The Struggle for Civil Rights 1950s 1960s The Great Migration First wave (1915-25) caused by need for black labor to replace immigrants during World War I Second wave (1930s-60s) in response to Depression & AAA programs that drove sharecroppers off land Significance: made blacks politically visible
Able to vote & enjoyed greater civil liberties Became swing vote in cities World War II & the Cold War WWII led to great increase in black activism Pittsburg Courier launched Double V campaign to fight racism at home as well as abroad NAACP membership increased from 50,000 to 400,000
James Farmer founded CORE (Congress Of Racial Equality) to fight segregation in Chicago Cold War put pressure on U.S. govt to live up to stated ideology Desegregating the Schools NAACP Legal Division made strategic decision to devote limited resources to school desegregation Took gradual approach to overturn Plessy Ex rel. Gaines (1938): Missouri must build
separate black law school or admit Gaines to white law school Sweatt v. Painter (1950): separate black law school couldnt be equal due to intangible factors v. Board of Ed. of Topeka (1954): separate educational facilities are inherently unequal Charles Houston Brown Thurgood Marshall
The Reaction White backlash: Southern Manifesto Revival of Ku Klux Klan Little Rock (1957): Gov. Orval Faubus called out state militia to prevent integration of Central High School Pres. Eisenhower sent in 1,000 troops to escort 9 black students Little Rock, 1957 Ole Miss (1962):
Gov. Barnett refused to allow James Meredith to enroll Kennedy sent federal marshals & troops to escort Meredith onto campus James Meredith, 1962 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Attended Crozer Seminary in Philadelphia & B.U. for doctorate Became pastor of Dexter Ave. Baptist Church in Montgomery, Sept. 1954 Lead Montgomery Improvement Associations bus boycott, Dec. 1955 Dec. 1956 Time did cover story in Feb. 18, 1957 issue, & King received the NAACPs Spingarn Medal in June 1957
Coretta & Martin King after his conviction, March 22, 1956 The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Based on Christianity & Gandhis example Dramatized evil to shock white consciences Based on respect for laws & American ideals Integrationist, not separationist Deliberately picked virulent racists whom they knew would provide violent drama Bull Connor in Birmingham, 1963 Jim Clark in Selma, 1965
March on Washington, Aug. 28, 1963 A. Philip Randolph orginally planned it to be about jobs Became rally in support of Kennedys civil rights bill Kings I Have a Dream speech appealed to patriotism, using lyrics from America Photos from David Cone,
Martin & Malcolm & America Congress Of Racial Equality and the Freedom Rides CORE had sponsored initial Freedom Rides in 1947, to test Morgan v. Virginia decision 1961 Freedom Rides tested Boynton v. Virginia ruling Met with violence in Alabama
The Greensboro Sit-Ins, 1960 Ezell Blair, Jr., Joseph McNeil, David Richmond & Franklin McClain = original four All Southerners, NAACP Dressed neatly & acted politely 100s joined them by Saturday Woolworths
sales declined 20% & profits 50% in 1960 July 25 integration finally achieved Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee April 15-17, 1960 conference at Shaw University in Raleigh, N.C. called & funded by SCLC More than 200 delegates from 50 schools & 13 states Ella Barker was SCLC advisor to SNCC By
Spring 1964, SNCC had over 150 field workers across the South, concentrating on voter registration Major effort = Mississippi Freedom Summer, 1964 Senator Lyndon B. Johnson and Civil Rights Refused to sign Southern Manifesto Got Civil Rights Act of 1957 through Congress: Est. Civil Rights Commission & Civil Rights Division in Justice Dept.
Watered down by removing section that accelerated school desegregation & adding right to jury trials (guaranteeing acquittals for whites) Civil Rights Act of 1960: extended life of CRC provided federal court referees to register blacks made it a federal crime to interfere with court orders or cross state lines to commit violence The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Discrimination
in all places of public accommodation outlawed (hotels, restaurants, etc.) Required literacy tests to be administered in writing, & presumed all 6th grade graduates were literate Attorney General empowered to bring school desegregation suits Equal Employment Opportunity Commission created Pres. Johnson hands pen to Rev. King after signing the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Extending African-American Voting Rights 24th Amendment (1964) ended poll tax Court ruled Congressional districts must have substantial equality: Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) one man, one vote rule est. Reynolds v. Sims (1964) applied rule to state legislatures Voting Rights Act of 1965: Authorized Attorney General to send federal registrars of voters Suspended literacy tests in counties where less than half of adults
had voted in 1964 Required any change in voting laws to be pre-cleared with Justice Dept. The Impact of the Voting Rights Act and other legal changes Copyright 1997, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Black Power New Stokely Carmichael SNCC leaders Stokely
Carmichael & Rap Brown abandoned nonviolent strategy and goal of integration Malcolm X & the Nation of Islam espoused radical black separatism Spawned growing white backlash Riots seemed to show ingratitude Malcolm X & Elijah of blacks Northerners couldnt see ghettoes as products of racism Affirmative action seemed to be
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Claims of Policy. Claims of policy occur when you propose a change. Generally begins with a definition of the problem (a claim of fact), explains why it is a problem (claim of value), and then explains the change that needs...
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