Diapositive 1 - IRIT

Diapositive 1 - IRIT

Model-based approaches for the design of safety critical interactive systems Philippe Palanque LIIHS-IRIT University Paul Sabatier Toulouse France http://liihs.irit.fr/palanque [email protected] Rio de Janeiro 18-19 september 2007 1 Overview of the lectures Overview of LIIHS Research Group State of the art in MBA for HCI System modeling Task modeling Design rationale Research Themes and Productions A Roadmap on FM & HCI 2 1 - Overview of LIIHS

A bit of History about LIIHS Started in 1988 at University Toulouse 1 (law and economics) gathering all the computer scientists at UT1 In 1993 main research theme is HCI and name changed to LIHS (group size about 15 people) From research on software engineering methodologies From research on notations for modeling activities ~ 20 PhDs 3 1 - Overview of LIIHS Research at LIIHS Mono-disciplinary research: Human Computer Interaction

Special point of view: Software Engineering for HumanComputer Interaction Computer Scientists, Human Factors, Ergonomics, HCI specialists Usability (methods for design and evaluation of computer systems) Reliability (formal specification, human error assessment, ) Traceability (Design rationale) Special application domain: (safety) critical interactive systems cost of development much lower than the cost of a failure 4 1 - Overview of LIIHS

Safety Critical Interactive Systems Safety Critical Systems Software Engineers System centered Reliability Safety requirements (certification) Formal specification Verification / Proof Waterfall model / structured Archaic interaction techniques

Interactive Systems Usability experts User centered Usability Human factors Task analysis & modeling Evaluation Iterative process / Prototyping Novel Interaction techniques 5 Modeling Tasks models

Scenarios Concrete description of users' planned activities Temporal organization of actions (and related information) System models Abstract description of users' planned activities (goal) Both structure (object oriented approach) and behavioral description How user's actions change system state How system state (rendering)

Reduces authorized user's actions Is presented to the user Designing options rationally 6 1 - Overview of LIIHS Research Projects Current projects Recently completed

ReSIST EU Network of Excellence Project (Resilience for Information Society) (012006/12-2008) COST NSF EU action MAUSE (Maturing Usability) (01-2005/12-2008) INTUITION Project (Multimodal Interfaces military aircrafts) (02-2003/02-2006) MISC Project (Multimodal Interfaces for Safety-critical Command and Control) (012003/01-2007) Research Training Network EU ADVISES (11-2002/ 12-2006) Capes/ Cofecub SPIDER WEB (07-2002/07-2005) Previous relevant projects DoD Drones Project (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) (03-2001/09-2002) EUD-Net EU Network of Excellence (07-2002/07-2002) EVALWEB Project: Building ergonomic web sites by design (1999-2002) Project CNET SERPICO : Specifications for CORBA Components Engineering (1998-2001) Esprit Project LTR MEFISTO n24963 Modeling Evaluation and Formalizing Interactive Systems using Tasks and Objects (1997-2001) ERGOVAL (1995) 7

1 - Overview of LIIHS EvalWeb 1998-2002 Ergonomic application web by design Partners : Univ. Louvain la neuve (J. Vanderdonckt) & INRIA (D. Scapin) Funding : CNRS GIS Cogniscience (1999) 8 MEFISTO (overview) Modeling, Evaluating and Formalizing Interactive Systems using Tasks and interaction Objects ESPRIT Reactive LTR 24963 Project (EC) Air Traffic Control domain Multi disciplinary team

Computer Scientists (F. Paterno CNUCE, LIIHS) Psychologists (P. Wright Univ. York, P. Marti Univ. Sienna) Industrial partners (DERA UK, CENA F, Alenia I) Users (ENAV I ATC association) 9 1 - Overview of LIIHS UAV Project (1/2) 10 1 - Overview of LIIHS UAV Project (2/2) Design, implementation and evaluation of user interfaces for drones command and

control Performance and user capabilities Authority sharing From several controllers per drone to one controller for several drones 11 1 - Overview of LIIHS MISC Project Multimodal Interaction for Command and Control of Safety critical Systems Starting: beginning 01/2003 Finances: DGA (French Department of Defense , CNES (National center for spatial studies), and LIIHS 12 1 - Overview of LIIHS

Project SPIDER WEB Specification and Prototyping for user Interface Design, Engineering and Re-engineering for the Web France- Brazil cooperation Partners LIIHS and Instituto de Informatica (Porto Alegre) Beginning Feb. 2002 In conjunction with a CNPq funding of Marco Winckler PhD about "model-based approaches for wed application evaluation" COFE 13 ADVISES: Analysis Design and Validation

of Interactive Safety-critical and Error-tolerant Systems Type de projet: Research Training Network Sponsors: EU (Fifth Framework Improving Human Potential Programme) 8 sites : Delft University of Technology (NL), ISTI-CNR(I), Ris National Laboratory (DK), Universit de Lige (B), Universit Paul Sabatier Toulouse (F), University of Glasgow (UK), University of York (UK), Universitt Paderborn (D) Objectifs Principes Dure (4 ans): Oct. 02 Oct. 06 Budget LIIHS:

160 K HT tudier et dvelopper des mthodes outils et techniques pour l'analyse, la conception et la validation de systmes interactifs fiables et tolrants aux erreurs humaines Approche pluridisciplinaire intgrant des spcialistes facteurs humains (ergonomie cognitive, psychologie du travail) des spcialistes informatiques (gnie logiciel, mthodes formelles, approches objets et distribues) des spcialistes en interaction homme-machine (mthodes de conception centre utilisateur) et des spcialistes en systmes critiques (analyse d'incidents/accidents, systmes embarqus civil et militaires, nuclaire) Formation la recherche et par la recherche Formation des jeunes chercheurs dans ces domaine par la mobilit au sein du rseau 14 1 - Overview of LIIHS EUD-Net The EUD-NET Network of Excellence is financed by European Community and

started in July, 1st 2002. Goal: help the European Commission to prepare a research agenda in the end-user development field Related to previous work on notations and tools for visual programming 15 Project INTUITION Financed by DoD. THALES avionic in charge. LIIHS team 240K HT. Start January 2003. 3 years Definition and construction of a platform for the design, specification and development of multimodal interactive systems Application domains:

Rafale Cockpit Air Traffic Control multimodal Interfaces 16 Cockpit Rafale Visu tte haute Ecran tactile Joystick 17 MAUSE: Towards the MAturation of http://www.cost294.org/ Information Technology USability Evaluation Type de projet: action COST Sponsors: ESF (European Science Foundation) et COST (European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical research)

http://www.esf.org/ 19 pays UE: (AT, BE, CY, CZ, DK, FI, FR, DE, GR, IS, NL, NO, PL, RO, SI, ES, SE, CH and UK) http://cost.cordis.lu/ Dure (4 ans): Dc. 04 Nov. 08 Objectifs tudier, dvelopper, valuer et comparer les Mthodes dEvaluation de lUtilisabilit (MEU)s Activits

Budget: Dfini en fonctions des missions et des activits des participants WG 1: Rvision et Analyse de (MEU)s WG 2: Comparaison de (MEU)s: Stratgies et Implmentation WG 3: Validation de Schmes de Classification de Problmes dutilisabilit WG 4: Rvision des approches assistes par lordinateurs pour lvaluation de lutilisabilit (SIG): E-Learning Dissmination de rsultats (Coordination): LIIHS-IRIT, P. Palanque, M. Winckler 18 1 - Overview of LIIHS ReSIST

http://www.resist-noe.eu/ Resilience Diversity Usability Evolvability Assessability Dependability+Safety+Security+Usability Duration 3 years 19 1 - Overview of LIIHS Members of LIIHS working in that field David NAVARRE Lecturer Marco WINCKLER Lecturer

Christelle FARENC Lecturer Joseph Xiong PhD Student 4th year Regina BERNHAUPT Visiting Professor Philippe PALANQUE Professor Florence Pontico PhD Student 4th year Sandra BASNYAT Post Doc

Jean-Franois LADRY PhD Student 1st year Eric BARBONI Post Doc 20 Outline of the presentation Overview of LIIHS Research Group State of the art in MBA for HCI

Specificities of Interactive System What is modeling? What kind of modelling in HCI? What has still to be done? System modelling Task modelling Design rationale Research Themes and Productions A Roadmap on FM & HCI 21 2 State of the art Interactive Systems Output System User Input input output Interactive

System Time 22 2 State of the art "Classical" Design Process SS Informal requirements Specification Manual Spec 1 ... Spec n Design Design 1 ... Design n Coding

Prog. 1 ... Prog. n User testing 23 2 State of the art What is a "Model" ? Concepts relationships between concepts Example : Entity Relationship Model Concepts : Entity types, Relationship Types, Attributes, Domain of Values, Identifiers, ... Relationships between concepts : "A Relationship type is a sub set of the Cartesian product of two Entity Type" An entity e1 cannot have more than one relationship with another entity e2 through the same relationship type e1 x

e2 x e3 x x f1 x f2 x f3 24 2 State of the art What can we Expect from a Model ? Completeness (we can express all the information we need to) Consistency (Contradictory elements cannot be expressed) Generality (Independent from a given application domain always ?) 25 2 State of the art

What is a "formalism" ? A set of conventions for representing the concepts of a Model Lexical elements (graphical or textual) Concrete Syntax (separators, terminators, ...) A formal definition of these conventions (otherwise just a notation) Flat 1,1 Owns 0,n Person 26 2 State of the art

What can we expect from a "formalism" ? Flat 1,1 Owns 0,n Person Expressiveness 0,1 0,n Rents Conciseness Closeness of the representation to the application domain Completeness wrt the Model (counter example : Graphical formalism of the Entity Relationship Model) L. Lamport "the only difficult problem the author solved was understanding his own notation"

L. Lamport "Automaton is a formal description technique dedicated to the specification of stacks" 27 2 State of the art Bug : With a "Formalism" we build "models" Modelling model: ideal representation of a given situation form the real world restrained to the concepts covered by the Model Goal: analyze the model to draw conclusions about the actual state of the real world Meta-model: model representing the concepts of the Model using the formalism (done for E/R and UML using class diagrams) 28 2 State of the art What and why modeling systems? An

abstract description of the system independent from the implementation that do not deal too early with details Describe what are the outputs of the system according to the inputs To allow discussions between the various actors (at a time, along the design process) to store results of discussions 29 2 State of the art What is a system model for Interactive Systems ? Represents the system data and actions Represents behaviour of the system

what actions are offered by the system when an action is available (according to the state of the system) what is the effect of an action on the state of the system Represents both how the system is presented to the user and how the user interacts with it 30 2 State of the art Design process for IS ? Manual Informal requirements Spec 1 ...

Spec n Goal 1 ... Goal n User requirements Design Design 1 ... Design n Task 1 ... Task n Task Analysis Coding Prog. 1 ... Prog. n

Specification User testing 31 2 State of the art Why Modelling Interactive Systems Formally ? To cope with the complexity To avoid a human observer (checking models) To avoid a human translator (writing code) To reason (verification, validation) To meet three basic requirements Reliability: generic and specific properties Efficiency : performance of the system, the user (workload, ) and the couple (user, system) tasks Usability 32

2 State of the art Design process using FM Automatic Informal requirements Specification Design Coding Progr. Gener. Spec 1 ... Spec n Design 1 ... Design n Prog. 1 ... Prog. n

Manual Verification Validation Verification Generic properties Informal validation 33 2 State of the art The design process of models Preliminary model Formal analysis Check Desired Properties

Ok Not Ok Model, Mending of ith iteration the model 34 2 State of the art Examples of models (requirements) A need for a declarative formalismRequirements Every clearance sent by a controler to a plane p is received by this plane p Planes, req DLRequest,

AG[send(req,p)]AFtrue A data-link clearance sent by a controler to a plane p will only be received by that plane p,p' Planes, req DLRequest, AG[send(req,p)]AG[not(receive(req,p')]true 35 2 State of the art Temporal Logic CTL * (Computational Tree Logic Star) A state has one or mode successors The set of possible states is infinite Operators: A (all the possible future); E (one possible future) + {F eventually, G always, X next, U until} Logical

connectors : (and); (or); (not); (implies) 36 2 State of the art Temporal Logic CTL * si si |= AGp si |= AFp si si |= EGp si |= EFp p formula is true if the system is in red state false otherwise 37 2 State of the art

Temporal Logic CTL * si si si |= AXp si si |= EXp si si |= A(p U q) si |= E(p U q) 38 2 State of the art Relating tasks and system Maintain task and system models consistency Preliminary system model

Formal system modelling i th Formal task modelling i iteration th Preliminary task model iteration Quantitative analysis Proposals for improving the system model Not Ok

Check Objectives Ok Towards Usability Testing 39 2 State of the art Proving compatibility of models All the objects in the tasks model are part of the data model of the system model All the actions in the tasks model are offered by the system model All the actions in the system model exist in the tasks models All the sequences of actions in the tasks model are "legal" in the system model

40 2 State of the art Fundamental elements for formal methods for IS Describe both state and events Describe both data structure and control structure Provide structuring mechanisms (80% of the code is dedicated to UI Myers 90) Take into account concurrency (multimodal systems) Deals with temporal aspects (temporal windows) Do it formally (it is easier to prove than to test) 41

2 State of the art State versus Events (Dix 91) Reactive systems Event driven Slicing of code into event handlers require explicit state representations Approaches Approaches coming from Reactive Systems Reactive or synchronous languages (esterel, Lotos) Methodological use of Petri nets 42 2 State of the art Data Structure / Control Structure Software crisis has shown limitations of separation (maintainability, modifiability,

reusability, ...) Approaches Mix two dedicated approaches (CSP-Z, ObjectZ, ) Integrate two approaches (Full LOTOS, Petri nets with objects) 43 2 State of the art Structuring Mechanisms Handling of complex components Understandability of models Reusability Modifiability Approaches composition (aggregation, association, ) communication (client-server, actors) macros and plugs 44

2 State of the art Concurrence Concurrency between input and output devices (+ multimodality) Groupware Multi threaded dialogues Approaches Textual formalisms (CSP, CCS, LOTOS, Temporal Logic) Graphical formalisms (Petri nets, Statecharts) Only Petri nets feature full concurrency semantics 45 2 State of the art Temporal Aspects Multimodal systems Animation (time based evolution) Alarms

Calendar events Approaches Procedural (Petri nets, Lotos, ... ) Declarative (Temporal Logics, ...) 46 2 State of the art Formal Aspects Easier to prove than to test Critical Systems Completeness, concision et non-ambiguity Executability Approaches Mathematical validation Test case generation Automatic code generation 47 A Small Example/Exercise

Model of a Mouse behaviour (one button, no wheel) Model of the interaction technique Click Double click Extensions Several buttons Behaviour of the wheel Several mice 48 2 State of the art A Small Example Requirement:

Whatever state the system is in, Move is always available D ow n M ove Id le P ressed Up M ove 49 2 State of the art A Small Example d I d le u

d D own O n e _ C lic k t C Two_D own u D C 50 2 State of the art A Small Example t C d Id le u / S t a r t T im e r d

D own O n e _ C lic k t C Two_D own u D C Adding Time 51 2 State of the art A Small Example m C ,B m D M o v in g u E

m B t C d , t a r g e t = t h is Id le u / S t a r t T im e r D own m O n e _ C lic k C ,M t C d Two_D own u D C

Taking Movements into account 52 2 State of the art State of the Art in FM for HCI Understanding interactive systems What is an IS ? What are the generic properties of IS ? Specific properties of IS ? Engineering interactive systems What are the components of IS ? How to model components and their relationships ?

Relationships with design process ? 53 2 State of the art Understanding IS Generic architectures for IS PIE and red-PIE models (Dix 91) Seeheim (Green 85) and Arch/Slinky (Bass 92) Generic properties for IS (Sufrin & He 90), (Dix 91) External and internal prop. (Gram & Cockton 96) Between understanding and engineering

CNUCE interactors (Patern & Faconti 92) York interactors (Duke & Harrison 93) 54 2 State of the art Engineering IS Dialogue modelling WIMP Model-Based UIMS (WIMP) (CADUI'96)

(Bastide & Palanque 90) (Beck et al. 95) UIDE (Foley et al. 93) Tadeus (Elwert & Schlungbaum 95) PetShop (Bastide & Palanque 95) TRIDENT (Vanderdonckt 95) Design Patterns: PAC (Coutaz 87) & MVC Model-Driven Interactive Systems Engineering (Vanderdonckt 2002, Paterno 2004) targeting at multiplatform UI (One model many interfaces) Paterno 98 55 2 State of the art Generic properties Generic properties for Software Systems Liveness Safety Ability

Generic to wear properties for Interactive Systems Predictability Observability Reachability Insistence Honesty, 56 2 State of the art Verification of properties Observability : the system makes all relevant information potentially

available to the user Insistence: the dialogue structure ensures that necessary information is perceived Predictibility: users can predict future states and system response time from current and prior observable states 57 2 State of the art References (books) Formal Methods in HCI, Harrison & Thimbleby 90, Cambridge University Press Formal Methods for Interactive Systems, Dix 91, Cambridge University Press Formal Methods in HCI, Palanque & Paterno 97, Springer Verlag

58 2 State of the art References (conferences) Eurographics workshops DSV-IS (Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems) since 94 published by Springer Verlag (LNCS) CHI 96 workshop on Formal Methods and HCI CHI 98 workshop on designing user interfaces for safety critical systems CHI 05 SIG on Safety Critical Interaction CHI 07 SIG Beyond Usability for Safety Critical System HCI Aero 2000 SUCA (Safety and Usability concerns in Aeronautics)

Mini-track of World Congress on FM 99 FMIS workshop series (Formal Methods for Interactive Systems) MDAUI workshop series at MODELS conference (formerly UML conference) 59 2 State of the art References (journals) No dedicated journal Software engineering journals HCI journals Some "special issues" Interacting with Computers vol 9, n3, 1997 Journal of Visual Language and Computing (vol

10, n3, 1999) ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction (2001) 60 Research Work carried out at LIIHS 61 Outline of the presentation Overview of LIIHS Research Group State of the art in FM for HCI Research Themes and Productions A Formalisms and tools Demos Roadmap on FM & HCI

62 3 Research results Main Results Relevant to FM in HCI Vilage (work with S. Chatty at CENA) A notation: Whizz A case tool: Whizz'ed SpiderWeb (work with Marco Winckler) A notation: StateWebCharts A tool: SWC Environment PetShop A formal notation: ICOs A case tool: PetShop User-centered design methods Linking tasks, scenarios, system and user models Design rationale (lecture on that topic on Wednesday morning)

63 3 Research results VILAGE (1) Initially developed for Air Traffic Controllers Interactive prototyping of highly interactive applications (post-WIMP) Build and test prototypes in a modeless way 64 3 Research results VILAGE (2) A data flow model A set of basic building bricks Strongly typed connection

Event listeners POINT POINT Tempo Trajectoire Segment 65 3 Research results VILAGE (3) Tool Palete Dialogue Zone Editing Zone Simulation Zone 66

3 Research results Overview of the Interactive Cooperative Objects (1) Petri nets with objects Specific aspects for Interactive Systems Petri nets inside objects Objects inside Petri nets Petri nets for dynamic aspects Objects for structuring Activation Rendering

Tool support Editing, Execution, Analysis, Prototyping 67 3 Research results Overview of the Interactive Cooperative Objects (2) Set of cooperating classes For each class Behaviour (places and transitions) in the Petri net Software Services (availability) States (distribution AND value of tokens) Presentation

Rendering function Activation function User services 68 3 Research results Verification What ? Safety nothing bad will ever happen Liveness something good will eventually happen "Smooth functioning" "good cooperation between Models" Efficiency (both local and global)

How ? Based on Petri nets theory (the basic brick of our system modelling technique) Cross execution of models Performance evaluation techniques 69 3 Research results PetShop Fundamental Principles Highly interactive tool support for the ICO notation Shortening the Path from Specification to Prototype

Formal methods can be usable (and useful beyond n! calculation) to practically nothing Model-Based The specification model is embedded and interpreted at run-time WYMIWYR (what you model is what you run) to reduce gaps in interpretation (Norman's model) No Modes : no automation surprises The model is editable and interpretable at any time Allows for interactive prototyping of new interaction scenarios 70 3 Research results

Runtime Design Time PetShop Architecture Analysis Tools UI layout Graphical editor ObCS User Interface Builder Rendering Function Activation Function ICO Interpretor

71 Widget Event Service Place Type Planes Plane LabeClick userAssume AssumedPl anes Plane

ButtonClick userOpenMenu 1)Presentation 2)Behaviour ObCS Element Feature Place Planes token entered 3)Activation Rendering method

p.show() 4)Rendering 72

3 Research results Requirements A voice request sent to a plane p is received by all the planes in the sector p Planes, req VRequest, send (p, req) p' Planes, receive (p', req) It is not possible to build several orders at a time p Planes, req, req' DLRequest, AF[start_send(req,p)]A[True{not(start_send(req',p)}U(end _send(req,p)}true] 73 A demonstration ? 74 3 Research results ATM in France Systems currently used A

radar screen A board of paper strips Limited interaction with the radar screen (zoom) Few systems - a lot of prototypes 3 Research results ATM 76 3 Research results An Air Traffic Management Case Study: Current System VHF communication all

the pilots listen to all the communications limited bandwidth low quality Manual the stripping controller has to write down by hand all the information given to pilots only a note pad and an aide memoire Envisioned ATM System A demonstration ! 79 User Centered Design Methods Preliminary needs Prototype

User's evaluation & verification no yes adquat ? Requirements Formal specifications Hi-fidelity prototype Software Architecture Requirements Requirements Maintenance Final System Specification Validation Implementation

and test Architecture design Detailed design Unitary tests Coding 80 3 Research results User Centered Design Methods PetSho p CTTE Task model Ma pp High-fidelity

prototyping i ng A demonstration ? Formal Scenario Input Description of the System 81 3 Research results Routine Scenario Several aircrafts in my sector I assume two of them I have to transfer both of them 2 slips then first aircraft transferred Second plane directly transferred 82

3 Research results A small case study : a timer controlled light switch The system use of a timer controlled switch (30 sec period) very simple hardware based (but same as screen saver) Users goal maintain the light on 3 minuts dont press the button more than necessary Two iterations on the life cycle 83

3 Research results Task model What ? both activity and planned tasks based on the notion of goal several task models for a given goal sequence of users actions on the system How ? temporal relationships in Petri nets invocation of actions offered by the system 84 3 Research results

User Model Only basic user Models (human processor) Possibility to describe user learning Cooperation and/or merging with tasks and system models Currently working on higher level user models (ICS) 85 3 Research results Initial System the light bulb the timer not possible to reach the goal LightOff PressSwitch AutoSwitchOff

LightOn [30] PressSwitch 86 3 Research results First Improvement Add a stop-watch Require hand and eyes WatchOff Press Press WatchOn CurrentTime

87 3 Research results The Task model reachable Really complex for the user t > 25 T1 ReadyTo StopWatch Goal Watch.Press CountDown P2 P3

ReadyTo StartWatch Watch.Press T3 Light.PressSwitch Light Light Started Started CurrentTime P5 ReadyTo StartLight P6 StartCounting T7 t := Watch.CurrentTime

P4 T4 P7 t <= 25 T5 T2 Watch Started P1 T6 <0> ReadyTo ReadTime P8

88 3 Research results Second Improvement Add a bell Remove stop watch LightOff PressSwitch AutoSwitchOff [5] AutoBeep LightOn, Beeping [25] LightOn PressSwitch

PressSwitch 89 3 Research results The Task model Less complex Less pooling Start/ Elapsed CountDown Light.PressSwitch Hear beep Waitting 90 3 Research results User model The perceptual system

boundary with the environment eye : between 50 and 200 ms (average 100 ms) The motor system physical mouvement hand : between 30 and 100 ms (average 70 ms) The cognitive sytem interface between motor and perceptual brain : between 25 and 125 ms (average 70 ms) 91 3 Research results Performance Evaluation of the first System (0,n,1,1,0,0,0,0)

T3 / n>=1 n=n-1 T4 (0,n,0,1,0,1,0,0) based on marking graph of the Petri net based on the previous user model Initial state n=7 (0,n,1,0,0,0,1,0) T3 / n>=1 n=n-1 T4 (0,n,0,0,0,1,1,0) T6 (0,n,0,0,0,0,0,1) T7

T5 (0,n,0,0,1,0,0,0) T1 (1,n,1,0,0,0,0,0) T3 / n>=1 n=n-1 T2 (0,n,1,1,0,0,0,0) T3 / n>=1 n=n-1 T4 (0,n,1,0,0,0,1,0) (1,n,0,0,0,1,0,0) T3 / n>=1 n=n-1 (0,n,0,1,0,1,0,0) T2

T4 92 3 Research results Performance Evaluation of the first System (2) T1 Cognitive Comparison of values T2 Motor Press button (Stop Watch) T3 Motor Press button (Light)

T4 Motor Press button (Stop Watch) T5 Cognitive Comparison of values T6 - Nothing T7 Perceptual Look at the Stop Watch 93

3 Research results Performance Evaluation of the second System(1) T 1 ( 7 ,1 ,0 ) T 2 ( 3 ,0 ,1 ) ( 6 ,1 ,0 ) ( 7 ,0 ,1 ) T 1 T 1 ( 6 ,0 ,1 ) T 2 ( 3 ,1 ,0 ) T 2 ( 5 ,1 ,0 ) T 1

( 4 ,0 ,1 ) T 1 T 2 ( 4 ,1 ,0 ) ( 5 ,0 ,1 ) T 2 (2 ,1 ,0 ) T 1 ( 2 ,0 ,1 ) T 2 ( 1 ,1 ,0 ) T 1 ( 1 ,0 ,1 ) T 2

( 0 ,1 ,0 ) T1 Motor Press button (Stop Watch) T2 Perceptual Hear the beep ( 0 ,1 ,0 ) T 1 94 3 Research results Results First upgrade

Min Time (Goal) = 7*165 + 60 = 1205 ms Mean Time(Goal) = 7*380 + 140= 2800 ms Max Time(Goal) = 7*625 + 200 = 4575 ms Second upgrade Min Time (Goal) = (8*30) +(7*50) = 590 ms Mean Time(Goal) = (8*70) + (7*100) = 1260 ms Max Time(Goal) = (8*200) + (7*100) = 2300 ms 95 Roadmap on Formal Methods in HCI All Applications The Invisible UI 2020

No more programming ? No more bugs ? 2010 Command and Control Systems Web Applications Business Applications Target Applications, Domains Tangible User Full concurrency Interface Dynamic instantiation Hardware/Software Augmented Reality Infinite number of states Multimodal Tool support Interaction

Advanced Analysis Direct techniques Manipulation UML, E/R, B (Atelier B), Z, Notations and tools WIMP No Interaction Technique 2007 Y DA TO Automated autonomous RealTime Systems (VAL, TCAS) Embodied UI User Interface Interaction Technique 96

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • The Concentration! 12 Artworks, Student Directed, Based on

    The Concentration! 12 Artworks, Student Directed, Based on

    You may refer to specific images as examples. All of my concentrations are done in pencil or acrylic paint. From the beginning of my pieces, I used pencil because I was more drawing orientated [sic], then as I got more...
  • Diapositive 1 - centre-robert-schuman.org

    Diapositive 1 - centre-robert-schuman.org

    9. Mai 1950. Robert Schuman, französischer Außenminister, schlägt in einer von Jean Monnet inspirierten Rede vor, die deutsch-französische Kohle- und Stahlproduktion unter eine gemeinsame Hohe Behörde innerhalb einer für andere Länder Europas offenstehende Organisation zu stellen.
  • Streaming SQL Introduction - Meetup

    Streaming SQL Introduction - Meetup

    Why do we need Streaming SQL. 12/6/2015. Low level programming schemes cost longer developing cycles and cost. SQL is a standard high level (declarative) language widely used for many years.
  • Wuthering Heights/Heart of Darkness

    Wuthering Heights/Heart of Darkness

    · Heathcliff destroys Isabella and drives her away, takes possession of young Linton, forces Catherine and Linton to marry, inherits Thrushcross Grange, then loses interest in the whole project and dies; Hareton and young Catherine are to be engaged to...
  • How should we witness to our Catholic faith?

    How should we witness to our Catholic faith?

    Saint Pope John Paul II, the Missioner Saint Pope John Paul II established World Youth Day in 1984. Since then, International World Youth Day has drawn together more than sixteen million teens, young adults, priests and bishops to worship, celebrate...
  • Theories of Personality - Denton ISD

    Theories of Personality - Denton ISD

    Theories of Personality. Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)-Austrian, doctor -father of psychoanalysis. One of the first psychologists to study human motivation. Freud-believed that mental illness is a result of nurture, not nature. ... Alfred Adler. Karen Horney. Carl Jung. Alfred...
  • Organizacja w XXI wieku - WordPress.com

    Organizacja w XXI wieku - WordPress.com

    Odkrycie . Ameryki. Czarna ospa. Szczyt Rzymu. Szczyt Grecji. Odkrycie bakterii. Początek kolei. Wynalazek silnika elektrycznego. Początek Rewolucji Przemysłowej. Początek drugiej rewolucji agrarnej. Czas (w latach) ROZWÓJ TECHNOLOGII, TRANSFORMACJE KULTURALNE I POLITYCZNE KRYZYSY.
  • HIT Team Meeting - Massachusetts CHIA

    HIT Team Meeting - Massachusetts CHIA

    Master Patient Index (Derived-ME12, "Enterprise ID" or MEID) introduced in APCD v2.1. Present for ME and MC files for 2011-2012. See APCD User Workgroup from April, 2014 for detailed overview of creation of MEID. Uses probabilistic matching algorithm using available...