Tuning Educational Structures in Europe The Tuning Project and Modernization of Doctoral studies Ljubljana 17 May 2007 Robert Wagenaar (Joint project coordinator) in close cooperation with Julia Gonzalez and Ann Katherine Isaacs University of Groningen, the Netherlands Tuning and the third cycle 1. Why Tuning? 2. TheTuning approach 3. Role of competences in third cycle studies
4. Student workload 5. Quality enhancement G N I N TU 99 19 PE O R EU
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LONDON BERGEN BERLIN Bologna Process and Tuning TUNING INITIATIVE A PROJECT BY AND FOR UNIVERSITIES WHY TUNING? Implementation of the Bologna Process at subject area level Develop best ways to introduce the two / three cycle system
Promoting transparency in Higher Education Focus on employability and citizenship Focus on professional and academic profiles Europe wide introduction of Learning Outcomes and Competences approach Change of paradigm: from staff centred to learner centred teaching, learning and assessment (input to output based) Introduction of a common language TUNING INITIATIVE A PROJECT BY AND FOR UNIVERSITIES WHY TUNING? Distinction between generic and subject specific competences Transfer of ECTS from a transfer to a student workload based
credit accumulation and transfer system Raising awareness of the importance of quality in process and delivery Responds to growing demands of a lifelong learning society which requires more flexibility and differentiation Tuning has identified key issues, has developed a consistent approach on the basis of synthesizing theories and methodologies for purpose Tuning Europe (2000-2008): ITS SIZE AND STRENGTH 2001 EU + EFTA countries (Socrates Erasmus)
2006 2003 New EU member states + Candidate countries (Socrates Erasmus) 2005 Ukraine + countries SouthEast Europe (Tempus) 2006 Russia (Tempus) + Georgia 2007 2007 Turkey (Socrates-Erasmus) Tuning America Latina 2003 - 2007 subjects
Argentina Bolivia Brasil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Mxico Nicaragua Panam Paraguay
Per Uruguay Venezuela 19 countries (ministries + Rectors Conferences) + 185 Universities Other regions? Tuning focuses on competences:
Tuning definition of competences Competences represent a dynamic combination of knowledge, understanding, skills and abilities. Fostering competences is the object of educational programmes. Competences are formed in various course units and assessed at different stages. [competences are obtained by the student] Level of competence is expressed in terms of Learning outcomes: Statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and/or be able to
demonstrate after completion of learning. They can refer to a single course unit or module or else to a period of studies, for example, a first or a second cycle programme. Learning outcomes specify the requirements for award of credit. [learning outcomes are formulated by academic staff] Tuning and doctorate studies What is a doctorate in a knowledge based society today? What should it be? Is quality of research sufficient? Looking for a new connection and synergy between education, research and innovation !
Finding new approaches, identifying obstacles, identifying examples of good practice. Lately, much emphasis given to structures, funding, career possibilities, recruitment, characteristics of doctoral projects, supervision and inter-university network. Is this sufficient? Essence is how to prepare young researchers well for their future roles in society Change of paradigm: student centred process: effects design and delivery of programmes Focus on abilities of learner: suitable for employment personal satisfaction and
citizenship Consequences of QF for EHEA (Dublin descriptors): Qualifications that signify completion of the third cycle are awarded to students who: 1. have demonstrated a systematic understanding of a field of study and mastery of the skills and methods of research associated with that field; 2. have demonstrated the ability to conceive, design, implement and adapt a substantial piece of research with scholarly integrity; 3. have made a contribution through original research that extends the frontier of knowledge by developing a substantial body of work, some of which merits national or international refereed publication; 4. are capable of critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas; 5. can communicate with their peers, the larger scholarly community and with society in general about their areas of expertise;
6. can be expected to be able to promote, with academic and professional contexts, technological, social or cultural advancement in a knowledge based society. The Tuning approach: 1. Generic competences or transferable skills 2. Subject specific competences 3. Student workload expressed in time (ECTS credits, related to learning outcomes) 4. Approaches to teaching, learning and assessment 5. Quality enhancement 1. Key generic competence for doctorate studies: capacity for analyses and synthesis critical and self-critical abilities
research skills capacity to apply knowledge in practice creativity capacity for generating new ideas ability to work autonomously communication skills problem solving Plus vital competences for society: project design and management teamwork
leadership transmitting knowledge and competences (teaching) 2. Subject specific competences Tuning methodology based on Subject Areas Doctoral programmes must ensure high level of relevant subject specific competences: key knowledge + key techniques overview of developments, theoretical and technical broad and high-level knowledge essential for critical analyses, evaluation and synthesis of new ideas 3. Use of ECTS in the third cycle Third cycle system must be feasible ! This requires more structure !
ECTS is a tool for measuring workload to achieve learning outcomes ECTS is also a planning tool for design and delivery: - for taught courses - for organizing and preparing the dissertation: use the concept of milestones or signposts Phase Sem. 1 Sem. 2 Sem. 3
Credits or equivalen t in time taught or credited components Individual research project or dissertation Signposts 4. Approaches to Learning, Teaching and Assessment
Need for more structures programmes has resulted in creation of research institutes and doctoral schools: doctoral seminars workshops or tutorials on specific specialized techniques interdisciplinary seminars (all competence based) Objective: further development of knowledge and skills Develop active learning strategies ! Guarantee regular meetings of candidate and mentors / supervisory committees ! Use the concept of intermediate deadlines or signposts ! Dissertation is: Tasked based learning: learning research by doing Define a good structure for organizing learning process: doctoral school model
- faculty or department level - multi-institutional level - international level: network cooperation Be transparent: make clear which competences are formed. How this to be done and how the assessment is organized. 5. Quality enhancement: Steps in design and delivery 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
9. 10. Is there a need? Define the profile and key competences Define the learning outcomes indicating the most important competences Decide on the structural elements of the degree programme (ECTS / time research taught part) Define the learning outcomes and the key competences to be achieved Look at how competences can be best formed and assessed (variety of formats) Check that all the key generic and subject competences have been taken into account Describe the programme and the course units, indicating the
learning outcomes in terms of competences Check of balance Implement, monitor and evaluate results, change as needed THE TUNING DYNAMIC QUALITY DEVELOPMENT CIRCLE Definition of academic and professional profiles Identification of resources Programme design: definition of learning outcomes / competences Evaluation
and improvement (on the basis of feed back and feed forward) Selection of types of assessement Construction of curricula: content and structure Selection of teaching and learning approaches
Conclusion: three points of view Universities: Set up doctoral programmes and run them responsibly Society: Needs doctoral graduates highly trained in the complex and specialized fields of knowledge preserve and transmit knowledge extend and develop that knowledge take responsibility towards society Doctoral candidates: Require clearly and rationally organized programmes recognition of society of their accomplishment
WEB ADDRESSES http://tuning.unideusto.org/tuningeu or www.rug.nl/let/tuningeu
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