Development of Latent Prints

Development of Latent Prints

DEVELOPMENT OF LATENT PRINTS Copyright and Terms of Service Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2011. These materials are copyrighted and trademarked as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of TEA, except under the following conditions: 1) Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts and schools educational use without obtaining permission from TEA. 2) Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only, without obtaining written permission of TEA. 3) Any portion reproduced must be reproduced in its entirety and remain unedited, unaltered and unchanged in any way. 4) No monetary charge can be made for the reproduced materials or

any document containing them; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged. Private entities or persons located in Texas that are not Texas public school districts, Texas Education Service Centers, or Texas charter schools or any entity, whether public or private, educational or noneducational, located outside the state of Texas MUST obtain written approval from TEA and will be required to enter into a license agreement that may involve the payment of a licensing fee or a royalty. Contact TEA Copyrights with any questions you may have. Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 2 THREE TYPES OF FINGERPRINT IMPRESSIONS Patent fingerprints visible prints left on a

smooth surface when blood, ink, or some other liquid comes into contact with the hands and is then transferred to the surface 3 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. FINGERPRINT IMPRESSIONS (CONTINUED) Plastic fingerprints actual indentations left in some soft materials such as clay, putty, wax, or dust. 4

Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. THREE TYPES OF FINGERPRINT IMPRESSIONS (CONTINUED) Latent fingerprints hidden prints caused by the transfer of oils and other bodily secretions onto a surface. They can be made visible by different methods (dusting with powders, chemical RXN, etc.) 5 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

FINGERPRINT POWDERS Applied lightly to a nonabsorbent surface with a soft brush. They readily adhere to sweat residues and/or deposits of body oils left on the surface. 6 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. FINGERPRINT POWDERS (CONTINUED) Gray and black powders the most common, chosen to make the best contrast

with the surface Magnetic powder applied with a Magna brush on leather and rough plastic surfaces. Fluorescent powders used to photograph latent prints on multi-colored surfaces. They fluoresce under ultraviolet light. 7 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. FINGERPRINT CHEMICALS Ninhydrin reacts with amino acids in sweat to form purple-blue prints. A 0.6%

solution (in ethanol) is sprayed onto porous surfaces such as paper. 8 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. FINGERPRINT CHEMICALS (CONTINUED) Physical Developer silver nitrate-based liquid reagent used on porous surfaces. It is often used as the last resort because it destroys protein. Cyanoacrylate (superglue) fuming developed in 1982 by Japanese Police. It is used on a variety of

materials not only to visualize latent prints, but also to semi-permanently affix them to the surface. 9 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. FINGERPRINT CHEMICALS (CONTINUED) DFO (1,8-diazafluotrn-9-one) newer replacement chemical for ninhydrin. It is 2.5 times more sensitive than ninhydrin. Rhodamine 6G is a fluorescent dye that may be used after cyanoacrylate fuming to visualize latent prints under laser light.

10 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. FINGERPRINT CHEMICALS (CONTINUED) Iodine fuming one of the oldest latent print development methods. Solid iodine crystals sublimate and the vapor will react with fatty oils and some sweat residue. Iodine prints are not permanent and will begin to fade once the fuming process is stopped. 11

Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. FINGERPRINT CHEMICALS (CONTINUED) Gentian violet (or crystal violet) used for developing latent prints on the adhesive side of tape. An aqueous solution of crystal violet is sprayed directly onto the adhesive. Amido Black protein dye stain that can develop faint bloody fingerprints on porous and nonporous surfaces.

12 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. FINGERPRINT CHEMICALS (CONTINUED) LCV (Leuco Crystal Violet) a protein stain spray that can develop faint or invisible bloody fingerprints on non-porous surfaces 13 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. PRESERVATION OF

DEVELOPED LATENT PRINTS Photograph Covering the print to preserve it in its entirety (if on a small object) Lifting the prints with adhesive tape and placing the tape with prints on a card with labels 14 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. COMPOSITION OF FINGERPRINTS Sweat

99.0-99.5 % water 0.5-1.0% solids 50% organic solids (mostly amino acids) 50% inorganic solids (NaCl and KCl) Contaminants Bodily fluids (blood, saliva, nasal secretions, semen, etc.) Oils and fats (sebum) 15 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved.

Images and other multimedia content used with permission. FACTORS AFFECTING FINGERPRINTS Age thinner epidermis, flattening of dermal papillae, creases, etc. Fine ridge structure less skin contact leads to a spotty appearance. Stimuli sweating can be due to warmth, exertion, fever, drugs, anxiety, tension, pain, or spicy foods. Occupational and medical condition teaching, and other positions in which a person handles or shuffles papers, can cause fine ridge structure. Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

16 FACTORS AFFECTING FINGERPRINTS (CONTINUED) Transposal factors Receiving surface texture Contaminants on the hands Contaminants on the receiving surface The manner of contact The amount of pressure

Environmental factors Temperature Humidity Handling 17 Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. TRENDS WITH FINGERPRINTS It is NOT possible to determine the age, sex or race of an individual solely from their fingerprints. However: Statistically in young adults, friction ridges of women are significantly finer than those of men. Fine ridges may be found in the very young and the very old.

Manual labor tends to strengthen ridges. Women tend to perspire at a lower rate than men. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is lower for women. Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Creases are more common in women's FPs. 18 RESOURCES

Saferstein, Richard. Forensic Science: An Introduction. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Bertino, Anthony J. Forensic Science: Fundamentals and Investigations. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2009. Fisher, Barry A.J. Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation. 7th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2004. Federal Bureau of Investigations http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/jan2001/lp u.pdf Investigation Discovery http://investigation.discovery.com/videos/forensic s-videos/ Copyright Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved.

Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 19

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