Development of a Whole Parasite Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine
Development of a Whole Parasite Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine Dr Danielle Stanisic Laboratory of Vaccines for the Developing World Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University Evaluation and testing of vaccines In most countries, the evaluation and testing of vaccine follow a set of standard steps: 1. Pre-clinical laboratory and animal studies 2. Human Clinical studies -Phase I -Phase II -Phase III 3. Approval and licensing
Human Clinical Studies Phase I: -Assess safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of vaccine in a small group of adults (20-100 individuals) who have not been naturally exposed to the target pathogen. -Identify short-term side-effects and immune responses. -If a human challenge system exists, vaccine efficacy can be evaluated in vaccinated vs unvaccinated individuals (Phase Ib) -If safe and immunogenic, proceed to Phase II Phase II: -Expanded safety and immunogenicity studies in a larger group of adults (>100). -These groups may include intended targets of the test vaccine. -If a human challenge system exists, vaccine efficacy can be evaluated in vaccinated vs unvaccinated individuals. -These studies may also contain a placebo group (receive saline solution, a vaccine against another disease or another vaccine against the same disease). -If successful, proceed to Phase III
Human Clinical Studies Phase III: -Thousands of individuals over multiple sites. -Carried out in conditions similar to those under which vaccine will ultimately be used. -Studies are randomised, double blind(neither participant or doctor knows that treatment has been given) and involve comparing the effectiveness of vaccine against a placebo. -With more people involved, rarer side effects may be observed. -Evaluating vaccine efficacy and other endpoints eg prevention of re-infection vs prevention of disease/death. Approval and licensing -If Phase III successful, the vaccine developer will submit an application to regulatory authorities to license the vaccine (eg FDA). -After a vaccine is licensed, there is continued monitoring of vaccine production and side effects in vaccinees. Clinical Vaccine Development
Development of Plasmodium falciparum cell banks Required: To make the vaccine For challenge to examine if the vaccine protects P. falciparum parasites expanded in transfusion-grade red blood cells in the cleanroom at Griffith University and then cryopreserved. Characterized according to specific release criteria eg sterility, viability of parasites, drug sensitivity, viral testing. Suitable for administration to humans in early phase clinical studies. DI Stanisic et al 2015 Malaria J 14: 143. Infectivity of a Plasmodium falciparum cell bank in malaria-nave
volunteers n=2 male volunteers 10 5 10 4 initiation of Drug treatment 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0 0 2
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Days post inoculation DI Stanisic et al 2016 Infect Immun 84: 2689 Pilot clinical study: Malaria Vaccine Pilot Study 1. Identify correct dose of chemical to completely attenuate parasite 2. Examine safety and tolerability 3. Does it induce an immune response? Study participants screened according to
inclusion/exclusion criteria -Healthy males 18-60 years of age -No history of clinical malaria or travel/residence (>2 weeks) in malaria endemic area within last 12 months Pilot clinical study: Malaria Vaccine Study Schedule -----PCR to monitor parasite growth every 2 days----Day 21 // 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 // 90 Screening Immunology Vaccine Safety Assessment Drug Treatment If parasitemia >11,550 parasites/ml or participants are symptomatic, then drug treatment is initiated.
Vaccine Preparation 1. P. falciparum 7G8 cell bank parasites thawed and cultured in transfusion grade red blood cells in cleanroom at Griffith University. 2. Ring stage parasites harvested. 3. Parasites incubated in vitro with chemical (Tafuramycin-A). 4. Parasites washed. 5. Chemically treated parasites injected intravenously. Clinical study: Malaria Vaccine Study Group A: 3 x 107 parasites treated with dose 1 of Tafuramycin-A 10 5 Study Group B: 3 x 107 parasites treated with dose 2 Tafuramycin-A
S02 S03 S05 10 4 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 Days Post Inoculation Parasite Growth Well tolerated Antibodies T cells
Y Y N Y Y Y N Y Y Y N Y Y
N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N
Y N N Y Antibody responses post vaccination-IgG Group Group T cell responses post vaccination Group B: cytokine responses post vaccination Group B: Cytokine production in memory T cells Purified chemically attenuated P.
falciparum blood-stage vaccine Reformulation of vaccine to allow purification of parasitised red blood cells Small study to examine safety and immunogenicity of fresh, purified form of the vaccine Initiation of drug treatment ROTARY PARTNERSHIP ROTARY DISTRICT 9640 -Rotary Clubs of Southport, Broadbeach, Hope Island, Satellite Club of Southport-Griffith University -fundraising project to support further development of the vaccine (clinical trial)
-registered by Rotary Australia Benevolent Society and endorsed by the National Committee of Rotarians Against Malaria Purified chemically attenuated P. falciparum blood-stage vaccine Phase Ib Efficacy Study Aims -Safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy following blood-stage challenge 3 study groups receiving different doses of parasite (n=10) run sequentially 2 infectivity controls per study group 3 doses of the vaccine on Day 0, 28 and 56 Challenge on Day 84 with P. falciparum blood-stage parasites Four volunteers in the first group have received their first vaccine dose Funding: Rotary and Zarraffas
Acknowledgements Institute for Glycomics Michael Good Xue Liu Bibiana Rodriguez Jolien Pingnet Jessica Powell Mei-Fong Ho Nicole Willemsen Ibrahim El-Deeb Tanya Forbes Nicola Cocroft Chris Davis Michael Batzloff Silvana Sekuloski Judy Coote Maryna Martin
Gold Coast Hospital Sanaria John Gerrard Steve Hoffman James Fink Kim Lee Sim Johanna Mayer Tao Li Lana Sundac Letitia Gore Burnet Institute Sarah Coghill James Beeson Kylie Alcorn Jo-Anne Chan Mater Hospital Paul Griffin
Australian Army Malaria Institute Dennis Shanks; Qin Cheng Marina Chavchich THE VOLUNTEERS QIMR Berghofer Institute Bio21 ROTARY for Medical Research Eric Hansen NFMRI James McCarthy ZARRAFFAS University Moses Lee Georgia State
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