Electrical Safety Thomas G. Cleaver University of Louisville Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering July 11, 2011 2011 Thomas G. Cleaver. All rights reserved. Are these birds safe?
Image found at HTTP: http://davin.ws/~krishen/blog/pictures/birdonawire.jpg Current requires an entrance point and an exit point. Current Flow in the Body I Sing the Body Electric
Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass, 1900 Muscles and nerves are electro-chemical tissue. This includes skeletal muscle, the heart, the spinal cord, and the brain. Externally applied electricity can cause muscles to contract and nerves to
conduct. Effect of 60 Hz Current on the Body Current Effect 20 A
Permanent brain damage 5A Respiratory arrest 2A
Central nervous system damage 1A Burns 80 mA
Ventricular fibrillation 50 mA Asphyxia 9 mA
Muscles frozen 1 mA Pain 0.2 mA
0 Threshold of perception No effect Electrical Resistance of the Body Internal resistance of the body between any two points is about 500 .
Resistance of 1 cm2 of skin is about 200 k. The skin is the first line of defense. Effects of Voltage on the Body Voltage less than 40 V is probably safe. Voltage greater than 240 V causes skin puncture.
Effects of Frequency on the Body DC is safer than 60 Hz AC. 60 Hz is quite dangerous to the heart, as it provides 120 chances/second for the heart muscle to depolarize. If frequency is greater than 1000 Hz, the skin acts like a capacitor.
High frequencies (approximately 500 kHz) are used for electrosurgery. Lightning Lightning accounts for about 1000 deaths per year in the US. Lightning tends to strike the tallest object in the vicinity.
Dont stand under the only tree. Lightning rods do not attract lightning. Lightning Arresters Three-Phase Power Distribution Drawing by Dr. Donald J. Scheer
Distribution Transformer Drawing by Dr. Donald J. Scheer Types of Wiring Conduit Thin walled pipe through which conductors are pulled. Good mechanical protection. BX Flexible spiral-wound metal cable.
Contains black (hot), white (return) and green or bare (ground) conductors. Plastic-coated cable (NM or Romex) Provides minimal mechanical protection. May be used in wet environments. Outlet Box Connection Details
Various Wall Sockets Procedure for Replacing a Receptacle
Turn off power. Test that power is off. Remove the face plate and the old receptacle.
Install the new receptacle as follows: Connect the black wire to the brass screw. Connect the white wire to chrome screw. Connect the green or bare wire to the green screw. Screw the new receptacle into the box and replace the face plate Check ground/return continuity. Turn power on. Check the voltage.
Isolation Transformer Safety Hints When changing fuses (or working on any circuit you suspect may be "hot") keep one hand in your pocket. When working on circuits, remove jewelry, including rings, necklaces, bracelets, and watches with metal watch bands.
Use the "buddy system." Have somebody stand by the breaker box to make sure nobody turns it back on while you are working. Never use a drill (or other power tool) with the third prong removed. Especially when working outdoors, make sure your tools are properly grounded. Do not overload circuits.
Beware of appliances with metal cabinets if you have wet hands or feet. Don't put extension cords under rugs. Darwin Award Candidates
Solution. Step 1. Draw the carbon chain. A molecule of pentane has five carbon atoms in a continuous chain. Step 2 Draw the expanded structural formula by adding the hydrogen atoms using single bonds to each of the carbon atoms.....
A volcano is an opening in Earth that erupts gases, ash, and lava. How do volcanoes form? ... The more trapped gases, silica and water vapor the more explosive the eruption. What controls eruptions? quiet eruption -> Basaltic Magma, silica...
Percent Yield and Stoichiometry Honors Chemistry Thanks to Whittier Union High School District, Whittier, CA Percent Yield describes how much product was actually made in the lab versus the amount that theoretically could be made.
Another way to look at Agribusiness is the types of crops, foods, and beverages that you produce. This slideshows the customers JD Edwards Grower serves by product. The representation of JD Edwards across these segments confirms the solution.
Indicators are measurable properties of soil or plants that provide clues about how well the soil can function. Indicators can be physical, chemical, and biological properties, processes, or characteristics of soils. They can also be morphological or visual features of...