DIKTAT BAHASA INGGRIS D III AGRIBISNIS Oleh: Zakky Fathoni, S.P, M.Sc CHAPTER 1 Reading Please read the following passage and answer the questions The term "extension" The use of the word "extension" derives from an educational development in England during the second half of the nineteenth century. Around 1850, discussions began in the two ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge about how they could serve the educational needs, near to their homes, of the rapidly growing populations in the industrial, urban area. It was not until 1867 that a first practical attempt was made in what was designated "university extension," but the activity developed quickly to become a well-established movement before the end of the century. Initially, most of the lectures given were on literary and social topics, but by the 1890s agricultural subjects were being covered by peripatetic lecturers in rural areas (Jones, 1994). The growth and success of this work in Britain influenced the initiation of similar activity elsewhere, especially in the United States. There, in many states, comparable out-ofcollege lectures were becoming established by the 1890s (True, 1900, 1928). During the first two decades of this century, the extramural work of the land-grant colleges, concerned with serving the needs of farm families, was to expand dramatically and become formally organized; but the use of the term "extension" continued and has
persisted as the designation for the work. 1. Where does the use of extension derive? 2. When did the discussion about the educational needs began? 3. What are the differences between the lecturers given before and after 1890s? 4. Particularly, in which country has been influenced by the growth and success work in the Great Britain? 5. What had happened in the first two decades of this century on the extramural work of land colleges? Vocabulary Extension: penyuluhan Attempt: upaya/ mencoba Movement: pergerakan Development: pembangunan Extramural: luar sekolah Expand: memperluas Influence: pengaruh Structure (What are the verb to be and the tenses? ) Verb to be is a verb that is used to modify (qualify) other verb, an adjective, or an adverb. The tenses is any of the inflected forms
of a verb that indicate the time and continuance or completion of the action or state. There are three basic forms of tenses: present, past and future (will be discussed in detail in next lecture). There are several verb to be that are used for different subjects and different tenses as indicated in Table 1. Subject Present Past Future Present Perfect Past Perfect I am was
will be have been had been We are were will be have been had been You are were
will be have been had been They are were will be have been had been He is
was will be has been had been She is was will be has been has been It is
was will be has been had been In the future tense, a modal verb (will) precedes the verb be for all the subjects. In present perfect tense, a helping verb (have or has) precedes the word been (third form of the verb be). Have is used for the subject I, You, We, and They, whereas Has is used for the subject He, She, and It. Meanwhile, for the past perfect tense, all the subjects use the past form of the helping verb (had) followed by word been (third form of the verb be). 1. Budi, Yanto, Mahmud and Ali are the members of a youth farmers organization in our village. 2. The price of fertilizers is expensive. 3. I am a first year student of Agricultural Faculty, University of
Jambi. 4. She was a student of Soil Science Department in 1999. 5. We were in Bali last month to study the traditional irrigation system Subak. Using verb to be with the expletive expression THERE The verb to be can use the expletive expression THERE, to modify the subject of a sentence. In such sentence, the verb to be agrees with the subject that follows. Examples: 1. There are five mangoes, three oranges and ten bunches of celery in the basket. 2. There is an axillary bud in each leaf axils in dicotyledonous plants. 3. There were some nurseries in our village before 1997. 4. There was a Tungro virus attack in farmers farm in Desa Suka Jaya last year. Sentence transformation An affirmative sentence employing verb to be can be transformed into a negative or interrogative sentence. To transform the sentence into a negative form, we simply add a negation word NOT after the verb to be. Whereas to transform the sentence into an affirmative, we simply put the verb to be at the beginning of the sentence before the subject. 1. Potato is a tuber crop.
2. Potato is not a tuber crop. 3. Is potato a tuber crop? Writing Please write a short paragraph about yourself and motivation for studying in D III Agribisnis Agricultural Faculty University of Jambi ( at least 100 words) Assignment Change the following sentences into negative and interrogative forms using the pattern you have learned. 1. There are chilli peppers in the basket. 2. The colour of garlic is white and yellowish. 3. Shallot is one of onion types. 4. Kamferia galanga and Zingiber officinale are of Indonesian native species. 5. The oil palm plantations were abundant in Sumatra before 1990. CHAPTER 2 Reading Please read the following paragraph and answer the questions The birth of modern agricultural extension services The first agricultural extension service of a modem kind came into existence as
the result of a crisis and the initiative of the occupant of a high office of authority. The crisis was the outbreak of potato blight in Europe in 1845. In Ireland its effects were particularly severe because the predominantly peasant population relied on potatoes in their diet, and "the potato famine" persisted until 1851. The new British viceroy appointed to Ireland in 1847, the Earl of Clarendon, soon after his arrival in Dublin wrote a letter (Jones, 1982) to the president of the Royal Agricultural Improvement Society of Ireland (founded in 1841), which acted as the central society for numerous local agricultural societies. This letter, no less than an official directive, urged the society to appoint itinerant lecturers to travel around the most distressed districts to inform and show small farmers, in simple terms, how to improve their cultivation and how to grow nutritious root crops other than potatoes. "Lord Clarendon's practical instructors in husbandry," as they became known, were centrally appointed, deployed, and paid and reported weekly to the society in Dublin, with some local control of their activities being exercised by the major landowners in their areas. Over the four years of its existence, the scheme was funded to about half its total cost by landowners and charitable donations, with the remainder coming from government-controlled funds (Jones, 1979, 1981). 1. What is the reason of the first agricultural extension of modem 2. 3. 4.
5. kind came into existence? Who is acted as the central society for numerous local agricultural societies? What is the point of the letter from the Earl of Clarendon to the President of Royal Agricultural Communities? Who is the target of the scheme of agricultural extension services? When does the outbreak of potato blight in Europe? Vocabulary Existence: keberadaan Persistence: kegigihan Improvement: perbaikan Societies: Masyarakat Outbreak: pecahnya/ lahirnya Blight: penyakit Structure (Simple Tenses) The simple present tense There are two basic use of the simple present tense, i.e. to express the habitual actions, and to state general truths or facts.
The formula of simple present tense: Subject + verb (type I). Note: the verb used should be with s when the subject is singular third person (thing), otherwise it is without s. Examples: The rust disease attacks corn crops in Desa Suka Maju. The natural orchids are very expensive. There are two buffaloes in my rice field. Farmers in technical irrigation area grow the rice crops three times a year. 5. Ali studies the entomology in this semester. 1. 2. 3. 4. The simple past tense The basic use of simple present tense is used to express the actions or to state the truths or facts that happen in the past. The time markers that are used to indicate the past (completed) action are: yesterday, ago, last, etc. or simply by the use the verb in the past tense form. The formula of simple past tense: Subject + verb (type II). Note:
there is no difference in the verb used for either singular or plural subjects. Examples: The rust disease attacked corn crops in Desa Suka Maju last year. The natural orchids were very expensive during the last two decade. There were two buffaloes in my rice field yesterday. Farmers in technical irrigation area grew the rice crops three times a year. 5. Ali studied the entomology in last semester. 1. 2. 3. 4. The simple future tense The simple future tense describes actions, activities, or conditions in the future. Time markers generally used are phrases employing the words such as: tomorrow, next, in, within, later, etc, or simply by the use the verb in the sentence. There are two formulae of simple future tense: Subject + shall/ will + verb (type I) and Subject + verb to be + going to + verb (type I).
Examples: 1. The new rice variety will be available in the market in next 2. 3. 4. 5. planting season. I am going to harvest the vegetables next week. The government will increase the price of fertilizers and pesticide next year. We shall go to the meeting as soon as possible. I will make decision later. Assignment 1 Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with the correct tense of the verb given in the brackets. 1. Swainsona formosa . (to be) one of Australian native legumes. 2. The farmers . (to harvest) their cabbages yesterday, and will sell them this morning. 3. Mr. Handoko . (to be) going to grow lettuce next month. 4. In 2000, we . (to go) to Agricultural Exhibition in Bogor.
5. Hasan and Husin . (to be) in their rice field last night. 6. The eggplant . (to grow) abundantly in Pal Merah. 7. Farmers in Kerinci . (to grow) potato for their living. 8. Next week my uncle . (to employ) many workers to pick the tomatoes. 9. The organic farming . (to be) now very popular in Australia. 10.The plant breeders . (to work) hard to improve crop quality via biotechnology. CHAPTER 3 Reading Please read the following paragraph and answer the question Modern agricultural extension In the early years of this century, extension services were in their formative stage; they were relatively small in scale and limited in the scope of their work and contact with farmers, and their organization was often somewhat haphazard even though based on legislation. They were organized predominantly either by central or local governments, or by agricultural colleges, usually in close association with experiment stations, or by farmers' organizations (agricultural societies, cooperatives, farmers' unions, or chambers of agriculture), or combinations of these parent bodies. As the century has progressed, the organizations have matured. Changes have often occurred to their parent affiliations, government funding has
become relatively more important, their objectives have become broader, especially in "the North," and the extension workers have become better trained and more professional. In addition, several other kinds of organizations have developed comparable work: agriculture related many of considerable territorial scale; and a variety of nongovernmental organizations (especially religious and charitable) involved in agricultural and rural development. 1. What is the form of extension in the early year of this century? 2. Who did organize the extension services in the beginning of this century? 3. Due to the progress of century, the extension service is also getting mature. Could you describe the difference between in the early year of century and this period of agricultural extension? 4. What does the word they in line 4 refer to? 5. In addition, some agricultural organization have developed comparable work in the extension service. Please mention the comparable work which have developed? Vocabulary Formative stage: Tahap pembentukan Haphazard: tidak terorganisir Affiliation: asosiasi/ kerjasama
Non governmental Organization: Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat Mature: berkembang/ dewasa Structur (Continous and Perfect Tenses) The present continuous tense The present continuous tense is used to describe actions or conditions that are taking place at the present time, and for a period of time which includes the present time. Time markers generally used for present time are: now, this moment, these days, nowadays, or simply use the continuous tense in a sentence. The formula of present continuous tense: Subject + verb to be (is, am, are) + verb (type I) + ing. Examples: 1. The virus diseases are attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi. 2. Farmers in Kayu Aro are growing potatoes, carrots and other vegetables. 3. The extension officer is presenting the methods of making compost. 4. Budi is doing intercropping between lettuce and baby corn. 5. I am cultivating my land by using hand-tractor. The past continuous tense The past continuous tense is seldom used alone in a sentence. This type of tense is usually used in combination with an event in
the past, which is stated or simply implied. The formula of past continuous tense: Subject + verb to be (was, were) + verb (type I) + ing. Examples: For an action happening in the past: Tono was spraying the rice field with insecticides. For two actions happening at the same time in the past: Tono was spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds. For two actions happening in the past, one was continuing while the other interrupted: Tono and his wife were working the rice field when the flood suddenly came yesterday. The present perfect tense The present perfect tense is normally used in two situations as the following: 1. For a completed action or state at an indefinite time in the past. The time markers usually used are: just, already, yet, not yet, etc. 2. For an action or state that has continued for a period of time, from the point in the past until the present time (past-to-present). The time markers used are: since, for, so far, up to now, in all (time), until now, etc. The formula of present perfect tense: Subject + have/has + verb (type
III). Example: 1. Ani has taken the Agricultural Extension course for nearly one semester. 2. Mr. Madjid has already sold his farm products in the local market with a good price. 3. I have learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering since many years. Assignment Try to construct 5 (five) sentences of each present continuous, past continuous, present perfect and past perfect tenses, then transform the sentences into negative and interrogative forms. CHAPTER 4 READING Social Context in Rural Areas In the future, rural populations will undoubtedly be progressively better educated, while their exposure to the mass media will continue to reduce their isolation and detachment from information, ideas, and an awareness of their situation within a national and international context. However, this exposure will not reduce the need for extension. Rather, given the changing demands on agricultural producers from population growth, increasing urbanization, legislative changes, and market requirements, the more knowledgeable farming population will require different kinds of
extension services. Social and economic trends within rural areas will therefore necessitate more highly trained, specialized, and technically competent workers, who also know where to obtain relevant information and problem solutions and various provision and organizational forms (Moris, 1991; Hayward, 1990) to replace monolithic government extension agencies. These agencies will need to recognize and serve different types of clients defined not in terms of "adopter categories" but of access to markets, degree of commercialization, and relative dependence on agriculture for family income and welfare. Answer the Questions based on Paragraph 1. What is the relationship between education and exposure to mass media of rural population? 2. What kind of factors influence and require for the different kind of extension service? 3. What is the social economic trend needed to replace monolithic government extension agencies? 4. What are the jobs and functions of extension agencies? 5. What is the conclusion of the paragraph? Vocabulary Rural population: penduduk desa Exposure: pemaparan Monolithic: kuat/ keseragaman
Welfare: kesejahteraan Awareness: perhatian Structure (Modal Auxillaries) Modal auxiliaries (also called modal verbs) are special verbs that has special meaning and function, and normally used to modify other verbs. Modal auxiliaries are only used in present or past tenses, but the present tense is also used to describe the future tense. In the present or future tenses, the modal auxiliaries are accompanied by the simple form of verbs (the infinitive without to). However, in past tense there are two forms of modal auxiliaries used, i.e. simply use the past form or use the past form in combination with present perfect form. Thus, the formula of sentences employing modal auxiliaries are as follows: Present and future tense : Subject + modal (present) + verb (type I) Past tense : Subject + modal (past) + verb (type I) Subject + modal (past) + have + verb (type III)
There are six words that are categorized as modal auxiliaries as indicated in the following table. Modal auxiliaries Present/future Past Can Can Could Could have May May Might
Might have Shall Shall Should Should have Will Will Would Would have Must (have/has to) Must (have/has to) Must (had to) Must have
Ought to Ought to Ought to Ought to have Examples: A strong insecticide can kill grasshoppers and bugs effectively. A strong insecticide could kill grasshoppers and bugs effectively. A strong insecticide could have killed grasshoppers and bugs effectively. Severe virus infestation may cause great lost in crop production. Severe virus infestation might cause great lost in crop production. Severe virus infestation might have caused great lost in crop production. Hasan shall go to the farm early in the morning. Hasan should go to the farm early in the morning. Hasan should have gone to the farm early in the morning.
Sentence transformation The transformation of sentences using modal auxiliaries into a negative is done by adding the negation not after the modal verb. Whereas to transform the sentence into an interrogative can be done by putting the modal verb at the beginning of the sentence followed by subject and predicate (a verb), or by using a question word followed by the modal verb, subject and predicate. Examples: 1. They can grow the tomato in a plastic house. They can not grow the tomato in a plastic house. Can they grow the tomato in a plastic house? Where can they grow the tomato? 2. We should do watering two times a day. We should not do watering two times a day. Should we do watering two times a day? How many times should we do watering? Assignment Change the following sentences into past tense form using appropriate modal auxiliary: 1. Farmers have to build an irrigation system in the area. 2. She may leave the plantation at 12.00 oclock.
3. The virus attack can spread via insects as the vector. 4. The government must control the price of crude palm oil (CPO). 5. The increase in fuel price will affect the agricultural sector significantly. 6. We shall buy new farm machineries by the end of this year. 7. My aunty has to sell one of her rice fields to pay the her sons tuition fee this year. 8. You ought to understand that the virus problem is not easy to solve. 9. The Minister of Agriculture will come to Kampus Pinang Masak to deliver a speech at the 42nd Unja Anniversary. 10.They must decide which rice variety that will be grown this year. CHAPTER 5 READING Please read the following paragraphs and answer the questions Extension goals Goals lead the actions of individuals, groups, and organizations. While pointing towards a future state, they are influenced if not determined by past experiences. They reflect the interests of their stakeholders and differ, therefore, according to specific life situations, power positions, and development philosophies. The prominent features of a system, such as its organizational structure, the choice of clientele, its operational design, and the methods used, are directly influenced by its
set of goals and must be evaluated in terms of their contribution to goal achievement. Main actors within the extension system are the members of rural communities, extension and other development personnel, researchers, and staff of commercial or public service and support organizations. Empirical evidence shows a variety of forms in which interaction among these groups is institutionalized. The variety of forms suggests a similar variety of goals, and either could be used to classify extension approaches. In practice, however, one finds an almost inseparable mixture of goals inhibiting a clear-cut classification. It seems more appropriate, then, to use a broader category, namely, selectivity with regard to clientele, and treat the respective goals as a continuum. The two end points of this continuum would be marked as technology transfer and human resource development, suggesting either a rather narrow technical or a broader socioeconomic view of development. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What should people do pointing toward the future? What was influenced by the set of goals? What does the meaning of its in paragraph 1 line 5?
Who is the main actors in extension services system? What does the variety of extension form propose in order to classify extension methods? Vocabulary Please find the meaning of the following words Interests Prominent Achievement Institutionalized Inseparable Inhibiting Structure (Active and Passive Voice) The voice of verb shows whether the sentence is active or passive. The sentence is active if an action is performed by the subject, and the sentence is passive if an action was performed on the subject. The active voice is used in making a straight forward statement about an action, i.e. the doer of the action is the subject of the sentence. In the passive voice, the doer of the action is not important because the subject of the passive sentence generally obvious to everyone. Therefore, in a passive sentence the subject is often omitted. However, when it is important to show the subject, a prepositional word by is used.
Please notice on the use of the active and passive voice in some basic sentences as indicated in the following sections. Simple tenses Active : Subject + verb (type I) Passive: Subject + verb to be + verb (type III) Examples: A : Jono grows some flowers in his garden. P : Some flowers are grown by Jono in his garden. A : We kill the weeds with a herbicide. P : The weeds are killed with a herbicide. Continuous tenses Active : Subject + verb to be + verb (type I) + ing Passive: Subject + verb to be + being + verb (type III) Examples:
A : Santi is planting shallots in the glasshouse. P : Shallots are being planted in the glasshouse. A : Farmers are clearing weeds manually. P : The weeds are being cleared manually. Perfect tenses Active : Subject + have/has + verb (type III) Passive: Subject + have/has + been + verb (type III) Examples: A : The young farmer has harvested his soybean two days ago. P : The soybean has been harvested two days ago. A : In order to increase soil fertility, farmers have used manure. P : Manure has been used in order to increase soil fertility.
Assignment Change the following sentences into passive voice or active voice. Please look carefully on the verbs used. 1. Teak (Tectona grandis) are planted in East Java. 2. Scientists are studying agroforestry and its benefit to farmers in Jambi. 3. The Department of Forestry grows iron wood (Eusideroxylon zwagerii) in Senami restricted area. 4. My tomato plants were attacked by root disease. 5. Forty percent of rice field in Jambi have been destroyed by flood. 6. In 2000, the CVPD disease had caused total production loss of approximately 2 billions rupiah. 7. Water in our area is contaminated by pesticide. 8. The Agricultural Faculty Unja will open Forestry Department next year. 9. Farmers in Tanjung Jabung has exported coconut oil to China since 1998. 10.During harvest time, birds eat the rice in the rice field. CHAPTER 6 READING Please read the following paragraph and answer the questions Human Resource Development
The concept of human resource development is much broader than that of technology transfer, though both are closely interrelated. Increasing complexity not only of technology but also of the life situation of farmers even in remote areas demands new skills. With the help of these skills, rural women and men "acquire a better insight into the network of problems and recognize the alternative solutions available" (Albrecht et al., 1989, p. 34). Traditionally, teaching the basic skills of literacy and numeracy has not been an extension activity. The limited success of literacy programs in poor countries has drawn attention to non formal education in which extension has an important part to play (Coombs and Ahmed, 1974). Whereas in most cases this would require a coordinated effort of different organizations of which extension is but one, human resource development may also be regarded as a genuine extension content. Extension may substitute over a certain period activities such as vocational education that are not yet in place, but more important will be the teaching of managerial and organizational skills that will enable farmers to increasingly solve their own problems. Human resource development thus aims at what may be called "critical competence." Extension clients know what to ask for, they can evaluate the appropriateness of technical information, they are responsible decision makers. Persons with this qualification exist in every rural community, and they will be the ones who actively seek further assistance. One important task of any extension system will therefore be to extend human resource development to underprivileged groups with less access to formal or vocational education women farmers, rural youth, and generally small farmers in remote areas. 1. What is the benefit of the technology transfer for the people
2. 3. 4. 5. especially the farmers? What is the limited success of literacy education in poor countries drawn? Where is the extension service has an important role to play in the community? What is the function of teaching of managerial and organizational skills for the farmers? What is the definition of critical competence based on paragraph 2? Vocabulary Please find the meaning and the synonyms of the words below Acquire Recognize Effort Appropriateness underprivileged
Structure (Adjective) Adjective An adjective (from Latin adiicere, add to) is a class of words that is used to modify or explain a noun or pronoun. In general, an adjective comes before the noun or pronoun it modifies, but sometimes it occurs after the noun or pronoun (following a verb to be). There are several types of adjective, i.e. adjective of quality, adjective of quantity, possessive adjective, article adjective, and verbal adjective. Adjective of quality Adjective of quality is an adjective that is used to describe the quality of a noun or pronoun. Examples: a. Hot chilli pepper is more expensive than sweet chilli pepper during the past three years. b. Farmers in Kayu Aro are growing new potato variety. Adjective of quantity Adjective of quality is an adjective that is used to describe the quantity of a noun or pronoun. These are: many, much, some, a few, several, various, a number of, a little, one, two, three, a hundred, one thousand, etc. Examples: a. There are five mangosteen in the basket.
b. Some farmers are discussing the irrigation system in the village. Possessive adjective Possessive adjective is an adjective that shows a possession of something by someone or by other thing. These include: my, our, your, his, her, their, its, my uncles, Rudis, etc. Examples: a. Our farms are located around the village. b. We want to see her tobacco crops attacked by TMV virus. Article adjective Article adjective is an adjective indicating the article of something. There include: a, an, the, this, these, that and those. Examples: a. The technical irrigation system increases rice production by three times. b. I dont want to eat those mangoes because they are too sour. Verbal adjective Verbal adjective is an adjective derived from a verb. There are two types of verbal adjective: 1) in the form of present participle (-ing form), and 2) in the form of past participle (-ed form). Examples: a. The drying method of wet paddy using solar energy is much cheaper than using machine. b. Farmers in Australia use harvesting machine to pick up their
mango fruits. c. An improved rice variety will allow farmers to obtain better production. Assignment Please make 10 sentences by using adjectives and qualify what type of adjectives? CHAPTER 7 READING Read the following paragraph and answer the questions Extension as a Commercial Service Commercial extension is a rather recent phenomenon and typical of either industrialized forms of agriculture or the most modem sector of an otherwise traditional agriculture. It may be either part of the sales strategy of input supply firms or a specialized consultancy service demanded by an agricultural producer. In both cases, the goal of the organization or the individual is profit earning, which in turn is tied very closely to customer satisfaction. Most directly this is the case for private consultants who will be retired only if their clients feel that expenses made have been profitable. Large input supply firms or rural banks that use their own extension workers as sales personnel must also have a long-term perspective with regard to the competitiveness of their products and services. Negative effects of incorrect application or use will be attributed to the product itself.
The clients of commercial extension will also be profit oriented. Their objective is the optimal utilization of purchased inputs or contracted expertise. 1. What is the commercial extension service as a recent 2. 3. 4. 5. phenomenon? What is the goal of industrial firm organization of agriculture? What is the benefit of the extension service for the client costumer of extension? Why does the private consultant be retired in the case of agricultural extension service? By using your own words, make the conclusion of the paragraph! Vocabulary Commercial: menguntungkan Private: swasta Perspective: pandangan Satisfaction: kepuasan
Retired: pensiun/ berhenti bekerja Structure (Gerunds) Gerund (= verbal noun) is a verb of present participle form (-ing form) that function as a noun. It is from Latin, gerendum, gerundive of gerere, meaning carry on. There are five basic functions of gerund: 1) as a subject of a verb, 2) as an object of a verb, 3) as an object of a preposition, 4) as a complement of a verb to be, and 5) as an appositive. Gerund as a subject of a verb Examples: Simultaneous planting can increase land productivity. (planting is a gerund used as the subject for the verb can increase). Threshing wet paddy can be done by manually or using a pedal thresher. (threshing is a gerund used as the subject for the verb can be done). Spraying the crops regularly will decrease disease problems. (spraying is a gerund used as the subject for the verb will decrease). Gerund as an object of a verb
Farmers are considering rotating their crops in the next growing season. (rotating is a gerund used as the object for the verb considering). Jono enjoys working as an agricultural extension officer. (working is a gerund used as the object for the verb enjoys). The plant breeder continued doing research on plant genetics improvement. (doing is a gerund used as the object for the verb continued). Gerund as an object of a preposition They thresh the rice by beating them on a wooden board. (beating is a gerund used as the object for the preposition by). Another method of threshing wet paddy has been the use of a pedal thresher. (threshing is a gerund used as the object for the preposition of). A knife called ani-ani is a traditional tool used for harvesting local rice variety. (harvesting is a gerund used as the object for the preposition for). Gerund as a complement of a verb to be His responsibility is distributing water to all the farms in the village. (distributing is a gerund used as the complement of the verb is). My hobbies are gardening, rock climbing and travelling. (gardening, rock climbing, travelling are gerunds used as the
complement of the verb are). The purpose of building a technical irrigation system is providing enough water for the rice field. (providing is a gerund used as the complement of the verb is). Gerund as an appositive He loves his job giving information on the need for farm mechanization to the farmers. (giving is a gerund used in opposition to the noun job). My ambition writing the history of traditional agriculture in Kubu tribe will soon be realized. (writing is a gerund used in opposition to the noun ambition). The members of the KUD always remember their obligation paying the contribution on time. (paying is a gerund used in opposition to the noun obligation). Assignment The following sentences contain gerund (in boldface). Indicate their function(s) in each sentence. 1. Genetic engineering has been proved to be beneficial to agriculture and animal husbandry. 2. The pomato was created by fusing potato and tomato protoplasts via tissue culture technique.
3. The geep was the product of recombining goat and sheep cells. 4. Discovering the microscopic world of the genes will never end. 5. The gene splicing technology will lead us to the creation of new products. 6. Scientists all over the world will keep on doing research on plant genetics improvement. 7. Many of modern plant varieties are created via DNA recombining. 8. The researcher starts observing the symptom of nutrient deficiency on swamp rice. 9. Besides investigating the physical properties, the scientists study the chemical and biological status of soil in swamp area in Tanjung Jabung. 10.The base fertilizers should be applied to the soil before planting the crops. Chapter 8 Reading Please read the passages and answer the questions Communication and Information Transfer Person-to-person communication has traditionally been the most important form of information transfer. Print media as well as radio and television were of a supplementary nature because they frequently lacked a target group or location specificity and information was not up-to-date. Revolutionary changes in communication technology have dramatically increased the speed and quality of
information transfer and changed the role of extension workers in industrialized countries. Electronic communications systems may in part replace personal visits, and one of the major tasks of any agent will be to link her or his clients with other suppliers of information. Notwithstanding the fact that their use is not restricted to industrialized countries, the fascination with modem communication means tends to obscure the fact that most extension personnel - 90 per cent of which are located in developing countries (FAO, 1990) are working under extremely difficult and disadvantageous conditions. In fact, little has changed during the last two decades to remedy the basic ills, and the field agent is still the weakest link within the system. 1. Why did TV and Radio become supplementary nature in the 2. 3. 4. 5. context of information transfer? What does the factor influence in the change of role of extension workers in industrialized country? How does the electronic communication may replace personal
visit for giving information to the clients? In which paragraph does explain about the modern communication between developed countries and developing countries? What is the fact that explains about the weakest link in the extension service system? Vocabulary Supplementary: tambahan Replace: menggantikan Major tasks: tugas utama Disadvantageous: tidak menguntungkan Weakest: terlemah Structure (Participle and Paticipial Phrases) As we have learned in previous chapters, there are two types of participles: present participle and past participle. The present participle is indicated by ing attached to a verb (ing form), and the past participle is generally indicated by ed attached to a verb (except for irregular verbs that have special form of past participle). These participial forms can function as adjectives (called verbal adjectives), such as: hard working farmer, increasing price, cultivated land, broken tree, etc. Like adjectives, they qualify nouns or pronouns, and like verbs, they may take objects and may be
described by adverbial qualifiers. Therefore, a participle with qualifiers or objects is called participial phases. However, participles are commonly used as qualifiers of the nouns that follow them. In the following examples, observe several positions of the participles and participial phases, and the nouns and pronouns they qualify. Present and past participles The following are some examples of sentences employing present and past participles. Increasing price of fertilizers and pesticides will impose high production cost on agricultural products. (increasing is a present participle qualifying the noun price of fertilizers and pesticides). The government introduces the biological control as a part of integrated pest management program. (integrated is a past participle qualifying the noun pest management program). Participial phrases In the following examples you will see that the participial phrases may come before of after the noun or pronoun they qualify. However, the participial word in the phrase should clearly indicate the noun or pronoun it qualifies. The ani-ani is a traditional tool used by farmers in harvesting local rice variety. (used by farmers is a participial phrase qualifying the noun
traditional tool). Most farmers living in transmigration area came from Java. (living in transmigration area is a participial phrase qualifying the noun farmers). Plants grown in a glasshouse are normally free from pest and disease problems. (grown in a glasshouse is a participial phrase qualifying the noun plants). Assignment Make your own sentences employing present participle, past participle, and participial phrases (5 each) Chapter 9 Reading A systems perspective in Agricultural Technology The usefulness of a systems approach for understanding and analysing agricultural technology generation and dissemination is widely acknowledged (among others, Nagel, 1979; Swanson & Peterson, 1991; Roling, 1991; Elliott, 1994). Although they are sometimes criticized because they are so abstract, systems analyses offer holistic vantage points for understanding the factors that impede or enhance the two-way flow of technology and information between farmers and the public organizations that constitute the
system. The model used here identifies an agricultural knowledge system consisting of four components set in a larger context (Figure 1). The components are technology generation, technology transfer (knowledge and input transfer), technology utilization, and agricultural policy (Swanson, Sands, & Peterson, 1990). The organizations that constitute the components, as well as others in the system environment, influence each other in complex ways. Such publicly funded systems are established by governments to improve 1. What is the usefulness of a system approach in agricultural 2. 3. 4. 5. technology? Why is the system approach sometimes criticized? What kind of model that is used in agricultural information system? How does the components could influence each other, use the example to describe the influence? By using your own words, please make the conclusion of the
paragraphs! Vocabulary Usefulness: kegunaan Approach: pendekatan Influence: pengaruh Impede: menghalangi Established: mendirikan Structure (Noun Compounds) Noun compound (also called noun adjunct) are group of words, usually two but sometimes more, joined together into one vocabulary that function as a single part of speech. A noun compound may consists of noun+noun, adjective+noun or verb+noun. Noun compounds consist of noun+noun 1. Palm oil plantations are found along the road from Jambi to 2. 3. 4. 5.
Palembang. Vegetable oil is one of Indonesias export commodities to Australia. One of the ways to increase rice production has been the creation of new rice varieties through a series of research. The baby corns and lettuce can be grown in a multiple cropping system. Various farm products from Kerinci such as fruits and vegetables are exported to Asean countries. Noun compounds consist of adjective+noun 1. Floriculture is a branch of horticultural science studying the cultivation of ornamental plants. 2. The Bogor Botanical Garden is the largest garden in South East Asia, in terms of its flora and fauna. 3. The old farmer is still strong enough to work everyday in his farm. 4. To stimulate root growth on a hard wood cutting, you must apply an auxin at 1000 ppm. 5. The quality of a flower is determined by its floral features such as diameter, peduncle length, colour and fragrance. Noun compounds consist of verb+noun 6. The travel agent plays an important role in promoting agro-tourism in Indonesia.
7. The control mechanism of temperature, light intensity and photoperiod in a growth chamber are by a control panel outside the chamber. 8. In plant tissue culture system, the inoculation of the explant is carried out in a transfer cabinet to avoid microbial contamination. 9. Any plants and animals brought from overseas should be checked by a quarantine officer for their healthy and safety to human being. 10.Dont forget to complete the check list before submitting your application form. Assignment 1 Make your own sentences employing the following noun compounds. You may add other noun compound(s) in the same sentence to support your idea. Food crops Harvest time Growing season Rain forest Germ plasm Hybrid crop
Artificial drying Growth habit Pest control Modern technology Hand tractor Tuber crops Hot pepper Rice field Agricultural development Rural area Ornamental plants Technical irrigation system Chapter 10 Reading Read the following passages and answer the question The Difficult Challenges in Extension Program Extension planners throughout the world face the difficult challenges of
being creative in their program development efforts and responsive to the needs of rural communities and farmers. A way to overcome these challenges is to look at different program development ideas and approaches, analyzing how they function in practice, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. It is important to emphasize that, although in the text we usually use the word "planning," our discussion is centered on program development globally, which we see as a set of dynamic cycles necessarily implying planning, implementation, and evaluation stages and activities, interacting and often overlapping, evolving along the program process and according to the changing circumstances of the physical, socioeconomic, and political-institutional environment. 1. What is the challenge face by the extension planner throughout 2. 3. 4. 5. the world? What are the solutions to solve those challenges? Describe and explain the emphasis of process of development program!
What does the set of dynamic cycle necessarily imply? What is the main idea of 2nd paragraph? Vocabulary Challenge: tantangan Emphasis: penekanan Dynamic cycle: perputaran dinamis Overlapping: melampaui Circumstance: kondisi Environment: lingkungan The Sentence and Paragraph Writing The Sentence What is a sentence? A sentence is a group of words consisting of at least a subject and a predicate, and expresses a complete idea. The subject of a sentence may consists of only one word or a word with modifiers, and the predicate may contain a verb alone or a verb with modifiers. Thus, a sentence may be very brief, consisting only of the subject-verb unit, or it can be amplified by modifiers. No matter how long it is, a sentence must have a subject and a predicate (verb) and expresses a complete thought. However, sometimes a group of words may look like a sentence, but it is not, because it may not have a
subject or the main verb (predicate), or both. In the following examples, the a statement is a sentence, while the b statement it not a sentence. In the sentence, the subject is in boldface and the predicate is in italic. a. Many people are waiting in line to buy fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds. b. Many people waiting in line to buy fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds. c. The information is important for vegetable growers planning for the intercropping practice in their garden. d. Important for vegetable growers planning for the intercropping practice in their garden. Paragraph Writing What is a paragraph? A paragraph is a group of sentences that has a topic sentence, a controlling idea with a list of ideas, and a conclusion, and the main objective is to convey the central idea clearly and effectively. In order to write a paragraph clearly, you should connect the sentences smoothly and logically, and in order to write a paragraph effectively, you should pinpoint (focus) the central idea. Therefore, knowing your sentences thoroughly is very important first step because the sentences are the basic
elements to construct a paragraph. How could we focus the central idea? One of the ways to pinpoint the central idea is to avoid a central idea that is too broad. To do this, you must go into details of the subject matter you are writing about. For instance, if you are going to write about the use of pesticides in plant protection programme, youll find that this topic is too broad to be written in a single paragraph. It is not a controlling or central idea. It is a topic which many scientists have written books or papers. In order to write a paragraph on the subject of pesticide use in plant protection programme, you must focus on one aspect of pesticide use only. Thus, you can limit the central idea for your paragraph by writing: It is important to consider the hazards which can occur because of pesticide use. The following is an example of how a central idea is developed in a clear and precise details. Disadvantages of Pesticides In a discussion of pesticides it is necessary to consider the hazards which can occur because of their use. Pesticides regularly strike at non-target species as well as the species for which they are intended. Moreover, the pesticide applications that are generally practiced by farmers can not always be confined to the intended area. Also, their effectiveness which can last a relatively long time, dose not cease after the pest population has been sufficiently reduced. Often there are unpredicted
results. These characteristics of pesticides enlarge the inherent risk that is associated with using toxic chemicals and give rise to the controversies which surround their use. To the environmentalist who is always concerned with clean air, normal pesticide use poses two major difficulties. First, the broad spectrum activity of these chemicals which certainly contain poisonous elements assures that nontarget organisms will be affected as well as target organism. This aspect of pesticide use produces many practical problems. One difficulty can arise from a reduction in the organisms that normal aid in pest control. Heavy and continuous use of pesticide often virtually eliminate the pests natural competitors. Normally, this problem occurs within a single growing season and is generally viewed as a short-term problem that may arise. Other short-term problems include hazards to farm workers and other people who apply the pesticides. Unfortunately, most cases of people who are poisoned occur with those who are careless and ignorant. The Structure of Paragraph A paragraph should contain three main parts, i.e. the topic sentence, list of ideas, and a conclusion. A topic sentence is a sentence showing what the paragraph is about. A good topic sentence will control the whole paragraph because it does not only clarify what the paragraph is about, but also points out what the paragraph is not about. A topic sentence normally is placed at the beginning of the paragraph, and it is often the first sentence in the paragraph. However, for advanced writers it is not necessary to put the topic
sentence at the beginning of paragraph. The topic sentence could be at the end, or it is not stated but rather suggested in other parts of the paragraph. A topic sentence must fulfill two requirements: 1) it must have a subject, i.e. what we are talking about, and 2) it must have a controlling idea, i.e. what we are saying about the subject. After making the topic sentence, the next step is to make an outline. In the outline, you simply write down a list of ideas which support the controlling idea. The last step is to write down the conclusion, i.e. the restatement of the topic sentence in different words. Example 1. Topic sentence : List of ideas : Irrigation system help farmers in rural areas. Opening employment opportunities Farmers utilization of land to its maximum capacity two or three harvests a year not dependent on seasons simultaneous planting season to fight insects
Conclusion : Therefore, irrigation is, indeed, beneficial to farmers. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Example 2. Topic sentence : A crop can be protected from parasite by several methods. List of ideas : by plant quarantine 1. use of clean seed 2. rotating annual crops 3. destroying the sources of infection, Slash and Burn 4. chemical attack on the parasite Conclusion : As you can see, these methods have worked well to protect
the crops. Forms and organization of paragraph The discussion above shows you how to make a topic sentence and an outline. In the outline you simply write down a list of ideas that will be developed to support the topic sentence. Thus, a paragraph has three parts: a topic sentence or introduction, a discussion, which contains the development of the controlling idea to support the topic sentence, and a conclusion, which is a restatement of the topic sentence in different words. In the following example, the organization pattern is shown to you. Sun-drying of Wet Paddy Topic sentence: Sun-drying of wet paddy is inexpensive. Discussion: In many villages in Indonesia sun-drying of wet paddy is common. In the method of sun-drying, members of the family can help with the work. Very simple things are needed: a wide open space, some mats to spread the paddy over, several rakes or tools that can function as rakes. This method of sun-drying is generally done in the back or front yard of the house. No skilled laborers or sophisticated machines are needed. Even children can participate to keep away neighboring chickens from eating the wet paddy. Conclusion: Thus, this simple means has made sun-drying cheap. Therefore, it appeals to the farmers.
Assignment In the following, you are given the outline for a paragraph. Read carefully and construct a paragraph based on the information given. Topic Sentence: Rubber has helped to create our present day modern civilization. Outline: a. rubber is used in transportation and electricity. b. eighty percent of the component of automotive industry is rubber. c. rubber is used in transmission, conveyer belts and tires. d. rubber is used in footwear and cable insulation. e. rubber is used in coated fabrics to obtain waterproof properties. Conclusion:Thus, it can be said that we owe much of our present modern life to rubber. Chapter 11 Paragraph Development Paragraph development pertains the discussion of the paragraph. The discussion of a paragraph, which support the topic sentence can be developed in several ways: 1) by using details, illustrations and examples, 2) by using
definition, 3) by using reasons, 4) by using comparisons and contrasts, 5) by using narrations, 6) by using arguments, etc. Our focus in this chapter will be on the first three types of paragraph development since these three are the types most commonly used in textbooks, scientific reports and papers. As we have discussed in previous lecture, a paragraph has three main divisions: a topic sentence (introduction), the discussion (controlling idea) and a concluding statement (conclusion). The topic sentence indicates the controlling idea of a paragraph. It has been taught that a topic sentence should be clear and specific. However, no matter how carefully you create and limit the topic sentences, they are still relatively general statements in relation to the content of the paragraph. Therefore, they should be narrowed down but adequately supported. Adequate support of the topic sentence in the discussion part of a paragraph is important, as it will clarify to the readers the controlling idea of the passage. Paragraph development using details In this method of paragraph development, the paragraph is developed by providing details to the controlling idea in order to support the topic sentence. Food Crop Production in Indonesia
The predictions of experts in 1970 that the world cannot feed its extra mouths have so far proved pessimistic. A United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO) 1983 study indicated that the third world countries including Indonesia could, in the year 2000, be able to feed four times its projected population. Due to agricultural development, Indonesias food production has been increasing. On 1988 rice production of husked paddy was 41.5 million tons and projected number by 1993 is 48.7 million tons. Livestock production is also increasing at an average of 5% a year. Through the method of fish culture, fishery is increasing by annual increment of 3%. The growth rate of horticultural products has been 5 7% annually. In short, Indonesia may not be totally self-sufficient; however, her view of the future need for feeding the peoples is bright. Paragraph development using examples Providing examples is another good method to develop a paragraph. The examples should relate to the subject and the controlling idea stated in the topic sentence. The Plant Growth Growth is defined as a permanent increase in size. However, size is not the only criterion used to measure growth. For example, the growth of a sample of cells in suspension culture could be assessed by measuring its fresh weight that is, the weight of the living tissue at
selected time intervals. In other cases, fresh weight may fluctuate due to changes in water status of the plant and so it may be a poor indicator of actual growth. In these situations, measurements of dry weight are often more appropriate. In multicellular organisms, cell divisions can occur in the absence of growth. For example, during the early stages of embryo development the zygotic divides into progressively smaller cells with no net increase in the size of the embryo. True growth occurs only when the cells expand. Thus, an organism is said to be growing if there is increase in its size, not in fresh weight or in cell number. Paragraph development using illustrations Graphs, figures or tables can be used efficiently and effectively to present facts or data support what the writer says in the topic sentence and further develop the paragraph. Observe the following example. Growth Measurements In general, a reliable way to asses growth is to measure one or more size parameters such as length, height or width and calculate the area of the volume where appropriate. When growth is measured continuously over time, an S-shape curve like that in the Figure 1 is often obtained. Growth curves of this form shows a period of slow growth (lag phase), followed by a period of rapid
growth (the logarithmic and linear phases), followed by the period when the growth ceases (the stationary phase). Growth curves of this shape may apply to single cells, plant organisms, or whole plants. Whatever the parameter is, this type of growth kinetics will always be obtained as the results of measurement. Paragraph development using definitions As the name suggests, paragraph development using definitions is the method of developing a paragraph by defining a thing, a person, a term, etc. In the example below, horticulture is defined by an explanation of what it is and what it is comprised of. By this method, horticulture is differentiated from agronomy. Hence, there is a classification in the paragraph that tells what is included in horticulture and what is not. In brief, the paragraph is simply defining horticulture. Horticulture Horticulture is branch of agriculture concerned with producing fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants. Horticulture originally referred to small private plots in which plants were cultivated. It differed from agriculture, which pertain to the cultivation of field. However, these definitions are no longer hold. Horticulture now includes orchard, ranches, plantations, glasshouses, plastic tunnels the whole gamut of areas, large or small, and tropical, subtropical, or temperate, in which plants may be successfully grown. It is contrasted today with agronomy. The
distinction between the two is made largely on the basis of the plants concerned. Agronomy is being restricted to crops such as grain, hay and cotton that have been traditionally cultivated in large field. Even here, there is no sharp line to separate the two, especially in the case of vegetables. Red pepper, for instance, when grown for export is considered agronomic, but when grown as a table vegetable is horticultural. Hence, there is a tendency to determine the classifications in terms of the extent of the area rather than on the more precise basis of the plant itself. Paragraph development using reasons Paragraph development using reasons is the method of developing a paragraph by giving reasons on why something happens? By this method, the question is answered by discussing the possible reasons, and at the end of the paragraph the alternative for better result is presented as the conclusion. Please have a look the following example. The Effect of Colchicine on Tetraploid Plant Induction The induction of tetraploid Swainsona formosa using seed treatment with colchicine was found ineffective and was liable to result in abnormal seed germination. The detrimental effect of colchicine on seed germination may be caused by the concentrations tested, which were too high. In addition, treating the whole seed undergoing germination will affect all parts of the seedling, although the only target and the only part that must be affected is the growing point. The major weakness of the method is that the roots are affected and usually the growth of affected roots is either poor or inhibited. Meanwhile, lower
concentrations of colchicine were not effective in inducing poliploidyzation due to the hard seed coat limiting the access of colchicine to the growing point. The embryological study showed that the seed coat of S. formosa consisted of thickwalled columnar palisade cells on the outside and a mesophyll with a layer of hypodermal osteosclereids. This structure is believed to restrict the effectiveness of colchicine at lower concentrations. Therefore, it is suggested to apply the low concentration of colchicine on the growing point of S. formosa seedling to successfully induce tetraploid plants. Assignment Write your own paragraph by developing your topic sentence using details, examples and illustrations. The subject should be in the field of agriculture. Then, indicate the three main divisions of your paragraph: the topic sentence, the discussion or controlling idea, and the conclusion. To assist you to develop the paragraph, write down a list of ideas as controlling ideas to support your topic sentence before you begin writing. References Swanson et al. 1997. Improving agricultural extension. A reference manual. Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations. Rome Zulkarnain. 2009. English for Student in Agriculture. Agricultural Faculty University of Jambi. Jambi