DNA/Genetics Study Guide - Avon Schools

DNA/Genetics Study Guide - Avon Schools

DNA/Genetics Study Guide Chapter 16- Section 1 Chapter 16- Section 1 Asexual Has offspring identical to the parent Three reproduction is when a single parent

types of asexual reproduction are Budding Fragmentation Regeneration Sexual reproduction is when offspring are formed when Genetic information from more than 1 parent combines Chapter 16- Section 1 Female

eggs The parent produces sex cells called male parent produces sex cells called sperm A zygote is the first cell after fertilization Human body cells have 46 chromosomes

Meiosis is The division of 1 cell (46 chromosomes) into 4 cells (23 chromosomes) Chapter 16- Section 1 In humans, meiosis is the division of one cell (46 chromosomes) into four cells that have 23 chromosomes each Genetics

genes Genes are located On chromosomes During information is found in fertilization, the egg and sperm

Each contribute chromosomes to the zygote Chapter 16- Section 1 External When sperm fertilized the eggs outside of the female body An example of external fertilization is Clown fish, frogs Internal

fertilization is Sperm & egg join inside the female body An fertilization is example of internal fertilization is Most mammals Chapter 16- Section 1 All

mammals reproduce sexually or asexually? EXPLAIN: Monotreme: lays eggs/hatch Marsupial: birth to partially developed live young Placental mammal: birth to developed live young DNA/Genetics Study Guide Chapter 16- Section 2 Chapter 16- Section 2

Pollination Pollen is moved from the anthers to the stigmas Pollen happens when contains sperm Explain how fertilization occurs in flowering

plantsAfter the pollen lands on the stigma A tube grows from each pollen grain Chapter 16- Section 2 Chapter 16- Section 2 Another word for dormant is Inactive Seeds

need water, air, and warm temperature to sprout Three structures that asexual plants use are Plantlets Tubers Runners DNA/Genetics Study Guide DNA/Genetics Packet DNA/Genetics Packet Another

Physical characteristics Name T two traits that giraffes have Colors / patterns / long necks / long legs Define name for trait would be

gene A section of DNA on a chromosome that controls a trait / F No two living things that are produced by sexual reproduction-except identical twinshave exactly the same genes DNA/Genetics Packet What are some traits that make you unique Hair color, eye color, straight/curly hair, ear lobes, height, blood type

Who is credited with the discovery of the structure of DNA James Watson and Francis Crick The ladder of DNA is made of bases. These 4 bases are represented by the letters: A, T, G, and C DNA/Genetics Packet Which

bases fit together A and T fit together G and C fit together The difference in the sequences of base pairs in the genes allow The genes to give the cell an almost endless set of instructions for controlling all the characteristics of an individual

DNA/Genetics Packet Why is the information coded in the DNA of a giraffe so different from the information in your cells Its different because the way in which the base pairs are arranged on the rungs of the DNA ladder is different in a giraffe than it is in your body cells DNA / Genetics Packet DNA / Genetics Packet

How do organisms inherit traits? From parents to offspring Zygote 23 chromosomes and 23 chromosomes from the mother The appearance of each child in the family results from the specific combination of genes Pink snapdragons Roan calves

Completely hiding the effect of another gene Capital letters A gene whose effect is hidden by another gene Lower case letter No title! Purebred Hybrid Widows peak, rolling tongue Freckles, red hair Mutation Albino

Sexual Determination X and Y X X or Y Y-carrying Boy- XY X-carrying Girl-XX X chromosomes Equal Y chromosomes Half Boys

girls Stem cell Protozoa and bacteria Design and function Tissues Organs and systems Cells that continually reproduce themselves Marrow Blood, skin and other organs Adult stem cells They can be found in

a cluster called blastocyst which is a developing human embryo Why are scientists interested in stem cells Leukemia, lymphoma Healthy stem cells Either a patient or a donor Multiply and divide Healthy, disease-free Blood and immune Stem cells Treat and cure

Diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and cancer Embryonic stem cells help sick and injured? Because they are so flexible- they can effectively replace the damaged cells that cause many diseases and injury

Where do we get stem cells for research and medical use? Umbilical cord Persons body A microscopic, early embryo Fertility treatments Nucleus Unfertilized Divide and multiply blastocyst Somatic cell nuclear

transfer Why are stem cells in the news so much? Because the cells come from a microscopic human embryo, which is destroyed when the stem cells are extracted How could stem cells cure disease? Heart

Left with scar tissue on the heart and often face long term health problems Produce new heart muscle cells. These are transplanted into the scarred area of the heart and regenerate damaged heart tissue Solutions?

Produce new insulin producing cells. These cells would be transplanted into the patient where they would produce insulin inside the body

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