Delayed ILC Roadmap

Delayed ILC Roadmap

f Project X Overview Dave McGinnis November 1, 2007 f Motivation The Fermilab Main Injector has the potential to provide intense energetic proton beams that can unlock discovery opportunities in neutrino physics and flavor physics. Future neutrino experiments will most likely require beam power exceeding 2MW at energies of 40 GeV and above. To provide this intense beam, the proton source must be

capable of providing 400kW at the 8 GeV injection energy of the Main Injector. Project X Overview - McGinnis 2 f Motivation Currently, the relatively modern Main Injector is fed protons by an aged proton source. The current Fermilab proton source provides on the order of 30kW for the current neutrino program and has the capability of providing up to 70kW. Space charge tune shift at injection into the Booster limits the beam power in the current Fermilab proton source Space charge is almost completely mitigated if the proton source is replaced by an 8 GeV Linac.

The major issue of an 8 GeV injector linac is cost. Superconducting RF technology raises economic crossover point between a linac and a synchrotron to the few GeV range. Fermilab Proton Driver design. Project X Overview - McGinnis 3 f Motivation One of the key features of the superconducting 8 GeV linac is the synergy it shares with the ILC design. Synergy in the designs would help in both directions The 8 GeV Linac would benefit from Enormous engineering effort being expended on the design of the ILC main linac. Cost savings resulting from ILC industrialization, Technological advances from ILC R&D

Project X Overview - McGinnis 4 f Motivation ILC industrialization would benefit greatly from the construction of a superconducting 8 GeV linac. The ILC industrialization profile outlined in the RDR calls for each region to double production capacity over a four year program a capacity to produce 25 cryomodules per year at the end of the fourth year. After four years, each region would have produced over 45 cryomodules. (~2% of the ILC) The high energy end of the superconducting 8 GeV linac requires about forty ILC-like cryo-modules. Construction of the superconducting 8 GeV linac could serve as the impetus for ILC industrialization

Added bonus of providing a strong physics program with real discovery potential. Project X Overview - McGinnis 5 f Motivation The 8 GeV Linac should be made to look as ILC -like as possible. Same beam parameters 9mA with 1 ms long pulse at a rate of 5 HZ Same configuration cryomodules for = 1 RF distribution for =1 Cryogenic distribution for =1 But 2 MW requires 150x1012 protons every 1.4 seconds at 120 GeV 24 mA x 1.0 mS = 150x1012 protons (more klystrons)

9 mA x 2.6 mS = 150x1012 protons (longer modulators) 9 mA x 1.0 mS = 56x1012 electrons (ILC) Project X Overview - McGinnis 6 f Recycler as a Proton Accumulator A holding or accumulation ring inserted between the 8 GeV Linac and the Main Injector can reduce the charge/pulse of the 8 GeV Linac to the same charge/pulse of the ILC linac. Feed consecutive pulses of beam from the 8 Gev Linac into the Recycler every 0.2 seconds (5Hz) The H- linac beam is stripped in the Recycler Each Linac pulse is over-laid on top of the previous Linac pulse be re-energizing the stripping system. Three Linac pulses is 150x1012 protons Extract beam from the Recycler and load the

Main Injector in a single turn Project X Overview - McGinnis 7 f Project X Layout 8 GeV extraction 1 second x 2.25 x 1014 protons/1.4 sec 200 kW 120 GeV fast extraction spill 1.5 x 1014 protons/1.4 sec 2 MW Recycler Main Injector 3 linac pulses/fill 8 GeV H- Linac

9mA x 1 msec x 5 Hz 0.6 GeV Front End Linac Stripping Foil 0.6-8 GeV ILC Style Linac 1.4 sec cycle Single turn transfer @ 8 GeV Project X Overview - McGinnis 8 f H- Injection

Start injection Stripping foil End 1st injection End 2nd injection Closed orbit movement End 3rd injection Move off foil Closed orbit Foil (injected beam) Project X Overview - McGinnis 9 f

8 GeV Physics Program The other advantage to stripping in the Recycler is that the stripping system is available to the Linac while the Main Injector is ramping. There is 0.8 seconds left before the Recycler needs to be reloaded for the Main injector Load and spill 4 pulses for an 8 GeV physics program Upgrade Paths 9 mA x 1 ms x 5 Hz = 360 kW at 8 GeV 9 mA x 3 ms x 10 Hz = 2100 kW at 8 GeV 27 mA x 1 ms x 10 Hz = 2100 kW at 8 GeV Project X Overview - McGinnis 10 f Proton Flux

Project X Overview - McGinnis 11 f Proton Beam Power Project X Overview - McGinnis 12 f What is Project X? The basic scheme is an 8 GeV linac operating with ILC-like parameters (9mA x 1mS x 5Hz) 0.6 GeV Front End linac 0.6 8 GeV ILC style linac Stripping and accumulation in the Recycler Beam distributed

to the Main Injector for acceleration to (up to) 120 GeV to an 8 GeV program. Components 0.6 GeV Front End linac + 0.6 8 GeV ILC style linac 8 GeV transfer line and H- Injection Recycler as a proton accumulator and stripping ring Extraction system form the Recycler Main Injector 120 GeV Targeting system Project X Overview - McGinnis 13 f

Schedule 2008: CD-0 Assume the decision for CD-0 will be quick since this is the only US accelerator project. 6 months of design work & 100 page report is enough. 2009: Work on (engineering) design report. Start R&D (MI cavities, stripping laser, RFQ, ...) 2010: Finish design report. CD-1. R&D on production scale. R&D should be 30% of project costs 2011: Preliminary Engineering Design Funding CD2 and CD3

2012: 2013: 2014: 2015: Real funding starts: 25% of project funding More construction: 35% "Finish" construction 35% Commissioning & retrofits 5% of project Project X Overview - McGinnis 14 f Project X Report for the Steering Group Project X Overview - McGinnis

15 f Project X Report Realistic expectations of what could be done competently on a months time-scale. For the August 8 AAC meeting A short report that outlines the concept possible operating parameters. Major technical issues are discussed. There are no showstoppers with these issues. A plan for future work is outlined. Report located at:

Project X Overview - McGinnis 16 f Project X Report Acknowledgements To proceed quickly on this report, we assembled a team composed mostly of Fermilab personnel. But, this report relies heavily on Proton Driver Design report HINS R&D collaboration RIA collaboration To move forward on Project X, we will require to continue to rely on the strong collaborative efforts with: Argonne National Lab Brookhaven National Lab Lawrence Berkeley National Lab We will also need to develop collaborations with other partners as well:

SLAC, JLAB, Cornell, SNS, Project X Overview - McGinnis 17 f Project X Report Working Groups 8 GeV Linac

R. Webber Leader - APC A. Klebaner - AD P. Ostroumov - ANL J. Carnerio - APC (S. Nagaitsev AD) D. Bogert APC B. Chase - AD 8 GeV Injection Recycler

A. Valishev Leader - AD A. Burov - AD C. Gatuso - AD R. Pasquinelli - AD (A. Leveling AD) (N. Mokhov APC) Dave Johnson Leader - APC John Johnstone - APC Mike Martens - AD Eric Prebys - AD Main Injector

S. Nagaitsev Leader - AD (D. Johnson APC) J. Lackey - AD 8 GeV Slow Extraction V. Lebedev - Leader - AD I. Kourbanis - AD R. Zwaska - APC D. Wildman - APC A. Leveling AD N. Mokhov - APC 120 GeV Target Station Jim Hylen - Leader - AD

Mike Martens - AD Pat Hurh AD Kamran Vaziri ES&H Project X Overview - McGinnis 18 f The 8 GeV Superconducting Linac Linac Section explores how similar the 8 GeV superconducting linac can be made to the ILC design. Major issues are transverse focusing distribution of accelerating gradient along the linac. The section presents two sample designs that explore tradeoffs of focusing and accelerating gradient. discusses cryogenic and civil construction issues.

relies heavily on the comprehensive Proton Driver design report. Project X Overview - McGinnis 19 f The 8 GeV Superconducting Linac Project X Overview - McGinnis 20 f The 8 GeV Superconducting Linac Project X Overview - McGinnis 21

f 8 GeV H- Injection into the Recycler 8 GeV Injection section reviews and discuss the issues associated with stripping 8 GeV Hions in the Recycler. Much of this work is based on the Proton Driver design report. The section discusses Transport between the linac and the Recycler, Techniques for longitudinal and transverse phase space painting, Foil issues, Injection losses Injection absorber. Project X Overview - McGinnis 22 f

8 GeV H- Injection into the Recycler Previous experience: Fermilab Booster (400 MeV) SNS (~ 1 GeV) plus a collection of others at 800 MeV (LANL) The Proton Driver collaboration has performed extensive studies for the injection into MI: H- Transport and Injection Mini-Workshop Dec. 9-10, 2004 at Fermilab: Proton Drivers Director Review: March, 2005 Many of the issues raised have been addressed under HINS R&D effort Found NO show stoppers We have a design for the MI; we can adopt it to the Recycler Fermilab-Conf-07-287-AD An 8 GeV H- Multi-turn Injection System for the Fermilab Main Injector

H- transport and stripping injection are considered together Fermilab-Conf-06-275-AD Design of an 8 GeV H- Transport and Multi-turn Injection System BNL collaboration (HINS R&D) in optimization of the foil-stripping injection system Items addressed include, transport line design and collimation, Electron catcher simulations, Foil peak temperature and temperature distribution, and in the future the Chicane magnet design Continued carbon foil development (KEK, TRIUMF, SNS) Project X Overview - McGinnis 23 f

8 GeV H- Injection into the Recycler Future Work Recycler lattice modifications for symmetric injection straight Inclusion of single particle mechanisms into TRACK for loss distribution predictions Design of Recycler collimation of particles with emittances > 40 Simulation of injection losses/ activation from foil interactions using MARS Painting algorithm looks promising- continue development Injection absorber design looks promising for Project X usage, although we need additional simulation for added beam power Conclusions Lower foil temperatures -> good foil lifetime Power supply for painting waveform -> extension from HINS R&D Robust transport line design can be adapted for Recycler injection No show stoppers are seen for incorporating Recycler injection into Project X

Project X Overview - McGinnis 24 f Proton Accumulation in the Recycler This section addresses proton accumulation in the Recycler. Optimal transverse and longitudinal distributions for minimal space charge tune shift second harmonic in the RF system phase space painting techniques the space charge tune equivalent to present MI operations (<0.05) Sources and cures of coherent instabilities for high beam currents in the Recycler and Main Injector. Radiation resistance of the Recyclers permanent magnets Beam loss management and radiation protection in the

Recycler and Main Injector. Project X Overview - McGinnis 25 f Proton Accumulation in the Recycler Phase Space Painting Space Charge Tune Shift reduced to 0.04 due to: Longitudinal phase space painting Transverse phase space painting (K-V distribution) Second Harmonic RF Project X Overview - McGinnis 26 f Proton Accumulation in the Recycler

No principal limitations from the point of view of accelerator physics have been found for the high intensity operation of the Recycler. We foresee no significant modifications to the machine magnets or vacuum system. Major upgrade concerns the RF system where the second harmonic system is added. Phase space painting is feasible to mitigate space charge effects Coherent instabilities can be suppressed by betatron tune chromaticity and broad-band damper Project X Overview - McGinnis 27 f Proton Accumulation in the Recycler Under normal conditions total losses should not exceed 300 W (controlled by injection

collimation system) Recycler permanent magnets are capable of withstanding high radiation doses Radiation protection for the project can be realized using Beam loss management Collimation systems and electronic berm are envisaged Future efforts could include More detailed lattice and RF design Dynamics simulations with space charge E-P instability studies Project X Overview - McGinnis 28 f Acceleration in the Main Injector Acceleration of high beam currents in the Main Injector (similar to B Factory operating

currents). New RF system Gamma-t jump system. Coherent Stability Local and non-local beam loss. Recycler and Main Injector sections share Space charge tune-shift Coherent stability, Beam loss management Project X Overview - McGinnis 29 f Acceleration in the Main Injector Gamma-t Jump Gamma-t Jump Project X Overview - McGinnis 30

f Acceleration in the Main Injector RF System Project X Overview - McGinnis 31 f Acceleration in the Main Injector There are no principle physics or technical limitations on future machine operation ep instability is a major point of concern Simulations show that most likely it will be a problem However, Project X beam current, energy and bunch spacing is similar to the SLAC and KEK B factories Keeping the Main Injector operating at 2 MW of beam power with good reliability will be challenging Machine protection and beam loss minimization have

to be major points of concern in the next stage of work Project X Overview - McGinnis 32 f 8 GeV Extraction from the Recycler Options for extracting beam from the Recycler to an 8 GeV physics program. Scenarios for fast and slow extraction from the Recycler. Fast Extraction is straight forward Slow Extraction is difficult Technique of transferring beam from the Recycler to the Debuncher ring for slow spill extraction from the Debuncher for the mu2e experiment.

Project X Overview - McGinnis 33 f 8 GeV Extraction from the Recycler Project X Overview - McGinnis 34 f 8 GeV Resonant Extraction from the Recycler Project X Overview - McGinnis 35 f

8 GeV Resonant Extraction from the Recycler Two extraction channels from the Recycler have potential for being developed 52 could supply beam to all existing areas 40 is a new green field area that could be developed Fast extraction of beam from single bunches to a full ring appear to be feasible (R&D needed for bunch-by-bunch) Resonant extraction in the Debuncher for seems to be straight forward. Resonant Extraction from the Recycler does not appear to be attractive More work is needed Project X Overview - McGinnis 36

f 120 GeV Beam for Neutrino experiments Targeting issues of high power beams extracted from the Main Injector for neutrino production. Two possibilities of: A new target hall Upgrading the present NUMI target system. No major problems with building a new target system to handle beam powers of 2MW or greater. The NUMI system would require substantial upgrades to handle powers greater than 2MW. Uses up redundancy and safety margin of initial NUMI design. Many of these upgrades are complicated by having to deal with activation of components. Project X Overview - McGinnis 37

f Workshop Project X Overview - McGinnis 38 f Project X Motivation Physicists have told us we need 2MW at 50 GeV and above. This type of beam power is best done with a superconducting linac We want to align ourselves with the ILC linac (synergy in both directions) To do 2 MW we need 150x1012 protons per pulse in the MI. The ILC type linac can only source 50x1012protons per pulse Inserting a stripping ring between the Linac and

the Main Injector allows us to accumulate charge from the linac which allows us to use the ILC linac design. Project X Overview - McGinnis 39 f Summary Project X is an intense 8 GeV proton source that provides beam for the Fermilab Main Injector and an 8 GeV physics program. The source consists of an 8 GeV superconducting linac that injects into the Recycler where multiple linac beam pulses are stripped and accumulated. The use of the Recycler reduces the required charge in the superconducting 8 GeV linac to match the charge per pulse of the ILC design so that much of the ILC technology can be used in the design. This benefit comes at the expense of space charge and stability issues in the Recycler that arise by storing beam in

the Recycler. Using transverse and longitudinal phase space painting along with 2nd harmonic RF, space charge tune shift is less than 0.05 Although there are many challenging technical issues to building an intense protons source , these issues are surmountable. Project X Overview - McGinnis 40

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