DNA Structure and Function - Brigham Young University-Idaho

DNA Structure and Function - Brigham Young University-Idaho

DNA Structure and Function Starr/Taggarts Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life, Chapter 13 9e Key Concepts: DNA contains the information of heritable traits in all cells Each DNA strand consists of two strands of

nucleotides twisted together Hereditary information is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides Nitrogen bases have specific pairing arrangements DNA is replicated before a cell divides Discovery of DNA Function Fred Griffith - Discovered hereditary transformation Discovery of DNA Function Griffiths experiments

Transfer of hereditary material from dead S cells to living R cells (transformation) DNA Structure Pairing Arrangement Nucleotides Deoxyribose Phosphate Group A-T

Nitrogen base CG Adenine A Guanine G Thymine

T Cytosine C Amount of A=T and C=G Rosalind Franklin Fig. 13.8, p. 220

James Watson and Francis Crick 1 6 2 7 13 14

19 20 3 8 4 9

15 10 16 21 22 5 11

12 17 18 X Y Fig. 13.1, p. 214 Structure of DNA

DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides held together at bases by hydrogen bonds A=T and C=G The two strands twist into a double helix. The two strands run in opposite directions (anti-parallel) Each strand runs in a 5 to 3 direction 2-nanometer diameter, overall distance between each pair

of bases = 0.34 nanometer each full twist of the DNA double helix = 3.4 nanometers Fig. 13.7, p. 219 Unlocking the Secret to Heredity The structure of DNA allows for one strand to act as a template for the other strand If you have one strand you automatically know the sequence of base pairs for the other

strand. ACGCGCT TGCGCGA Semi-conservative Replication DNA Replication is semi-conservative There are 3 enzymes that are used for replicating a new strand of DNA Helicase DNA polymerase Ligase Click to view

animation. animation DNA Replication and Repair Enzyme regulated Hydrogen bonds break Attachment of nucleotides to new strands DNA polymerases DNA ligases

New strand is half old, half new Detailed Look at Replication Nucleotides can only be added in the 5 to 3 direction Leading Strand assembly is continuous Lagging strand discontinuous Creating Clones Dolly the sheep was first mammal to be cloned from a differentiated cell Nucleus from sheep udder cell was

transferred into enucleated unfertilized egg Egg grew into sheep by mitotic divisions Mice and cows have now also been cloned from adult cells In Conclusion Hereditary information is located in DNA DNA consists of nucleotides DNA molecule consists of two nucleotide strands twisted into a double helix The bases of DNA strands pair in a constant

fashion DNA of one species has specific nucleotide sequences

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