Diseases & Parasites of Beef Cattle AGRISCIENCE COURSE HERD HEALTH PLAN Producer needs to develop overall plan for maintaining health of the beef herd Key to success is the prevention of problems Awareness of beef cattle diseases and parasites can help farmers plan preventive programs that reduce health problems and increase profits Develop
a good working relationship with a veterinarian CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HERD HEALTH PLAN INCLUDE: Working Good with a veterinarian feeding practices that meet nutritional needs Keeping good records Vaccinating Follow at correct time
procedures for handling and storing vaccines Controlling Following Detecting parasites good reproductive management procedures signs of disease, correctly diagnosing, & treating with proper medicines VITAL SIGNS TPR: Temperature, Pulse, and Respiration Temperature:
normal range is 100.4 degrees F to 102.8 degrees F Pulse: normal range is 60-70 beats per minute Respiration: per minute normal range is 10-30 breaths CHECKING VITAL SIGNS Body temperature is taken in the rectum with a thermometer Pulse
rate is taken by finding the artery on the lower edge of the jaw, the artery along the inside of the foreleg, inside of the hind leg just above the hock, or the artery on the underside of the tail Respiration is determined by observing the number of times the animal breathes per minute SANITATION It is always better to prevent than to treat!!! Good sanitation programs are essential in preventing diseases and parasites
ANTHRAX Disease caused by bacteria that may remain in the soil for 40 years or longer Certain conditions cause the bacteria to become active Can enter the body through the mouth, nose, & open wounds Biting insects, such as horseflies, may spread the disease
First Less sign is typically sudden death acute infections show symptoms of high fever, sudden staggering, hard breathing, trembling, and collapse ANTHRAX CONTINUED Death will typically occur within a few hours after symptoms appear Carcass of an animal should be burned or buried at least 6 feet deep and covered with quicklime
Never bury the carcass near wells or streams Anthrax Annual can be spread to humans vaccines can be given against anthrax BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) Otherwise known as mad cow disease Chronic
degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system One of a class of brain diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalophathies Symptoms include nervousness or aggression, muscle twitching, abnormal posture, loss of body weight, decrease in milk production, and difficulty in rising after lying down BSE CONTINUED No treatment and animals eventually die Contracted
by ingesting protein in feed that came from an animal protein source that was contaminated by a prion (microscopic piece of protein) No vaccination exists BLACKLEG Caused by bacteria that grow only in the absence of oxygen Most serious when bacteria lodge in deep wounds
When the bacteria are exposed to air, they form a protective spore (covering), which allows them to live for many years in the soil Young cattle are more commonly affected than older cattle BLACKLEG CONTINUED Symptoms include lameness, swollen muscles, severe depression, and high fever. The animal may be unable to stand. Calves are vaccinated young and again at
weaning Treatment involves massive doses of antibiotics Vaccination is vital b/c the spores can live in the soil for 10 years YOUR TURN! Research and find the cause of the disease, symptoms, treatment, and vaccination. Foot & Mouth Disease (Hoof & Mouth Disease) Foot
Rot Johnes Lumpy Disease Jaw Pinkeye Ringworm Leptospirosis EXTERNAL PARASITES Include: flies, lice, mange, mites, and ticks They slow down weight gain and sometimes
damage the hides of the animals Some parasites irritate the animals; others are bloodsuckers Chemical control methods are the most economical. A program of parasite control includes sanitation. FLIES Horn Fly
Stable Fly Horsefly and Deerfly Blackfly (Buffalo Gnats) Mosquitoes Screwworm Fly Housefly Face
Fly Heel Fly (Cattle Grub) LICE One species of biting lice & 4 species of bloodsucking lice attack beef cattle Louse eggs are laid on hairs on the animals body Louse population is low during the summer & increases in the fall and winter
Symptoms include cattle rubbing against fences Bloodsucking lice weaken cattle, which causes them to be more likely infected by other diseases Control of lice is used by insecticides MITES Cause a condition known as scab, mange, or itch Mite
populations are at their lowest in the summer and increase during the winter Symptoms include the appearance of small pimply areas on the skin that lose hair Infected animals rub, scratch, or lick at the infected areas TICKS Tick bites irritate the animals, causing them to rub and scratch at the infected area Ticks
are flat, oval shaped and dark brown or reddish in color The spinose ear tick attaches itself deep in the ear of the animal & causes severe irritation, wax buildup, and infection INTERAL PARASITES Roundworms Flatworms Coccidia Anaplasma NUTRITIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS Research the cause, symptoms, treatment, and prevention methods. Bloat
Fescue Toxicity Founder Grass Tetany Hardware White Disease Muscle
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