Diapositive 1

Diapositive 1

Tobacco smoking in HIV-infected persons. Patrick Peretti-Watel Inserm (French National Institute of Health and Medical Research) Tobacco smoking in HIV-infected persons. I. Medical & epidemiological background. II. Cigarette smoking: a sociological approach. III. Why do HIV-infected people smoke? I. Medical & epidemiological background.

Today, PLWHAs live longer Thanks to antiretroviral treatments (ART) since 1996; but many of them smoke tobacco Smoking prevalence: 40-70% >> general population + higher levels of nicotine dependence; and smoking is especially harmful to PLWHAs CVDs and (lung) cancers became major causes of mortality in this population. HIV-infected smokers lose more life-years to smoking than to HIV (Helleberg et al., 2013, Clin Infect Dis)

I.1. Many PLWHAs smoke tobacco (1/7) PLWHAs smoke much more than the general population comparing smoking prevalence according to serostatus requires first (at least) gender & age standardisation. HIV-infected people is a very heterogeneous category, merging very contrasted profiles, including for smoking prevalence. Health Barometer survey, general population aged 18-85, 2010, N=25,034 (INPES); VESPA2 survey, national & representative survey, PLWHAs living in France, 18-88, 2011, N=3,022 (ANRS). I.1. Many PLWHAs smoke tobacco (2/7)

Health Barometer: 31% of smokers, mean age 48, 49% of men. VESPA2 survey: 38% of smokers, mean age 47, 67% of men. Among VESPA2 participants: -people infected through homosexual intercourse (36%): 42% of smokers, mean age 48, 100% of men. -people infected through intravenous drug use (10%): 78% of smokers, mean age 49, 70% of men. -people infected through heterosexual intercourse (47%): 26% of smokers, mean age 46, 41% of men. I.1. Many PLWHAs smoke tobacco (3/7) Smoking prevalence by gender and age for HIV-infected people and the general population, France, INPES 2010-ANRS 2011. 90%

80% 70% 60% GP, women, 2010 50% 40% GP, men, 2010 30% 20% 10% 0% 40 years-old

41-50 51-60 >60 years-old I.1. Many PLWHAs smoke tobacco (4/7) Smoking prevalence by gender and age for HIV-infected people and the general population, France, INPES 2010-ANRS 2011. 90% 80% 70% GP, women, 2010

60% 50% GP, men, 2010 40% PLWHAs, IDU, women, 2011 30% PLWHAs, IDU, men, 2011 20% 10% 0% 40 years-old

41-50 51-60 >60 years-old I.1. Many PLWHAs smoke tobacco (5/7) Smoking prevalence by gender and age for HIV-infected people and the general population, France, INPES 2010-ANRS 2011. 90% 80% 70%

GP, women, 2010 60% GP, men, 2010 50% PLWHAs, IDU, women, 2011 40% PLWHAs, IDU, men, 2011 30% PLWHAs, homo.inter., men,

2011 20% 10% 0% 40 years-old 41-50 51-60 >60 years-old I.1. Many PLWHAs smoke tobacco (6/7)

Smoking prevalence by gender and age for HIV-infected people and the general population, France, INPES 2010-ANRS 2011. 90% 80% GP, women, 2010 70% GP, men, 2010 60% PLWHAs, IDU, women, 2011

50% PLWHAs, IDU, men, 2011 40% PLWHAs, homo.inter., men, 2011 30% PLWHAs, hetero.inter., men, 2011

20% PLWHAs, hetero.inter., women, 2011 10% 0% 40 years-old 41-50 51-60 >60 years-old

I.1. Many PLWHAs smoke tobacco (7/7) When compared to the general population, the smoking prevalence is higher among PLWHAs infected through homosexual intercourse, and much more higher among those infected through intravenous drug use. See also: I.2. Smoking is especially harmful to PLWHAS (1/4)

Among PLWHAs, smoking increases the risk of: CVDs, non-AIDS cancer, but also pneumocystis pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, oral candidiasis, emphysema, hairy leukoplakia... +ART side-effects / CVDs & cancer. ART & AIDS: smoking immune system impairment, increase in HIV replication, decreasing response to ART virologic failure and disease progression. Behavioural & attitudinal outcomes: HIV-infected smokers report lower medical adherence, attend fewer medical visits, and rank health as less important to

their quality of life... I.2. Smoking is especially harmful to PLWHAS (2/4) Behavioural & attitudinal outcomes: a focus on adherence to treatment & drug use. Measuring independent effects for each drug use on adherence led to mixed and contradictory results. I.2. Smoking is especially harmful to PLWHAS (3/4) VESPA survey 2003 (n=2484): investigating the relationships between drug use (cigarette, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, heroin,

drug maintenance treatment) & adherence to HAART. Two strategies: #1: assessing independent effects for each drug use separately; #2: first identifying patterns of drug uses with a cluster analysis, and assessing independent effects for each pattern separately. #1 cigarette smoking predictive of low adherence, no significant effect for cocaine or heroin use. #2 among other patterns, we found a multiple addictions profile (heroin+cocaine+DMT+tobacco) strongly associated to low adherence. I.2. Smoking is especially harmful to PLWHAS (4/4) Cigarette smoking should not be considered as an

independent risk factor, it is usually embedded in a lifestyle and connected with other behaviours/habits. First step toward a sociological approach of cigarette smoking. II. Cigarette smoking: a sociological approach. II.1. Three basic principles of sociology. II.2. Cigarette smoking as a social practice. II.3. Smokers motives and justifications. II.4. The social differentiation of smoking. II.1. Three basic principles of sociology.

Situated/limited rationality: people pursue objectives, under specific circumstances, constraints, that must be understood. Reflexivity: people are able/prone to stand back from their own experience to engage in reflexive thinking, in order to describe/explain/justify what they do in-depth interviews Social groups: people are not isolated atoms in a

vacuum. Their behaviours, attitudes and beliefs are constructed collectively, are influenced by their social environment peers/colleagues/relatives with similar living conditions and values. II.2. Cigarette smoking as a social practice. (1/3) Not (only) a chronic, addictive and contagious disease: tobacco pandemic, behavioural epidemic through peer pressure/imitation & nicotine addiction medicalization of

smoking. Considering cigarette smoking as a social practice implies a radical departure from this perspective. We have to consider various aspects of cigarette smoking: implicit rules, know-how, meanings and motives... These aspects are not personal attributes: they are shared with and learned from other smokers, and they change across time and space... II.2. Cigarette smoking as a social practice. (2/3) Social practice learning process. - how to hold the cigarette correctly, - how to inhale/exhale properly,

- how to use tobacco as a psychological tool (as a sedative to alleviate stress, as a stimulant to counter boredom), - implicit rules: in which circumstances, in which places, with which people, it is acceptable or not to smoke, or to ask for a cigarette... II.2. Cigarette smoking as a social practice. (3/3) - II.3. Smokers motives and justifications. (1/4) Smokers motives and justifications.

Multiple benefits from smoking: feeling of membership, social bonding, relaxation, pleasure, dealing with periods of boredom/stress/sadness, regulating ones weight... These motives depend on personal smoking history, gender, age, socioeconomic status... II.3. Smokers motives and justifications. (2/4) Most common motives: Reported reasons for smoking, from 1 (never) to 10 (always). II.3. Smokers motives and justifications. (3/4) Examples of justifications:

II.3. Smokers motives and justifications. (3/4) Examples of justifications: II.3. Smokers motives and justifications. (3/4) Examples of justifications: II.3. Smokers motives and justifications. (3/4) Examples of justifications: II.3. Smokers motives and justifications. (3/4) Examples of justifications: II.3. Smokers motives and justifications. (4/4)

Main risk denial beliefs among French smokers: (Cancer Barometer survey, 2010, N=1,106 smokers, INPES) Human beings are argumentative rather than strictly rational. They are prone to convincing self-delusion. Most smokers are neither ignorant of risk nor seeking it purposely. But they find good reasons to deny/minimize it. Of course, they can be wrong. But taking this risk denial into consideration is necessary to improve prevention. II.4. The social differentiation of smoking.

(1/5) Cigarette smoking, considered as a social practice, involves a whole set of beliefs, attitudes & behaviours, acquired through a learning process embedded in social context. One important corollary: social differentiation of smoking-related beliefs, attitudes and behaviours, & social differentiation of sensitivity to prevention. Example: trends in smoking prevalence in France during the

2000s ( anti-tobacco policies & social differentiation of smoking prevalence). II.4. The social differentiation of smoking. (2/5) (40-45)/ 45= -11% (28-36)/36= -22% II.4. The social differentiation of smoking.

(3/5) Why are low-SES people more prone to smoke/less likely to quit? Low-SES smokers are more prone to use cigarette as a coping mechanism (to relieve stress, to take their mind off their cares and worries) they regard cigarettes as a basic essential /one of their last few pleasure Facing increasing cigarettes prices, they try to reduce the cost of their smoking habit, not to quit or to reduce their consumption. II.4. The social differentiation of smoking. (3/5)

Why are low-SES people more prone to smoke/less likely to quit? Low-SES smokers are more prone to use cigarette as a coping mechanism (to relieve stress, to take their mind off their cares and worries) they regard cigarettes as a basic essential /one of their last few pleasure Facing increasing cigarettes prices, they try to reduce the cost of their smoking habit, not to quit or to reduce their consumption. because they need cigarettes more than other smokers (specific motives), as economic hardship induces stress/distress. II.4. The social differentiation of smoking. (4/5)

are low-SES people more prone to smoke/less Why likely to quit? Prevention as an intertemporal choice time preferences. Low SES + Present-oriented + current smoking

Among smokers: (logistic regressions) Fear of smoking-related cancers - - Interest toward prevention Recent smoking reduction Recent quitting attempt II.4. The social differentiation of smoking.

(4/5) are low-SES people more prone to smoke/less Why likely to quit? Prevention as an intertemporal choice time preferences. Low SES + Present-oriented + current smoking

Among smokers: (logistic regressions) Fear of smoking-related cancers - - Interest toward prevention Recent smoking reduction Recent quitting attempt because they are more present-oriented:

hardship shortens time horizon. II.4. The social differentiation of smoking. (5/5) Why are low-SES people more prone to smoke/less likely to quit? II.4. The social differentiation of smoking. (5/5) Why are low-SES people more prone to smoke/less likely to quit?

because they are less likely to trust health authorities, and more likely to endorse risk denial beliefs. III. Why do HIV-infected people smoke? III.1. Because of a low SES III.2. Motives, justifications & time horizon. III.3. Motives to smoke and willing to quit. III.1. because of a low SES (1/3) The average SES is lower among PLWHAs, with a great heterogeneity according to transmission group Homosexuals >> hetero.,other >> IDUs

III.1. because of a low SES (2/3) III.1. because of a low SES (3/3) III.2. Motives, justifications & time horizon. Common and specific motives & justifications Qualitative insight: +quantitative data... Motives to smoke, disadvantages of smoking, obstacles to quitting ... (1/7)

III.2. Motives, justifications & time horizon. Benefits of smoking a means of easing social bonding; A psychological incentive... a pleasurable activity providing comfort, relief, distraction from unpleasant sensation.. including relief from illness- or treatment-related symptoms: (some people think that smoking raises T-cell counts and help fighting infection) or coping with the diagnosis: mixing smoking with illicit drug use and drinking alcohol; (// quantitative studies)

common and specific motives. (2/7) III.2. Motives, justifications & time horizon. (3/7) A specific motive: stress induced by experience of stigma. Did you already feel rejected by friends/relatives because of HIV? (VESPA2 survey, 2011). 16% smoker, 10+ cig./day

28% 18% 19% smoker, <10 cig./day 66% no smoker 0%

53% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%

yes no // race-related stigma and smoking among African Americans, King G, Soc Sci Med 1997. III.2. Motives, justifications & time horizon. A specific motive: stress induced by experience of stigma (4/7) III.2. Motives, justifications & time horizon. Disadvantages of smoking and risk denial/relativization an expensive habit;

a source of disgust: discounting health risk: - risk denial beliefs: - relativization & time horizon: Obstacles to smoking cessation reluctance to giving up a key coping mechanism; concerns about the potential for weight gain; relationships with care providers: (5/7) III.2. Motives, justifications & time horizon. (6/7)

- Time horizonpresent-orientation and smoking in VESPA2: 45% 52% I am ready to go without some pleasures in order to live a few years longer 39% 21% 24% 37% I prefer to enjoy spending the money I earn instead of putting it aside for the future

44% 41% strongly agree agree 23% disagree 31% I prefer to enjoy the present instead of worrying about the future

strongly disagree 37% 40% 0% 10% 20% 30%

40% 50% 60% In multivariate analysis present-orientation remained a significant risk factor for current smoking (after adjustment on sociodemographic profile, transmission group). III.2. Motives, justifications & time horizon. (7/7)

HIV-infected smokers motives and justifications: -as other smokers, they frequently portray themselves as rational beings assessing the costs and benefits of smoking; - regarding other smokers, they also share the same motives (facilitating social interaction, stress relief) and justifications (compensatory measures: exercise), - but some motives and risk denial beliefs are more specific to HIV (stress due to HIV, lack of confidence toward physicians, dealing with symptoms or side-effects of treatment, relativization because of HIV, shortened time-horizon due to HIV); their priority is HIV now and they think that smoking helps them to cope with stress and to stay mentally positive now. III.3. Motives to smoke and willing to quit

(1/2) III.3. Motives to smoke and willing to quit (1/2) III.3. Motives to smoke and willing to quit (1/2) III.3. Motives to smoke and willing to quit (1/2)

III.3. Motives to smoke and willing to quit (1/2) III.3. Motives to smoke and willing to quit Motives to smoke and willing to quit: - Intellectual/emotional support (22%). - Automatic/stress relief (22%): women, 20 cig./day; strong nicotine dependence, anxiety, recent opiate use, past experience of discrimination due to HIV - Weight control (29%): age>50, depressive symptoms, fat accumulation due to treatment side-effects Pleasure/conviviality (27%): men, age<40, mild dependence.

(2/2) Conclusion. Smoking is a social practice that involves a whole set of beliefs, attitudes and behaviours, embedded in social context. Social differentiation of smoking and prevention efficacy, including among HIV-infected smokers. HIV-infected smokers have both common and specific motives & justifications. To make them quit, it is necessary to convince them that its worth it.

Acknowledgements g g g g Participants to surveys Vespa & Vespa2 Methodological support: Yann Le Strat (InVS, Saint-Maurice), Lise Cuzin (Hpital Purpan, Toulouse), Laurence Meyer (Cesp, Inserm, Le Kremlin Bictre); Daniela RojasCastro (Aides, Pantin) et Hugues Fischer (Act-Up Paris) Data collection: Ipsos, Clinsearch VESPA research group : France Lert , Bruno Spire (co-PI), Patrizia Carrieri, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Christine Hamelin, Nicolas Lorente, Marie Prau, Marie Suzan-Monti, Marion Mora, Gwenaelle Maradan.

Investigators/ participating centers: Aix-en-Provence, CH Pays d'Aix (T. Allgre, P. Mours, J.M. Riou, M. Sordage) ; Angers, CHU Htel-Dieu (J.M. Chennebault, P. Fialaire, V.Rabier) ; Annemasse, CH Alpes-Lman (M. Froidure, D.Huguet, D. Leduc) ; Avignon, Hpital Henri Duffaut (G. Pichancourt, A. Wajsbrot) ; Besanon, Hpital Saint-Jacques (C. Bourdeaux, A. Foltzer, B. Hoen, L. Hustache-Mathieu) ; Bobigny, Hpital Avicenne (S. Abgrall,R. Barruet, O. Bouchaud, A. Chabrol, S. Mattioni, F. Mechai) ; Bondy, Hpital Jean Verdier (V. Jeantils) ;Bordeaux, Hpital Saint-Andr (N. Bernard, F. Bonnet,M. Hessamfar, D. Lacoste, D. Malvy, P. Merci, P.Morlat, F. Paccalin, M.C. Pertusa, T. Pistone, M.C. Receveur, M.A. Vandenhende) ; Boulogne-Billancourt,Hpital Ambroise Par (C. Dupont, A. Freire Maresca, J. Leporrier, E. Rouveix) ; Caen, Hpital Clmenceau (S. Dargere, A. de la Blanchardire, A. Martin, V. Noyon, R. Verdon) ; CH de Chambry (O.Rogeaux) ; Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Gabriel Montpied (J. Beytout, F.Gourdon, H. Laurichesse) ; Colombes,Hpital Louis-Mourier (F. Meier, E. Mortier, A.M. Simonpoli) ; Creil, CH Laennec (F. Cordier) ; Crteil, CHIC(I. Delacroix, V. Garrait, B. Elharrar), Hpital Henri Mondor (S. Dominguez, A.S. Lascaux, J.D. Lelivre, Y.Levy, G. Melica) ; Dijon, Hpital du Bocage (M. Buisson, L. Piroth, A. Waldner) ; Eaubonne, Hpital SimoneVeil (N. Gruat, A. Leprtre) ; Garches, Hpital Raymond-Poincar (P. de Truchis, D. Le Du, J.Cl. Melchior) ;CH de Gonesse (R. Sehouane, D. Troisvallets) ; CHU de Grenoble (M. Blanc, I. Boccon-Gibod, A.Bosseray, J.P. Brion, F. Durand, P. Leclercq, F. Marion, P. Pavese) ; La Rochelle, Hpital Saint-Louis (E.Brottier-Mancini, L. Faba, M. Roncato-Saberan) ; La Roche-sur-Yon, CHD Les Oudairies (O. Bollengier-Stragier, J.L. Esnault, S. Leautez-Nainville, P. Perr) ; CH de Lagny Marne-la-Valle (E. Froguel, M. Nguessan, P. Simon) ; Le Chesnay, CH de Versailles (P. Colardelle, J. Doll, C. Godin-Collet, S. Roussin-Bretagne) ; Le Kremlin-Bictre, Hpital de Bictre (J.F. Delfraissy, M. Duracinsky, C. Goujard, D. Peretti, Y.Quertainmont) ; CH du Mans (J. Marionneau) ; Lens, CH Dr. Schaffner (E. Aissi, N. Van Grunderbeeck) ;Limoges, CHU Dupuytren (E. Denes, S. Ducroix-Roubertou, C. Genet, P. Weinbreck) ; Lyon, Hpital de la Croix-Rousse (C. Augustin-Normand, A. Boibieux, L. Cotte, T. Ferry, J. Koffi, P. Miailhes, T. Perpoint, D.Peyramond, I. Schlienger) ; Hpital douard-Herriot (J.M. Brunel, E. Carbonnel, P. Chiarello, J.M. Livrozet, D. Makhloufi) ; Marseille, Hpital de la Conception (C. Dhiver, H. Husson, A. Madrid, I. Ravaux, M.L. de Severac, M. Thierry Mieg, C. Tomei), Hpital Nord (S. Hakoun, J. Moreau, S. Mokhtari, M.J. Soavi), Hpital Sainte Marguerite (O. Faucher, A. Mnard, M. Orticoni, I. Poizot-Martin, M.J. Soavi) ; Montpellier, Hpital Gui de Chauliac (N. Atoui, V. Baillat, V. Faucherre, C. Favier, J.M. Jacquet, V. Le Moing, A.

Makinson, R. Mansouri, C. Merle) ; Montivilliers, Hpital Jacques Monod (N. Elforzli) ; Nantes, Htel-Dieu (C. Allavena, O. Aubry, M. Besnier, E. Billaud, B. Bonnet, S. Bouchez, D. Boutoille, C. Brunet, N. Feuillebois, M. Lefebvre, P. Morineau-Le Houssine, O. Mounoury, P. Point, F. Raffi, V. Reliquet, J.P. Talarmin) ; Nice, Hpital l'Archet (C. Ceppi, E. Cua, P. Dellamonica, F. De Salvador-Guillouet, J. Durant, S. Ferrando, V. Mondain-Miton, I. Perbost, S. Pillet, B. Prouvost-Keller, C. Pradier, P. Pugliese, V. Rahelinirina, P.M. Roger,E. Rosenthal, F. Sanderson) ; Orlans, Hpital de La Source (L. Hocqueloux, M. Niang, T. Prazuck), Hpital Porte Madeleine (P. Arsac, M.F. Barrault-Anstett) ; Paris , Hpital Bichat - Claude-Bernard (M. Ahouanto, E. Bouvet, G. Castanedo, C. Charlois-Ou, A. Dia Kotuba, Z. Eid-Antoun, C. Jestin, K. Jidar, V.Joly, M.A. Khuong-Josses, N. Landgraf, R. Landman, S. Lariven, A. Leprtre, F. L'hriteau, M. Machado, S.Matheron, F. Michard, G. Morau, G. Pahlavan, B.C. Phung, M.H. Prvot, C. Rioux, P. Yni), Hpital Cochin-Tarnier (F. Bani-Sadr, A. Calboreanu, E. Chakvetadze, D. Salmon, B. Silbermann), Hpital europen Georges-Pompidou (D. Batisse, M. Beumont, M. Buisson, P. Castiel, J. Derouineau, M.Eliaszewicz, G. Gonzalez, D. Jayle, M. Karmochkine, P. Kousignian, J. Pavie, I. Pierre, L. Weiss), Hpital Lariboisire (E. Badsi, M. Bendenoun, J. Cervoni, M. Diemer, A. Durel, A. Rami, P. Sellier), Hpital Piti-Salptrire (H. Ait-Mohand, N. Amirat, M. Bonmarchand, F.Bourdillon, G. Breton, F. Caby, J.P. Grivois, C.Katlama, M. Kirstetter, L. Paris, F. Pichon, L. Roudire, L. Schneider, M.C. Samba, S. Seang, A.Simon, H.Stitou, R. Tubiana, M.A. Valantin), Hpital Saint-Antoine (D. Bollens, J. Bottero, E. Bui, P. Campa, L. Fonquernie, S. Fournier, P.M. Girard, A. Goetschel, H.F. Guyon, K. Lacombe, F. Lallemand, B. Lefebvre,J.L. Maynard, M.C. Meyohas, Z. Ouazene, J. Pacanowski, O. Picard, G. Raguin, P. Roussard, M. Tourneur, J. Tredup ,N.Valin) Hpital Saint-Louis (S. Balkan, F. Clavel, N. Colin de Verdire, N. De Castro, V. deLastours, S. Ferret, S. Gallien, V. Garrait, L. Grard, J. Goguel, M. Lafaurie, C. Lascoux-Combe, J.M.Molina, E. Oksenhendler, J. Pavie, C.Pintado, D. Ponscarme, W. Rozenbaum, A. Scemla), Hpital Tenon(P. Bonnard, L. Lassel, M.G. Lebrette, T. Lyavanc, P. Mariot, R. Missonnier, M. Ohayon, G. Pialoux, M.P.Treilhou, J.P. Vincensini) ; Htel-Dieu (J. Gilquin, B. Hadacek, L. Nait-Ighil, T.H. Nguyen, C. Pintado, A.Sobel, J.P. Viard, O. Zak Dit Zbar) ; Perpignan, Hpital Saint-Jean (H. Aumatre, A. Eden, M. Ferreyra, F. Lopez, M. Medus, S. Neuville, M. Saada) ; Pontoise, CH Ren Dubos (L. Blum) ; Quimper, Hpital Laennec (P. Perfezou) ; Rennes, Hpital de Pontchaillou (C. Arvieux, J.M. Chapplain, M. Revest, F. Souala, P. Tattevin) ; Rouen, Hpital Charles-Nicolle (S. Bord, F. Borsa-Lebas, F. Caron, C. Chapuzet, Y. Debab, I.Gueit, M. Etienne, C. Fartoukh, K. Feltgen, C. Joly, S. Robaday-Voisin, P. Suel) ; Saint-Denis, CH Delafontaine (M.A. Khuong, J. Krausse, M. Poupard, G. Tran Van) ; Saint-tienne, CHU Nord (C. Cazorla, F. Daoud, P. Fascia, A. Frsard, C. Guglielminotti, F. Lucht) ; Strasbourg, Nouvel hpital civil (C.

Bernard-Henry, C. Cheneau, J.M. Lang, E. de Mautort, M. Partisani, M. Priester, D. Rey) ; Suresnes, Hpital Foch (C. Majerholc, D. Zucman) ; Toulon, CHI Chalucet (A. Assi, A. Lafeuillade), Hpital Sainte-Anne (J.P. de Jaureguiberry, O. Gisserot) ; Toulouse, Hpital de La Grave (C. Aquilina, F. Prevoteau du Clary), HpitalPurpan (M. Alvarez, M. Chauveau, L. Cuzin, P. Delobel, D. Garipuy, E. Labau, B. Marchou, P. Massip, M. Mularczyk, M. Obadia) ; Tourcoing, CH Gustave Dron (F. Ajana, C. Allienne, V. Baclet, X. de la Tribonnire, T. Huleux, H. Melliez, A. Meybeck, B. Riff, M. Valette, N. Viget) ; Tours, CHRU Bretonneau (F. Bastides, L.Bernard, G. Gras, P. Guadagnin) ; Vandoeuvre-lsNancy, CHU Brabois (T. May, C. Rabaud) ; Vannes, CH Bretagne Atlantique (A. Dos Santos, Y. Poinsignon) ; Villejuif, Hpital Paul-Brousse, (O. Derradji, L. Escaut,E. Teicher, D. Vittecoq) ; CHI de Villeneuve-Saint-Georges, (J. Bantsima, P. Caraux-Paz, O. Patey). g Funding: ANRS

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