Does Your Truth Match Reality? Dr. Heinz Lycklama [email protected] www.osta.com/messages Overview What is the issue? Introduction to Apologetics Arguments for Gods existence Why Christian Apologetics? What is truth? Contrasting views of truth How do we know truth? How do we know the Bible is true?
Does the Truth in the Bible match reality? What is the evidence for Truth in the Bible? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 2 The Truth Issue Your truth is what you believe to be true How do you know it is true? Is the Christian Truth true? Based on presupposition? Verified by credible evidence?
Looking at the evidence Does the evidence support Christian Truth? What about Atheism? Evolution? Creation? What about Mormonism? Hinduism? Buddhism? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 3 Questions About Truth Do we know because of the evidence: From science, history or archaeology? OR Do we believe because of:
Revelation, e.g. Holy Scripture? Human reason, i.e. Logic? Authority, e.g. Church tradition? Human experience? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 4 Stumbling Blocks in Coming to Faith in Christ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lack of intellectual knowledge of God Other Christians their perceived hypocrisy Sin: accepting Christ would require turning away from sin If God is all-loving and all-powerful, why is there so much pain, suffering, and evil? Perceived conflict between Science and the Bible, e.g. Creation v. Evolution No answers from the Church to the hard questions
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 5 The Statistics! According to pollster George Barna: Only 9% of born again teenagers believe that absolute truth even exists At least 60% of the children from evangelical homes are estimated to leave the church once they leave home Reasons: No answers from the church for the hard questions asked by our youth Indoctrination of our youth in
secularism and evolutionism @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 6 Some Definitions Agnostic one who does not know if God exists Apologetics rational justification/defense of ones beliefs Deism God created the world but is not involved in the world Epistemology the study of how we know Fideism no rational way to justify ones beliefs Humanism man is the highest value in the universe @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
7 More Definitions Logic the methods of valid thinking Deductive logic start with general principles accepted as true and apply them to specific cases -> the conclusion must be true Inductive logic study phenomena to determine a general principle -> leads to most likely or reasonable conclusion (core of the scientific method) Metaphysics the study of being or reality Modernism human reasoning replaced reliance on God Ontology the study of being @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
8 Yet More Definitions Postmodernism all meaning and truth is relative Presupposition an assumption that is taken for granted Rationalism determining all truth by logic Relativism there are no absolutes Skeptic one who doubts, questions, disagrees Theism God created the world and is involved in the world @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 9 Introduction to Apologetics
Apologia (Greek) speaking in defense Apologetics is a defense of beliefs by arguments, evidences, and reasons for why we believe what we believe Why Apologetics? Explain basic Christian beliefs Defend beliefs from those who attack them Defend beliefs from heretical beliefs @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 10 Explaining Christian Beliefs
Instruction of the basic Christian doctrines, beliefs and history Answering questions about these doctrines and beliefs Teaching the fundamentals of defending the rationality and trustworthiness of the essential truths of the Faith Faith built on fact, not feelings @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 11 Apologetics in the NT The word apologia is used in the NT eight times:
Acts 19:33, Alexanders defense to the people Acts 22:1, Pauls defense before the people Acts 25:16, Paul answers the charges against him Acts 26:2, Pauls defense before King Agrippa I Cor. 9:3, Pauls defense to those who examine him Phil. 1:7, in defense and confirmation of the gospel II Tim. 4:16, Pauls defense in a court of law I Pet. 3:15, give a defense a reason for the hope @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 12 Apologetic Approaches Defensive Phil. 1:7, inasmuch as both in my chains and in
the defense and confirmation of the gospel, 1 Pet. 3:15, But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts, and always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear Offensive 2 Cor. 10:5, Casting down arguments and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God, bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ, and being ready @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 13 Some Early Christian Apologists The Apostle Paul:
The Apostle Peter: Acts 26:2, I make my defense Phil. 1:7, defending the gospel 1 Pet. 3:15, ready to give an answer Tertullian, early church leader, 155-230 AD Apologeticus Christianity as the true religion @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 14 Christian Apologetic Styles Thomistic/Classical tradition
Evidentialist tradition Based on philosophical arguments for Gods existence Then specific case for Christian revelation claims Empirical arguments about the life, miracles, death, resurrection of Christ, fulfilled prophecies used as probabilistic proofs Presuppositional tradition Belief in God and His Word is presupposed Depends on the inspiration of the Holy Spirit Non-theistic assumptions proven to be false @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 15 Thomistic/Classical Tradition
Based on work of Thomas Aquinas Wrote Summa Theologiae Five ways of proving the existence of God, e.g. Cosmological argument a first cause One self-sufficient, efficient cause God There must be a necessarily existent being God is the source of goodness Teleological argument Intelligent Design Science of natural and divine things are based on the foundation of Thomas theses Important in the Catholic tradition @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
16 Classical Example The Bible claims to be the word of God The Bible has been accurately transmitted The OT was written before the NT The OT contains prophecies of Jesus fulfilled in the NT Jesus fulfilled the prophecies Therefore the Bible is inspired Therefore the Bible is accurate The Bible says God exists Therefore God exists @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 17
Evidentialist Tradition Justification of belief according to evidence Belief B toward proposition P is justified for S at time t if and only if B fits the evidence S has at t Separates justified beliefs from unjustified beliefs Belief coherent with other justified beliefs The Bible is most probably accurate Thus the whole of Biblical revelation is probably true Where we dont have absolute certainty, we must accept the most probable theory Builds from a common starting point in neutral facts
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 18 Evidential Approach Stresses miracles found in the Bible Other evidence Jesus performed many miracles Prophecies fulfilled Jesus Resurrection
Reliability of Scripture (OT and NT) Historical events and records Archaeology Scientific reliability of the Bible Creation supported by science Data (evidence) supports the biblical accounts @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 19 Presuppositional Tradition Objectives: Present a rational basis for the Christian faith Defend the faith against objections
Expose the perceived flaws of other worldviews Based on the supernatural revelation in the Bible Declares belief in the necessary existence of God Compares presupposition against reason, empirical experience, and subjective feeling Based on work of Dutch theologian, Cornelius Van Til, in the late 1920s @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 20 More on Presuppositional Presupposes Gods existence and argues from that perspective to show the validity of Christianity Presupposes the truth of the Bible
Relies on the validity and power of the gospel to change lives, Rom. 1:16 Regards the unbeliever as sinful in his mind and unable to understand spiritual things Presuppositions determine how one interprets facts @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 21 Natural Theology The discipline of establishing the rational feasibility of theism (existence of God) Seeks to establish a God behind religion Empirical endeavor seeks to demonstrate Gods existence based on sensory observation of nature, not on revelation Several arguments for Gods existence are advanced in natural theology
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 22 Arguments For Gods Existence Cosmological argument Teleological (Design) argument(s) Design and order in the universe, e.g Anthropic Principle Design of life Moral argument
Beginning of the universe Moral law implies a moral law giver Ontological argument The concept of God greatest conceivable and necessary Being @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 23 Cosmological Argument Premise everything that had a beginning had a cause The universe had a beginning
Based on Law of Causality Everything has a cause Einsteins General Relativity Second Law of Thermodynamics (Entropy) Therefore the universe had a cause Supernatural forces are at work @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 24 Characteristics of First Cause
Self-existent, timeless, non-material Creator of time, space and matter Outside of time, space and matter Omnipresent without limits Omnipotent creator of the universe Omniscient intelligent designer Personal choose to convert nothingness into time-space-material universe @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 25 Teleological Argument Every design had a designer The universe has highly complex design
A watch requires a watchmaker (Paley) Verified by the Anthropic Principle Universe fine-tuned (designed) to make life possible on earth Therefore the universe had a Designer Earth was designed for us @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 26 Anthropic Principle 122 very narrowly defined constants identified
Oxygen level in earths atmosphere ~21% Gravity force is a precise constant Expansion rate of universe Jupiter orbit protects Earth Thickness of Earths crust controls release of oxygen Rotation rate of Earth controls temperature differences Tilt of earth at 23 degrees is just right Probability of 1 chance in 10**138 (ZERO/NIL) @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 27 Teleological Argument Life Living organisms
Life from non-life is impossible Are complex Appear designed Contain information Spontaneously generated life never observed Probability is effectively ZERO Therefore life requires a Designer @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 28 Complexity of Life Life requires DNA (information) DNA contains instructions for building and replicating living things
Irreducible complexity All parts required to function Specified complexity Order of amino acids is specified in proteins Information in a simple amoeba requires 1000 complete sets of an encyclopedia @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 29 Moral Argument Every law has a law giver
There is a Moral Law Legislation requires a legislature Prescription requires a prescriber Fundamental sense of right and wrong Conscience (manifestation of Moral Law) Absolute (and universal) moral obligations Therefore, there is a Moral Law Giver Source higher than ourselves Source of our human rights @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 30 Existence of The Moral Law
The Moral Law is undeniable We know it by our reactions It is the basis of human rights It is the unchanging standard of justice Defines a real difference between moral positions We know what is absolutely wrong there must be an absolute standard of righteousness It is the grounds for political & social dissent If there were no Moral Law, then we wouldnt make excuses for violating it @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 31 Ontological Argument
Ontology concerned with the nature and relations of being Argues from the concept of God to His existence Does not begin with the facts of experience Defines God as the greatest conceivable Being A Being who has every possible perfection God, by definition, is a necessary Being Prior to and apart from experience Cannot not exist
Not generally accepted argument @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 32 Why Christian Apologetics? 1. 2. 3. Know what you believe Know why you believe Defend what you believe 1 Pet. 3:15, But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts, and always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear; @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 33 The Means of Apologetics
Matt. 22:37, You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind. We are to reason, to use logic Jude 3, I found it necessary to write to you exhorting you to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints. A call to battle for the truth @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 34 The Means of Apologetics -2 Acts 17:2-4, Then Paul, as his custom was, reasoned with them from the Scriptures, explaining and demonstrating that the Christ had
to suffer and rise again from the dead, and saying, This Jesus whom I preach to you is the Christ. And some of them were persuaded; Acts 17:11, they received the word with all readiness, and searched the Scriptures daily to find out whether these things were so. Be a Berean, search the Scriptures daily Look for evidence of the Truth @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 35 The Means of Apologetics - 3 Acts 17:17, Therefore he [Paul] reasoned in the synagogue with the Jews and with the Gentile worshippers, and in the marketplace
daily with those who happened to be there. Paul answered the questions of believers & skeptics alike Acts 17:23, Therefore, the One whom you worship without knowing, Him I proclaim to you: The Athenians believed in an unknown God Paul introduced them to the Creator God who could be known @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 36 Discerning The Truth Deut. 18:21-22, How shall we know the word which the Lord has not spoken? when
a prophet speaks in the name of the Lord, if the thing does not happen or come to pass, that is the thing which the Lord has not spoken; A true prophets prophecies come to pass 1 Th. 5:21-22, Test all things; hold fast what is good. Abstain from every form of evil. Examine what is preached carefully Discern the good from the evil @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 37 Knowing The Truth 2 Tim. 2:15, Be diligent to present yourself approved to God, a worker who does not need to
be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. Impart Gods Word accurately and clearly Rom. 12:2, And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what is that good and acceptable and perfect will of God. We can use our mind to reason @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 38 The Path to Keeping the Faith Steps to leaving:
Doubt upon asking the hard questions Discouragement upon finding no answers Disillusionment and feeling betrayed Apathy believing that answers do not exist Departure and antagonistic to the faith Solving the problem: Solid teaching programs An emphasis on Christian Apologetics @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 39 Sources of Belief True Belief False Belief
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 40 What is Truth? Epistemology Nature and scope of knowledge How we know what we know Relation between belief, truth, knowledge Ps. 100:3, Know that the Lord, He is God; It is He who has made us, and not we ourselves. If God made us, He would not deceive us about the nature of our existence @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
41 Four Essential Principles of Knowledge Basic epistemological premises 1. 2. 3. 4. All presupposed in Scripture The law of noncontradiction The law of causality The basic (although not perfect) reliability of sense perception The analogical use of language Found in God Himself
Endowed to His creatures (made in His image) Foundational laws/grounds of obtaining knowledge @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 42 Law of Noncontradiction A cannot be A and Non-A at the same time and in the same sense or relationship Truth cannot be contradictory 1 John 2:22, Who is a liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist who denies the Father and the Son. Scriptures assume difference between truth and lie, righteousness and unrighteousness, etc.
Nothing would be understandable without this law @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 43 Law of Causality Every effect must have a cause Every miracle assumes this law John 3:2, Rabbi, we know that You are a teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that You do unless God is with him. Nicodemus affirmed the divine cause behind the works of Jesus Without this law, no miracle in Scripture can occur or be of evidential value from Creation to Resurrection @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 44
Reliability of Sense Perception Our senses are essentially trustworthy See, hear, touch, taste, smell There are limits to our perception Knowledge of external world impossible if our senses not basically dependable John and Peter saw the glory of Jesus, John 1:14; 2 Pet. 1:16 Christ appeared to Peter, then to the twelve, and to the 500, 1 Cor. 15:5-6 These arguments would be useless without reliable human senses @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
45 Analogical Use of Language Two things can be partly alike and partly different One thing is analogous to another God is so entirely different from us God is a Spirit and transcendent Thus there does not appear to any way to say anything meaningful about God God is described in Scripture using analogical language in comparison with human attributes Gen. 1:26, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
46 Truth Issues Absolute or relative? Correspondent or coherent? Determining truth Using our five senses Using logic Revealed in Scripture Is truth knowable? Agnosticism, skepticism, etc. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
47 How Do We Decide Truth? Is truth decided by our five senses? [hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting , touching] Is our truth based on facts? e.g. our feelings? [touching the elephant] Does it match reality? Thomas asked the Lord about truth John 14:6, Jesus said to him, I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.
Very exclusive statement But, truth IS exclusive! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 48 Pontius Pilates Question Pilate asked Jesus What is Truth? John 18:37-38, Pilate therefore said to Him, Are you a king then? Jesus answered, You say rightly that I am a king. For this cause I was born, and for this cause I have come into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice. Pilate said to Him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and said to them, I find no fault in Him at all. Pilate did not think his question had an answer
John 17:17, Sanctify them by Your truth. Your word is truth. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 49 Jesus Answer Jesus was clear that everyone who is of the truth hears My voice. The Apostle John made it clear that Jesus was the Truth and there is no sin in Him Do you know how to answer Pilates question What is Truth? How do we determine what is true? Feelings dont tell us what is true, facts do! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
50 Use of Logic in Apologetics The universe exists Universe cannot be infinitely old Perceived by our senses Would have entered into state of disorder long ago Universe is not in a state of disorder Therefore not infinitely old Universe had a beginning
Universe could not have brought itself into existence Something before the universe brought it into existence That something is God @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 51 Three Views of Truth What does it mean for a statement to be true? Three different views on what truth is: 1. 2. 3. Correspondence/Traditional view Relativism/Postmodern view Practical/Useful view
The Test Does your Truth match reality? i.e. Does what you believe to be true match reality? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 52 Correspondence/Traditional View Any statement is true if and only if it corresponds to or agrees with factual reality Declarative statements are subject to verification and falsification A statement can be proven false if it can be shown to disagree with objective reality Truth is not a matter of subjective opinion, or majority vote, or cultural fashion Truth is objective and knowable, e.g. photo from
outer space showing the earth as a blue sphere @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 53 Laws of Truth Logic For any proposition P, at a given time, in a given respect, there are three related laws of logic: Law of non-contradiction not (P and not-P) Law of the excluded middle (P true or not-P true) For any proposition P, it is not the case that both P is true and not-P is true For any proposition P, P is true or not-P is true
Affirms that either P or not-P Law of bivalence (P true or false) For any proposition P, P is either true or false, i.e. any unambiguous, declarative statement must be either true or false @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 54 More on the Laws of Truth Law of non-contradiction (both P and not-P are not true) Law of the excluded middle (P is true or not-P is true)
Cant both be true in the same way, at the same time Both contradictory statements cannot be true Cant be true that there both is and is not X in my room There is either X in my room or there is not Law of bivalence (P is either true or false) It cant be neither true nor false It cant be both true and false @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 55 Law of Non-Contradiction We live by the law of non-contradiction If I say XXX and my wife says not-XXX
One of us is wrong We both cant be telling the truth Christians historically (traditionally) have affirmed the correspondence view of truth Supports the concept of absolute truth Logically self-consistent and supportable @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 56 An Example From the Bible There are good historical reasons to believe that Jesus rose from the dead in space-time history, showing His divine authority:
Rom. 1:4, and declared to be the Son of God by the resurrection from the dead. 1 Cor. 15:1-11, the gospel which I preached to you Factual evidence of Christs Resurrection (provided by Paul) 1 Cor. 15:14, And if Christ is not risen, then our preaching is empty and your faith is also empty. Illustrates the concept of absolute truth @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 57 Relativism/Postmodern View
Statements about scientific facts, religious realities, or moral principles cannot be known to refer to objective states of affairs Language is contingently constructed through communities Language cannot transcend its own context and refer to realities outside itself All language fails to describe objective conditions because of its embeddedness in various cultures The truth of a statement depends on the views of persons or cultures, not on whether statements correspond to objective reality @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 58 An Example of Relativism For a statement to be true just means that a person or culture believes it to be true
Well, if thats true for you We cant judge other cultures Accordingly, one can say Jesus is Lord and another Allah is Lord, and both statements will be true NOT @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 59 Putting the Statements to the Test This is illogical and fails the law of noncontradiction The statements are mutually exclusive John 1:14, Christians believe that Jesus is
God made flesh Muslims deny that Allah can or did incarnate The two statements cannot both be objectively true @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 60 Summary of Relativism View Relativism offers no means of verifying or falsifying any belief Relativism does not support the concept of absolute truth This view is self-refuting and logically unsupportable This view often referred to as postmodernism @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
61 Conclusion on Relativism View Relativism is false When truth is deemed to depend on a person or culture holding the belief, anything can become true It does not correspond to reality Which is absurd This attitude/view cannot be applied to medicine or science Would be deemed ridiculous
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 62 Practical/Useful View This view holds that a belief is true only if it works for a particular person Christianity may be true for me if it helps me, but false for another person if it does not help him This view confuses usefulness with truth e.g. mismanaging money <-> misplacing money (belief) <-> stolen money (reality) results in diligent management of his money @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
63 Truth v. Use Value The truth value of a belief is different that its use value Does not support the concept of absolute truth This view is self-refuting and logically unsupportable @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 64 Is Truth Knowable?
Agnosticism self-defeating, how do they know we cant know? Skepticism self-defeating, do they even doubt skepticism? Rationalism inconsistent cant rationally prove that something is rationally inescapable Fideism self-defeating, either unjustified belief or not fideism (belief in vs. belief that) Realism we can know something @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 65 What is Truth? Truth is that which corresponds to reality
Thought applies to reality Knowledge is possible Logic is a necessary presupposition of all thought It is undeniable that logic applies to reality Self-evident principles cannot be denied Truth is absolute, correspondent, knowable, logical The Bible claims to be the Word of God & true Does the Bible correspond to reality? Is the Bible true? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 66 Our Mandate
1 Pet. 3:15, But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts, and always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear; As believers we need to: Be ready to give an answer to questions about our faith Be able to explain what we believe and why we believe this Answer those who ask for an explanation @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 67 Is The Bible True?
Some people say the Bible is full of errors or contradictions For most this is just an excuse for not believing Few who claim these errors have read the Bible and analyzed any of these alleged errors @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 68 Alleged Errors in the Bible Law of non-contradiction Mistranslations Fails truth test
Not true to original language So-called scientific errors Authors used language of the day @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 69 No Contradictions Bible was written Bible has ONE author God
By 40 authors from many walks of life Over a period of 1500 years God is perfect, holy, true There are no contradictions in His Word, no matter what it seems at first Many supposed contradictions @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 70 Example of No Contradiction Many supposed contradictions result by placing two passages in false opposition to each other, e.g. Eccl. 7:29, God made man upright. Talking about Adam and Eve, who God originally
created upright Ps. 51:5, Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity. Here King David is speaking of his personal situation, as a fallen descendant of Adam There is no contradiction here @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 71 Mistranslation Translation of the books of the Bible is a real challenge We have many translations KJV, NKJV, AS, NAS, NIV, etc.
Most translation problems have simple explanations You should always look at the original Hebrew and Greek words used @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 72 Example of Mistranslation Lev. 11:13,19, And these you shall regard as an abomination among the birds; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, the vulture, the buzzard, and the bat. (NKJV) Bats are not birds (a questionable word) The KJV uses the word fowls instead of the word birds
The KJV used the word fowls in Lev. 11:20 to describe insects @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 73 Explanation of Mistranslation The Hebrew word used is owph, which can mean anything that has a wing, i.e. a winged creature The Hebrew word owph includes birds, flying insects, and bats Going back to the Hebrew word explains the supposed translation problem @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 74 Alleged Scientific Errors
Authors used the language of their day The sun rising in the morning The sun setting in the evening The sun does not rise and set The earth actually rotates Our talk of the sun rising and setting is not scientifically correct Spoken from perspective of the observer @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 75 Insects With Four Legs?
Lev. 11:20-22, Moses writes All flying insects that creep on all fours shall be an abomination to you. Yet these you may eat of every flying insect that creeps on all fours: those which have jointed legs above their feet with which to leap on the earth. These you may eat: the locust after its kind, the destroying locust after its kind, the cricket after its kind, and the grasshopper after its kind. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 76 Insects Have Six Legs We know insects have six legs We use the phrase on all fours to refer to the action of a creature walking around, not as a
count of the creatures feet The insects mentioned here have four legs with which to creep, and another two legs with which to leap six legs in total The author (Moses, educated in Pharaohs court) had good reason for his choice of words @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 77 Other Errors in The Bible? Other apparent errors in the Bible can also be resolved There is a logical/rational explanation for alleged errors in the Bible @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 78 Does The Truth in The Bible Match Reality?
Does the Bibles Truth Match Reality? Does what you believe (your truth) match reality? We apply certain tests to biblical Truth History, geography, archaeology, prophecy What about biblical scientific statements? What happens when we apply the same tests to your truth? Does the evidence match up? Tests must be objective
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 79 Topics/Questions Covered Jesus Credibility Is He God? Prophecies Come True Messianic + Others Christ Rose From the Grave What is the Evidence? Is the Bible Gods Word? Does Archaeology Verify the Bible? Creation Apologetics Is the Bible Reliable Scientifically? If God is All-Loving and All-Knowing, Why Do We have Evil and Suffering? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
80 Jesus Credibility Is He God? Evidence of Jesus life on earth Jesus in His humanity Jesus claimed to be God Jesus attributes Jesus actions (miracles) The Apostles taught the deity of Christ Four possibilities which one was He? Biblical, Roman, Jewish
Liar, lunatic, legend, or the Truth What are Jesus credentials? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 81 Prophecies Come True What is prophecy? Test of a true prophet The importance of prophecy Messianic prophecies The significance of messianic prophecies Messianic prophecy issues Probability of fulfillment of prophecies
Other Old Testament (OT) prophecies End Time prophecies @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 82 Christ Rose From The Grave What is the Evidence? Jesus Resurrection Pertinent data to be considered Historical facts to be considered Accounting for the empty tomb More than a dozen appearances of the risen Lord
Prophesied in the OT Prophesied by Christ Himself in the NT Includes more than 500 witnesses at once Paul teaches the importance of the Resurrection Its significance to the Christian faith @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 83 Is The Bible Gods Word? The Bible is unique How we got the Bible
Is Scripture inspired? Christs teaching on the OT Christs view of the NT Historical reliability of the OT Historical reliability of the NT Supernatural wisdom of the Bible @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 84 Does Archaeology Verify the Bible? What is archaeology? Some ancient archaeological finds The Dead Sea scrolls Evidence for the accuracy of the Bible
Internal, copy comparison, archaeology The Ebla tablets The divisions of Genesis Genesis and origins The walls of Jericho Other important archaeological finds Archaeology confirms accuracy of the Bible @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 85 Creation Apologetics What Does the Bible Say About Creation? What Do Jesus And The Apostles Say About Creation? What Does Science Say About Creation?
The Creation and Evolution Models of Origins Which Model Best Fits The Scientific Evidence? Challenges to Evolutionism Does It Matter What We Believe About Creation? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 86 Is The Bible Reliable Scientifically? Scientific statements in the Bible Reliability of the Bible established by:
Prophecy, history, geography, archaeology Laws of science consistent with the Bible Scientific statements/anticipation in the Bible Are they accurate? Astronomy, geophysics, geology, hydrology Meteorology, biology, physics Alleged scientific errors in the Bible Scientific disciplines established by Biblebelieving scientists @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 87
Why Do We Have Evil & Suffering? Death and suffering are everywhere View of history (and God): Atheists/evolutionists have a wrong view The Bible gives the proper view The role of mans free will What about senseless suffering? Suffering of believers Gods purposes Is God doing anything about death & suffering? Our source of hope @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
88 Christianity A Rational Faith Common misconceptions What is faith? Can Christianity be tested objectively? A rational body of truth Creation makes it plain Moral smoke screens More arguments for Gods existence Addressing Bible difficulties Addressing postmodernism Addressing skepticism @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
89 Confidence in Our Faith The foundation of our faith 1 Cor. 15:13-14, But if there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ is not risen. And if Christ is not risen, then our preaching is empty and your faith is also empty. Bring every thought captive 2 Cor. 10:5, casting down arguments and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God, bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ, @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
90 Defending Our Faith Dont believe lies or be deceived Col. 2:8, Beware lest anyone cheat you through philosophy and empty deceit, according to the tradition of men, according to the basic principles of the world, and not according to Christ. Know how to answer Col. 4:5-6 Walk in wisdom toward those who are outside, redeeming the time. Let your speech always be with grace, seasoned with salt, that you may know how you ought to answer each one. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 91
Defending Our Faith 2 Be able to exhort and convince Tit. 1:9, holding fast the faithful word as he has been taught, that he may be able, by sound doctrine, both to exhort and convict those who contradict. Be doers of the Word James 1:22 But be doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving yourselves. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 92 Our Faith is Rational
Christianity is a rational faith Our faith can be defended We can use our mind and logic Ps. 100:3, Know that the Lord, He is God. It is He who has made us, Jesus is our Redeemer AND our Creator Believe it or not! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 93 The Importance of Apologetics Defense of the Faith is essential for
Christian Apologetics is crucial for All church leaders All believers Discerning the Truth Reaching new believers Creation Apologetics is important for Establishing the Truth from the very 1st verse Explaining why Jesus came to Earth and died for our sins Providing answers to the hard questions @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 94
Reference Books 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Norman Geisler & Ronald Brooks, When Skeptics Ask: A Handbook on Christian Evidences, 2008. Norman Geisler & Frank Turek, I Dont Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist, 2004. Richard Swinburne, Is There a God?, 1997. [ISG] John Ashton & Richard Westacott, The Big Argument: Does God Exist? 2006. Paul E. Little, Know Why You Believe, 2000. Howard Vos, Can I Really Believe? 1995. Josh McDowell & Don Stewart, Answers to Tough Questions, 1993. Josh McDowell, The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict, 1999. Phil Fernandes, No Other Gods, 2002. Phil Fernandes, The God Who Sits Enthroned, 2002.
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 95 More Reference Books 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Phil Fernandes, Contend Earnestly for the Faith: A Survey of Christian Apologetics, 2008. Lee Strobel, The Case For Faith, 2000. Lee Strobel, The Case For a Creator, 2004. Don Batten, The Creation Answers Book, 2008. Ray Comfort, Scientific Facts in the Bible, 2001. Peter Stoner & Robert Newman, Science Speaks, 1976. Creation Moments, 101 Scientific Facts & Foreknowledge. Ralph Muncaster, Can Archaeology Prove The NT? 2000. Siegfried Horn, Biblical Archaeology, 1985.
Timothy Keller, The Reason For God, 2008. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 96 Yet More Reference Books 1. 2. Charles Colson & Harold Fickett, The Faith Given Once, For All, 2008. Ken Ham & Britt Beemer, Already Gone, 2009. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 97 Some Useful Websites 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
www.greatcom.org/resources/areadydefense - A Ready Defense by Josh McDowell www.carm.org - Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry www.reasonablefaith.org - William Lane Craig Apologetics Resources www.leestrobel.com - Investigating Faith by Lee Strobel www.josh.org - Josh McDowell Ministry www.osta.com/apologetics - Lectures on Christian Apologetics by Heinz Lycklama www.osta.com/creation - Lectures on Creation by Heinz Lycklama @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 98 More Apologetics Websites 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
www.summit.org - Summit Ministries www.probe.org - Probe Ministries www.comereason.org - Come Reason Ministries www.arcapologetics.org - Apologetics Resource Center www.rzim.org - Ravi Zacharias International Ministries www.bethinking.org - Thinking Apologetics www.str.org - Stand To Reason Ministries @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 99 Special Credits Dr. Phil Fernandes, The Institute of Biblical Defense. David A. Prentice, M. Ed., Origins Resource, 2007.
Apologetics arguments in his books. Some useful graphics and images. Josh McDowell, The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict, 1999. Many references to specific evidences. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 100