized various Ardently advanced the sciences of his day as cause

of science by they fitted into the spelling out the detail of a total scheme of number of sciences with knowledge surprising fullness for his day Butler, Donald J. Four Philosophies and Their Practices in Education and Religion p. 249 Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 12 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Biography In science, Aristotle produces

books in natural science, biology, (his History of Animals is his greatest scientific achievement) and psychology (On the Soul). Aristotles Metaphysics produces his view of God as the First Cause Uncaused, pure thought, internal to nature. Ethics is concerned with individual happiness; Politics is concerned with collective happiness. Prof. D. Allen Dalton Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 13 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Different levels of life (definition of Soul) 1. Plant life the lowest level at which is

found only the nutritive faculty, the power of receiving nourishment. 2. Animal life has nutritive faculty and has faculty of perception desiring faculty and power of locomotion. 3. Human life has faculty of thinking a thinking animal and true function is to live rationally. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 14 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Four Causes in his Physics 1. Material cause (that which composes a thing) describes the material out of which something is composed. 2. Formal cause (the form or the model of things) tells us what a thing is, that any thing is determined by the

definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. 3. Efficient cause (the source from which movement or rest comes) is that from which the change or the ending of the change first starts. It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest. 4. Final cause (the end and goal of a thing) is that for the sake of which a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 15 The efficient cause, the formal cause, and the final cause coincide in the concept of "form." Hence form is the propelling,

organizing and final principle of becoming. Aristotle holds that there must be a first cause, as an endless chain of causes. God is defined therefore as the first efficient cause underlying all existence (Prime Mover who is himself unmoved), but is He himself is unmoved by another cause which might be presumed as being prior to Him. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 16 Saint Thomas Aquinas 1225 1274 A.D

Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 17 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Biography Born in 1225 at Aquino, Italy Referred to as Thomas because his last name Aquinas refers to where he was born Priest of the Roman Catholic Church in the Dominican Order from Italy Influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, known as Doctor Angelicus and Doctor Communis (One of the 33 Doctors of the Church) Died in 1274 in Italy Yasir Samad, Samantha John, Samar Sheikh Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 18

Johny S. Natad Surigao City Study Center Biography Aquinas was an empiricist Believed in knowledge through sensory Lead empiricist movement One of the few Empiricists in a predominantly Roman Catholic Europe Yasir Samad, Samantha John, Samar Sheikh Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 19 Surigao City Study Center

Johny S. Natad Main Theories Believed that both matter and essence are bound up in physical objects. Believed that knowledge begins with sense perception Knowledge can grow beyond the sensory world when reason is applied to sensory experience Believed in using inductive reasoning to arrive at generalizations or universals Supported scientific inquiry Yasir Samad, Samantha John, Samar Sheikh Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 20 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Issues with Knowledge

He thought knowledge was: Knowledge is a certain kind of being, a modification. or vital action of the knowing subject. There are two different types of knowledge like sense knowledge and intellectual knowledge 1. Sense is the beginning for all of man's natural knowledge 2. There are different types of sense knowledge like sensememory, sense-consciousness, instinct, and imagination For intellectual knowledge there is abstract and general. This knowledge is quite different from the real and particular of outer and inner senses. This was because the fact that abstract knowledge was attributed to intelligence or reason . Yasir Samad, Samantha John, Samar Sheikh Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 21 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad

Reality of Matter In Chapter 16 of his Summa Contra Gentiles he struggles with the relation between God and material substance out which the word is apparently made. Challenge question to Saint Thomas If God is spirit, is matter something separate and distinct from Him, preadjascent matter, as Saint Thomas would say? Did matter coexist eternally with God before the creation of the universe? And was the process of creation, therefore, one in which God acted upon matter so as to mold the universe out of it? God is presumed to be infinite having no limits at all. And if matter coexist with Him before the beginning if the world, then God does have limits. That portion of existence which was matter then was God Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 22 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad

Reality of Matter Answer of Saint Thomas God is both infinite and eternal, without limit, and without beginning or ending. Therefore, matter did not coexist with Him in eternities before the universe was made. God created matter. He made it out of nothing. And this primary matter, created by God, is the primary substance out of which the different kinds of things and different individual objects comprising the world were made. Matter is not an uncaused essence or existence. God is the first cause, the unmoved mover, as Aristotle held, and matter depends upon Him for existence. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 23 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Reality of Matter

Answer of Saint Thomas The act of creation was an action of giving concrete forms to objects, primary matter being both created itself and sustaining a potential relation to individual objects, the formed objects being actual as compared to the potentiality of primary matter. It may be said that matter had a practical reality, at least for Saint Thomas, which amounted to a kind of independence in relation to mind. He said that PRIMARY MATTER is in some way, for it is being in POTENTIALITY. A person can still believe in nonpersonal physical energy or force, which for all practical purpose is just as real and unyielding as what was formerly believed to be matter. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 24 Surigao City Study Center Nature of God

Aquinas believed that the existence of God is neither obvious nor unprovable. In the Summa Theologica, he considered in great detail five reasons for the existence of God. These are widely known as quinquae viae, or the "Five Ways." Johny S. Natad Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 25 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Nature of God Five statements about the divine qualities: 1. God is simple, without composition of parts, such as body and soul, or matter and form. 2. God is perfect, lacking nothing. That is, God is distinguished from other beings on account of

God's complete actuality. 3. God is infinite. That is, God is not finite in the ways that created beings are physically, intellectually, and emotionally limited. This infinity is to be distinguished from infinity of size and infinity of number. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 26 Surigao City Study Center Nature of God Five statements about the divine qualities: 4. God is immutable, incapable of change on the levels of God's essence and character. 5. God is one, without diversification within God's self. The unity of God is such that God's essence is the same as God's existence. In Aquinas's words, "in itself the

proposition 'God exists' is necessarily true, for in it subject and predicate are the same. Johny S. Natad Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 27 John Amos Comenius (28 March 1592 15 November 1670) Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 28

Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Comenius Philosophy John Amos Comenius a Czech teacher, scientist, educator, and writer. He was a Unity of the Brethren/Moravian Protestant bishop, a religious refugee, and one of the earliest champions of universal education, a concept eventually set forth in his book Didactica Magna. Comenius became known as the teacher of nations. He is often considered the FATHER OF MODERN EDUCATION.

His parents died while he was a child. He was still a young man when the Thirty Years War broke out, and soon thereafter he lost his wife and child. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 29 Surigao City Study Center Comenius Philosophy Mind of man is like a spherical mirror suspended in a room, which reflects images of all things that are around it. This is a vivid figure for describing the character of the mind Johny S. Natad

Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 30 Surigao City Study Center Comenius Philosophy Vivid figure for describing the character of the mind: If a person has not experienced it, he can easily imagine a crystal ball suspended in a room as a sort of chandelier. He can see how many objects in the room would somewhere produce its image on the ball. Each person coming into the room would have

his likeness reflected on the ball-like mirror from his very first appearance in the doorway. Johny S. Natad Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 31 Surigao City Study Center Comenius Philosophy The spherical mirror is the mind of man. The room is the external world. Everything in that world somehow reflects its image upon mans mind. Mind is the passive recipient; the

world though not exactly active, is the impression agent. Johny S. Natad Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Ren Descartes 1596 1650 Charles Smith Johny S. Natad 32 Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies

33 Johny S. Natad Surigao City Study Center Biography Ren Descartes (31 March 1596 11 February 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (Latinized form), was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic He has been Philosophy dubbed the "Father of

Modern Took a brief stint in the military after getting formal schooling at La Fleche & Poitiers. Designed a plan to apply mathematical methods into unifying human knowledge. Died at Stockholm, Sweden, where he had been invited as a teacher for Queen Christina of Sweden. Charles Smith Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 34 Surigao City Study Center Descartes Philosophy Method Doubt and Existence Cartesianism Charles Smith Johny S. Natad

Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 35 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Method Wrote about Method in his first rationalist version of Discourse on Method. In this he stated that it is the wrong method to get traditional education and he also wrote about the deficiencies of traditional education. Charles Smith Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 36

Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Doubt and Existence He wrote about Doubt and Existence in Meditation on First Philosophy. Doubt is essential in achieving any conclusive truth. (J. Donald Butler) He argued that someone who doesnt believe because of what they heard can overcome this by thinking on their own. He states that people would like facts and actual events to occur where it will make them believe. Descartes offered to prove that God does exist, but he has to prove that no one will believe when they first hear something. Charles Smith Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 37

Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Doubt and Existence Descartes dualism treatment of the knowing process: There are mental images or representation which our senses give to us of the world beyond the self Two questions to be asked about external world: Q1: Is the outside world real? Can we believe and accept as true what our senses tell us about the world or my senses deceive it? Q2: Is the external world just as our senses picture it to us, or do our senses help give it its qualities although there is something real out there which our senses work? Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 38

Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Doubt and Existence Two questions to be asked about external world: Q2: Is the external world just as our senses picture it to us, or do our senses help give it its qualities although there is something real out there which our senses work? Descartes Answer: The mental images of the external world given to us by sense perception are numerically distinct from the real external world out there which is represented to us by these images. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 39 Surigao City Study Center

Johny S. Natad Doubt and Existence Two questions to be asked about external world: Q1: Is the outside world real? Can we believe and accept as true what our senses tell us about the world or my senses deceive it? Descartes Answer: God is a perfect being is of course perfectly good and would not stoop to deception. The external world appears to be real, just as my senses give me experience of it. Either God is deceiving me or else the physical world is real. Since God is a perfect being, the answer to this question is assured. God will not deceive; therefore the physical world is a real world. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 40

Descartes apparent conception of the physical world which he holds is categorically realism. Though its reality is guaranteed to him by the goodness of God, yet it is a physical, extended, material world of a very mechanical sort. Descartes belief that although God is necessary in order to established the reality of the physical world, and although this belief is logically prior to the belief in the universe, God and Nature still seem to be quite separate and distinct. God is spirit, but the world is an extended mechanical order, if not a material one. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 41 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Cartesianism

The overall philosophy of Cartesianism is that the mind is separate from the body and that the body can be better understood. It follows also the fact that just because something gives you pleasure it doesnt make it beautiful. Charles Smith Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 42 Baruch de Spinoza November 24, 1632 - February 21, 1677 Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies

43 Johny S. Natad Surigao City Study Center Biograhpy Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza was philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. a Dutch Considered as one of the great rationalists of 17thcentury philosophy, laying the groundwork for the 18th century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism. His

magnum opus, the posthumous Ethics, in which he opposed Descartes' mindbody dualism. He was excommunicated for positions contrary to normative Jewish belief with critical positions towards the Talmud and other religious texts. All of Spinoza's works were listed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) by the Roman Catholic Church. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 44 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Doctrines affiliates realist tradition:

1. Substance is extended in time and space, and there is no thought apart from it. God or substance has extension as one of its 2 attributes. Whereas the final substance is a thinking thing, it is always an extending thing. There is no though without extension in time and space. God is not a disembodied spirit who can exist apart from the physical world. He is not however, identical with the physical world, nor is He dependent upon it. Instead, He is the only existing substance, and upon Him the physical world stands. The extendedness of the physical world is part of the very essence of God. It is just as much His nature to be extended as it is His nature to think. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 45

Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Doctrines affiliates realist tradition: 2. There is no freedom or chance in the universe; everything comes to pass as a result of effects and causes following each other with an unbroken dependability and efficiency. Will is not a part of the essence of God. It is a mode of thought, and thought in turn is an essential attribute of God. Therefore thinking is more basic than willing. Willing is not a general characteristic of existence, but rather it is a specific form in which thought is expressed (a mode rather than an attribute), and thought is a general characteristic of God (an attribute).

Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 46 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Doctrines affiliates realist tradition: 2. There is no freedom or chance in the universe Consequently, there is no freedom of will in God or man. Will is a disposition to act which is the result of some cause other than itself, the second cause brought about by the third cause, and so on to infinity. This means for the individual human mind that there is no general faculty of volition (wish, decision, choice). There are only specific tendencies to act in specific

situations as a result of a chain of causes which give rises to the idea of acting in a given way in a given specific situation. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 47 John Locke 1632 1704 Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 48 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad

Biography John Locke was an Englishman of Puritan His father, a lawyer and member of the Parliamentary army which opposed Charles I, has reflected in Lockes educational principle. Aid by scholarships, he was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church College, Oxford. Some of his books: Some thoughts Concerning Education (which provides Lockes educational principle); and Essay Concerning Human Understanding where he focused his general philosophy. The first philosopher to define the self through a continuity of "consciousness". He also postulated that the mind was a "blank slate" or "tabula rasa" Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 49

Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Knowledge Our experiences provided us with what he termed simple and complex Considered that there are 3 main types of knowledge: 1. Intuitive- most certain and most obvious 2. Demonstrative when we put simple ideas together to create complex ones 3. Sensitive The most uncertain because it relies on evidence of the senses By: Sandy Ivneet (presentation) Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 50

Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Issues on Knowledge Locke believed that we gain knowledge by experience, this is called empiricism Lockes theory was that the only way we learn is by tasting, smelling, touching, and hearing the external world Locke believed that there were two types of ideas, Simple and Complex - Simple ideas are easy sensations like feeling a hot stove - Complex ideas are a grouping of simple ideas like when you look at a banana, you see it is yellow (color) it is mushy (texture) it is sweet (taste) these ideas form the idea of a banana By: Saad Nikki Mohit (presentation) Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 51

Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Issues on Knowledge Sense Experience You touch ice From Sence Experience to Ideas Sensation Cold Impression in the Mind Ice is cold Reflection Ice = cold

Idea If you touch ice, it will be cold By: Saad Nikki Mohit (presentation) Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 52 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Kinds of Qualities or Perception Experience is the source of all knowledge; sensation and reason are the 2 avenues through which this knowledge comes to us. There are 3 different kind of qualities or perceptions which come to mind by way of sensation: Primary: essential characters to the very nature of object i.e. height and weight (undeniable truths) Secondary: rely on subjective or personal judgments

(color, taste, sound and some tactile sensations e.g. hardness, softness, temperature, texture & pain) Tertiary: these are the powers somehow resident in object enabling them to make changes in other objects (e.g. power of fire to produce a new color or consistency in wax or clay) Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 53 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 3 Kinds of Qualities or Perception These 3 qualities are produced in our minds in the same way, but they are not all residents in the external world just as we experience them in our minds. The

process of motion caused by the object which stimulates the appropriate senses, sends impulses along the nerve pathways, eventually reaches the brain, and produced the mental result we experience. There is a marked difference between the primary and secondary qualities to compare our own qualities of experience and with what is out there in the external world. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 54 Surigao City Study Center Kinds of Qualities or Perception Primary qualities Primary

qualities, as we experience them in the mind, correspond directly to the characteristics of the external objects which give them rise in our minds. Getting impressions or real height, thickness, shape, and solidity, which are out there in the candle There is a direct correspondence between the images which I have in my mind and the primary characteristics which the candle out there in the external world has, whether I experience them or not. Johny S. Natad Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 55

Surigao City Study Center Kinds of Qualities or Perception Secondary qualities They are not out there in the same form in which I experience them. In the object, secondary qualities are powers of some kind which are SUPPORTED by the primary qualities and able to stimulate the experience of the respective secondary qualities in my mind. But they do not exist out there just as I see, hear, or feel them, etc. In other words, there is no direct correspondence between the secondary qualities I enjoy in my mind and the object from which they come. Johny S. Natad

Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 56 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Kinds of Qualities or Perception This treatment of primary and secondary qualities by Locke is a potential springboard for either idealism or critical realism depending upon the kind of jump which is made. George Berkely said If your secondary qualities have no direct correspondents out there in the external world, then your primary qualities dont have any either. Berkeley preferred to believe, and he built his idealism on that treatment of the process of perception. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 57

Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Kinds of Qualities or Perception Modern Critical Realist said You are right about the secondary qualities. There is something out there which corresponds both to primary and secondary qualities; but you are absolutely right in distinguishing between the images in the mind and the external object which produced the image. There is always a dualism between the experience of the knower and the external world which produces that experience. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 58 Surigao City Study Center

Johny S. Natad Tabula rasa There is no innate ideas in the mind. All of our knowledge comes to us by way of experience. The mind is for the most part passive in experiencing the natural world. We are neither born with ready-made ideas nor are such ideas dormant in us and recognized by us when we mature sufficiently to use reason. Mind, instead of being already formed at birth, is unformed something to which experience gives definiteness. At birth it may be compared to a blank sheet of paper upon which the world then proceeds to write its impression. All knowledge comes from experience and is either impresses upon us by sensation or arrived at the logical demonstration. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 59 Surigao City Study Center

Johny S. Natad Existence of God Locke holds that the existence of God can be demonstrated logically. He says: By intuition, I know that I exist. I also know by intuition that nothing cannot produce something. Something has always existed; for if this were not true, I who now exist would either have been produced by nothing or else by something which in turn arose out of nothing. And this has already been acknowledged to be impossible. This something which always existed must be most powerful since it would have to be the source of all power. It also must be a knowing something, or how could it produce knowing things, such as man. Therefore there must be a God who is an eternal, allpowerful, and all-knowing being. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Johny S. Natad Surigao City Study Center

60 Immanuel Kant 22 April 1724 - 12 February 1804 By Rikki Gill and Rhy Suraj Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 61 Johny S. Natad Surigao City Study Center Biography Immanuel Kant is an idealist born at Knigsberg in East Prussia, 22 April, 1724; died there, 12 February, 1804. Studied with Martin Knutzen, under whom he acquired a knowledge of the philosophy of Wolff and of Newton's physics.

After the death of his father in 1746 he spent nine years as tutor in various families. In 1755 he returned to Knigsberg, and there he spent the remainder of his life From 1755 to 1770 he was Privatdozent (unsalaried professor) at the University of Knigsberg. In 1770 he was appointed professor of philosophy, a position which he held until 1797. By Rikki Gill and Rhy Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 62 Johny S. Natad Surigao City Study Center Main Theories

Theory of Perception: understanding of the external world knowledge. of comes from experience and Theory Judgment: Kants Ethical Theory: Evil cannot produce Humans can only understand what is going on at the present time. It

is not possible to predict the future, where humans are not involved. happiness. Good qualities are human nature. By Rikki Gill and Rhy Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 63 Johny S. Natad Surigao City Study Center Main Vocabulary Empirical realism: experience gained through our senses Physical sensation: use reason to explain the experience theyve gained Analytic proposition: predicate concept is in its subject concept

By Rikki Gill and Rhy Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 64 Johny S. Natad Surigao City Study Center Issue with Knowledge Kant believed that human knowledge was derived from two particular sources: (1) Sensibility and (2) Understanding We are nothing without our senses. Prior knowledge + new experiences helps create understanding. Sensibility senses. is

simply derived from our By Rikki Gill and Rhy Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 65 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Doctrine of the thing-in-itself

Our sensory experiences and perception are REPRESENTATIONS of the external world and not directly PRESENTATION of it. Our private experience of the world is our private experience, and the images which we have of the world are separate and distinct from what is out there in the world. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 66 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Doctrine of the thing-in-itself Object are either REPRESENTED in our

consciousness (critical realism), in which case there is a real world out there which corresponds directly to the world which is in my consciousness; or they are PRESENTED to my consciousness (neorealism), in which case my consciousness in some way embraces the object of knowledge itself, and I experience it just as it is and just as it was before it entered my experience. In either case, of course, there is no unknown thing-initself. Things just enter into consciousness and are known. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 67 Johan Friedrich Herbart

May 4, 1776 August 11, 1841 Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 68 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Biography Johan Friedrich Herbart was born at Oldenburg (May 4, 1776 August 11, 1841) was a German philosopher, psychologist, and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline, was more educator than philosopher. Kants successor in the chair of philosophy of Knigsberg

He also established & conducted a seminary of pedagogy till 1833, when he returned to Gttingen, and remained there as professor of philosophy till his death. His pedagogic works, include the "sthetic Revelation of the World" and the "Science of Education"; also works on metaphysics and logic Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 69 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Mind and Soul

Soul a perfectly simple, indivisible essence without parts of any kind. It has no innate talents nor is it a tabula rasa on which impressions are made by the world. It is neither concepts, feelings, nor desires, nor does it have forms of perception and thought. Mind is a sort of manifold of self-preserving ideas or concepts (self-preserving for the soul) which the soul builds up as a result of its contact with the physical world. Mind is not an active agent which produces changes in the world surrounding it. It is rather the sum total of impressions which results from the souls relation to the world. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 70 Surigao City Study Center

Johny S. Natad Mind and Soul Mind is not an active agent which produces changes in the world surrounding it. It is rather the sum total of impressions which results from the souls relation to the world. They are impression made upon us by the physical world and are copies in consciousness of the objects of the physical world which result form the souls contact with them. There is unconscious battle of the concepts going on in the mind all the time, the result of which is the determination of what actually comes into consciousness and what does not. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 71 Surigao City Study Center

Johny S. Natad Soul and Matter As is the case with the soul, so also with matter; it is unknowable and cannot be defined. At the same time it is a reality of the external world, not something to be reasoned away. It is something which actually exists and produces the phenomena which we experience as making up the space-time world. Soul and Matter are different aspects of a third common substance. The difference between soul and matter is not a difference in nature of the simple essences, but it is a difference in the manner of our apprehending them Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad

72 William James (January 11, 1842 August 26, 1910) Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 73 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Biography William James (January 11, 1842 August 26, 1910) born in New York, was a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher trained as a medical doctor. He wrote influential books on the young science of

psychology, educational psychology, psychology of religious experience and mysticism, and the philosophy of pragmatism. Privileged in life, studying both in America and Europe, he was immersed in biology, medicine, psychology, and philosophy. At 31 he become inspired teacher at Harvard (first teaching physiology, then psychology, and finally philosophy). Almost 60 years after his death, James is still one of the most popular philosophers that America had produced. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 74 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad

Contribution to Philosophy of Realism James hold that: 1. Consciousness is a function and not a substantial entity; 2. That when objects are experienced in consciousness, they are directly presented in consciousness, not represented; 3. The universe is many not one Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 75 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad

Contribution to Philosophy of Realism 1. Consciousness is a function and not a substantial entity Old dualism of thoughts and things, spirit and matter, inner consciousness and outer world, is a fault in assuming consciousness to have reality. Instead, he held consciousness is a nonentity; it has no existence of its own. It is a function of experience and not a substance. Consciousness is merely a witness of happening in time. Journal of Philosophy published in 1941 with striking title of the article was Does Consciousness Exist? Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 76 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Contribution to Philosophy of Realism 2. That when objects are experienced in

consciousness, they are directly presented in consciousness, not represented Knowing is a simple relation with presented objects in experience. Experience itself is the axis about which all experiencing revolves. It is therefore fallacious to assume that my experiences are my own private position. They are public, they are functions of an all-embracing experience (not an experience of an all-embracing Person as in idealism, however); and since my organism is in relation in these experiences, my consciousness witness them. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 77 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Contribution to Philosophy of Realism Experience is not a substance. It is not made up through and through of some

general stuffs so that all experiences have some common essence Experiences is only a collective name for all of these sensible natures, and save for time and space (and if you like, for being) there appears no universal element of which all things are made. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 78 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Contribution to Philosophy of Realism 3. The universe is many not one... There are all kinds of qualities, substances, or essences which exist in time and space. There is not one common substance. Experience is a kind of relation which takes place between these substances and the objects which they

comprise. Physical organism can enter into the kind of relation constituting experience and so can have experiences. To be conscious of these experience relations is just to be aware that they are going on. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 79 THE NEOREALISTS New realism was a philosophy expounded in the early 20th century by a group of six US based scholars, namely: 1. Edwin Bissell Holt (Harvard University) 2. Walter Taylor Marvin (Rutgers College), 3. William Pepperell Montague (Columbia University), 4. Ralph Barton Perry (Harvard),

5. Walter Boughton Pitkin (Columbia) and 6. Edward Gleason Spaulding (Princeton University). These men published their manifesto entitled The New Realism in 1912. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 80 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Neorealist Philosophy The central feature of the new realism was a rejection of the epistemological dualism of John Locke and the older forms of realism. The group maintained that when one is conscious of, or knows, an object, it is an error to say that there are two distinct facts -- knowledge of the object in a mind, and an extra-mental object in itself. They rebut the idealist principle that the knowledge produces changes in the object

known, and to insist that the knowing experience is a simple relation of knower and object in which the object is directly presented to consciousness. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 81 THE CRITICAL REALIST This group formed in 1916 and published their manifesto the Essay in Critical Realism. 1. Roy Wood Sellars of Michigan 2. George Santayana of Harvard 3. Arthur O. Lovejoy of John Hopkins 4. Bertrand Russell George Santayana 5. C. D. Broad. 6. Bernard Lonergan (Canadian Jesuit ) 7. Durant Drake of Vassar 8. James Bissett Pratt of Williams

9. Arthur K. Rogers of Yale and 10.C.A Strong of Columbia. Bertrand Russell Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 82 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad Critical Realist Philosophy The critical realist rejected the neorealist position that objects are directly presented to consciousness. Their correction was that the objects are not presented; they are represented. The object which I experience in consciousness is numerically distinct from the physical existence out there which causes the object which I experience in consciousness. The position is none the less realistic for its rejection of the presentative theory of knowledge of neorealism. The physical existents out there in the physical world not in consciousness are yet real in

themselves. They stand on their own feet; they depend on no mind for their existence, nor are they changed in any way by entering into knowledge. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 83 SYNTHESIS Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 84 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad

On the Physical World Nature is a primary self-evident reality, a starting point in philosophizing. Aristotle The physical world is real, at least for the duration of the temporal order. Saint Thomas and Descartes There is no though without extension. Spinoza The primary qualities of experience exist in the physical world. Locke There is something which produces my sensations and perceptions, the thing-in-itself, which cannot be known to be mental in character. Kant Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 85 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad On the Character of Mind

Mind is like a mirror receiving images from the physical world. Comenius The mind of a child at birth is similar to a blank sheet of paper upon which the world proceeds to write its impressions. Locke Mind is a manifold of ideas or concepts. Herbart Consciousness is not a substance, it is an awareness of experiences, and experience is a medium in which objects and organisms are related. James Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies 86 Surigao City Study Center Johny S. Natad 2 Fundamental Dimensions of Realism: According to Michael Devitt By existence existence, he means that there is, in fact, an

external (to the mental or phenomenal realm of cognizers) world. By independence independence, he means that the world does not need to be related to anything at all in order that (nonintentional) facts about it obtain. If philosophical doctrines came with slogans on their boxcovers, metaphysical realisms would read: The world exists independently of the mental. http://socialscience.deltacollege.edu/faculty/documents/Metaphysical-ferraiolo.pdf Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Johny S. Natad Surigao City Study Center 87 Salamat karajaw BUKIDNON STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center

Prepared and Compiled by: JOHNY S. NATAD 01 August 2009

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