# Diode Applications - University of Engineering and Technology ...

Chapter 2 Diode Applications Objectives Explain and analyze the operation of both half and full wave rectifiers Explain and analyze filters and regulators and their characteristics Explain and analyze the operation of diode limiting and clamping circuits Explain and analyze the operation of diode

voltage multipliers Interpret and use a diode data sheet Troubleshoot simple diode circuits Introduction The basic function of a DC power supply is to convert an AC voltage to a smooth DC voltage. Half Wave Rectifier A half wave

rectifier(ideal) allows conduction for only 180 or half of a complete cycle. The output frequency is the same as the input. The average VDC

or VAVG = Vp/ Half Wave Rectifier Peak inverse voltage is the maximum voltage across the diode when it is in reverse bias. The diode must

be capable of withstanding this amount of voltage. Transformer-Coupled Input Transformers are often used for voltage change and isolation. The turns ratio of the primary to secondary determines the output versus the input. The fact that there is no direct connection between the

primary and secondary windings prevents shock hazards in the secondary circuit. Full-Wave Rectifier A full-wave rectifier allows current to flow during both the positive and negative half cycles or the full 360. Note that the output frequency is twice the input frequency. The average VDC or VAVG = 2Vp/. Full-Wave Rectifier

Center-Tapped This method of rectification employs two diodes connected to a center-tapped transformer. The peak output is only half of the transformers peak secondary voltage. Full-Wave Center Tapped Note the current flow direction during both alternations. Being that it is center tapped, the peak output is about half of the secondary windings total voltage.

Each diode is subjected to a PIV of the full secondary winding output minus one diode voltage drop. PIV=2Vp(out) +0.7V Derivation: PIV= (VP(sec) /2 0.7)-(-VP(sec) /2) = VP(sec) 0.7V VP(out) = VP(sec) /2 0.7 VP(sec) = 2VP(out) + 1.4V PIV= 2VP(out) + 0.7V

The Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier The full-wave bridge rectifier takes advantage of the full output of the secondary winding. It employs four diodes arranged such that current flows in the direction through the load during each half of the cycle. The Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier The PIV for a bridge rectifier is approximately half the PIV for a center-tapped rectifier.

PIV=Vp(out) +0.7V Derivation: PIV= VP(out) (-0.7V) PIV= VP(out) + 0.7V Note that in most cases we take the diode drop into account. Power Supply Filters And Regulators As we have seen, the output of a rectifier is a pulsating DC. With filtration and regulation this pulsating voltage can be smoothed out and kept to a steady value.

Power Supply Filters And Regulators A capacitor-input filter will charge and discharge such that it fills in the gaps between each peak.

This reduces variations of voltage. This voltage variation is called ripple voltage. Power Supply Filters And Regulators

The advantage of a full-wave rectifier over a half-wave is quite clear. The capacitor can more effectively reduce the ripple when the time between peaks is shorter. Ripple factor r=Vr(pp) / VDC Vr(pp)=(1/fRLC)Vp(rect) VDC=(11/2fRLC)Vp(rect) Power Supply Filters And Regulators Being that the capacitor appears as a short during the initial charging, the current through the diodes can

momentarily be quite high. To reduce risk of damaging the diodes, a surge current limiting resistor is placed in series with the filter and load. Rsurge= [VP(sec)-1.4V] / IFSM Power Supply Filters And Regulators Regulation is the last step in eliminating the remaining ripple and maintaining the output voltage to a specific value. Typically this regulation is performed by an integrated circuit regulator. There are many different types used based on the voltage and current

requirements. Power Supply Filters And Regulators How well the regulation is performed by a regulator is measured by its regulation percentage. There are two types of regulation, line and load. Line and load regulation percentage is simply a ratio of change in voltage (line) or current (load) stated as a percentage. Line Regulation = (VOUT/VIN)100% Load Regulation = (VNL VFL)/VFL)100%

Diode Limiters Limiting circuits limit the positive or negative amount of an input voltage to a specific value. This positive limiter will limit the output to VBIAS + .7V Diode Limiters The desired amount of limitation can be attained by a power supply or voltage divider. The amount clipped

can be adjusted with different levels of VBIAS. This positive limiter will limit the output to VBIAS + .7V The voltage divider provides the VBIAS . VBIAS =(R3/R2+R3)VSUPPLY Diode Clampers A diode clamper adds a DC level to an AC voltage. The

capacitor charges to the peak of the supply minus the diode drop. Once charged, the capacitor acts like a battery in series with the input voltage. The AC voltage will ride along with the DC voltage. The polarity arrangement of the diode determines whether the DC voltage is negative or positive. Voltage Multipliers Clamping action can be used to increase peak rectified voltage. Once C1 and C2 charges to the peak voltage they act like two batteries in series, effectively doubling

the voltage output. The current capacity for voltage multipliers is low. The Diode Data Sheet The data sheet for diodes and other devices gives detailed information about specific characteristics such as the various

maximum current and voltage ratings, temperature range, and voltage versus current curves. It is sometimes a very valuable piece of information, even for a technician. There are cases when you might have to select a replacement diode when the type of diode needed may no longer be available. Summary The basic function of a power supply to give us a

smooth ripple free DC voltage from an AC voltage. Half-wave rectifiers only utilize half of the cycle to produce a DC voltage. Transformer Coupling allows voltage manipulation through its windings ratio. Full-Wave rectifiers efficiently make use of the whole cycle. This makes it easier to filter. The full-wave bridge rectifier allows use of the full secondary winding output whereas the center-tapped full wave uses only half.

Summary Filtering and Regulating the output of a rectifier helps keep the DC voltage smooth and accurate. Limiters are used to set the output peak(s) to a given value. Clampers are used to add a DC voltage to an AC voltage. Voltage Multipliers allow a doubling, tripling, or quadrupling of rectified DC voltage for low current applications.

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