# Drawings, Tables, and Graphs

Drawings, Tables, and Graphs Understanding when to use different graphs and how to create them Chapter 2 section 3 in your book Different types of Graphic Representations 1. Drawings these can be used to easily represent a concept that is difficult to explain in words. 2. Line Graphs these can be used to show a change of one quantity over time 3. Bar Graphs these can be used to show the relationship among different categories of variables 4. Circle Graphs these can be used to show the parts of a whole It is extremely important to choose the right type of graph to represent your information. Drawings When to use a drawing:

1)When you are wanting to show details. 2)When you are wanting to show something you cant usually see. 3)When you are wanting to show hidden things. This drawing shows things you cant normally see and hidden things. It is a good example of an easy to follow drawing. More Drawings The drawing below was used to show something that is normally hidden. This is a wiring diagram for an electronic fireworks igniter. You cant normally see these things inside a firework. The picture above is an example of a Bohr model of an atom. It shows something you wouldnt normally be able to see. Line Graph When to use a line graph:

1)When you are wanting to show the relationship between two variables. 2)Each variable must be a number. 3)When you are showing the change of a quantity over time. The graph at the left is a line graph. Notice that both the variables along the x-axis and the variables along the yaxis are numbers. This graph shows that as the variable along the x-axis increases the variable along the y-axis also increases. This is called a positive trend or positive relationship. How to make a line graph 1)Determine which of the variables is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable. (If you have time as one of the variables it is always the independent variable.) 2)Place the independent variable along the x-axis using a reasonable scale. Remember each interval on the scale must be the same amount. 3)Place the dependent variable on the y-axis using a reasonable scale. Remember each interval on the scale must be the same amount.

4)Label your axes. 5)Give your graph a good title. Lets make a line Week graph Rainfall We are going to use the data Total (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4 0 1 11 3 1

8 2 table at the left to make a simple line graph. The table shows the amount of rainfall at my house over a period of 8 weeks. Following our steps we identify the following things: 1. Independent Variable Time in weeks 2. Dependent Variable Rainfall Total in centimeters. Continuing Line Graph Weekly Rainfall Measurem ents Over 8 Week Period Notice that the independent variable (weeks) is placed on the 10 x-axis and the dependent 8 variable (rainfall) is

placed on the y-axis. 6 Notice that a proper scale was used for the graph. 4 On the y-axis the scale goes from 0-12 because 2 the data goes from 0-11. 0 On the x-axis the scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 includes all of the data Weeks points. Notice that each axis was given a label and the label included measurement units where applicable. Also notice that the graph was given a proper title. Rainfall (cm)

12 How are graphs graded in this class? Anytime you are asked to create a graph in this class it will be worth 35 points unless you are told otherwise. That means a single graph is often worth more than a homework assignment or quiz. You need to take your time and do good work on graphs that are assigned. The 35 points is broken down as follows: 5 points for a good title 5 points for a correctly labeled x-axis 5 points for a correctly labeled y-axis 5 points for a reasonable scale/category labels on the x-axis 5 points for a reasonable scale on the y-axis 5 points for plotting your data accurately 5 points for presentation The graph below is a bar graph. Notice that the dependent variable on the yaxis is in number form, but the independent variable on the x-axis is in category form. This is very typical for bar graphs. Bar Graph

When to use a bar graph: 1) When you have categories of informatio n you want to compare. 2) When only one of the variables is a number How To Make A Bar Graph 1) Determine which of the variables is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable. (If you have time as one of the variables it is always the independent variable.) 2) Place the independent variable along the x-axis giving each category its own spot for a bar. Leave space in between the bars. 3) Place the dependent variable on the y-axis using a reasonable scale. Remember each interval on the

scale must be the same amount. 4) Label your axes. 5) Give your graph a good title. 6) Plot your data and draw the bars up to the proper Lets Make a Bar Graph County Championships We are going to use the data table @ OC Per Sport at the left to make a simple bar graph. The table shows the number of county championships won in each sport here at Otter Creek over the last 15 years. Following our steps we identify the following things: Sport # of Champion ships

Basketball 4 Track 1 Tennis 0 Volleyball 1 Independent Variable Sport Cross Country 9 Dependent Variable Number of County Championships

Continuing Bar Graph County Championships Won @ OC in Since 1990 10 9 # of Championships 8 7 Notice that the independent variable (sports) is placed on the x-axis and the dependent variable (# of championships) is placed on the y-axis. 6 5 Championships 4

3 2 1 0 Basketball Track Tennis Sports Volleyball Cross Country Notice that a proper scale was used for the graph. On the y-axis the scale goes from 0-10 because the data goes from 0-9. On the x-axis the scale includes all of the categories.

Circle Graph When to use a circle graph: 1) When you are trying to show parts of a whole. 2) When you are going to convert all the number quantities to percentages. The graph above is a circle graph. Notice all of the numbers are represented as percents. How To Make A Circle Graph 1)Determine the number of tallies within each category of data. 2)Determine the total number of tallies in the entire survey. 3)Divide the tallies in each category by the tallies in the whole to determine the percentage for each category. 4)Multiply the percentage by 360 to determine the number of degrees of the circle for the category. 5)Use a protractor to make each section of the circle the correct size.

6)Label each section with a percentage and a category. Lets Make A Circle Graph Students Favorite Core We are going to use the data Class table at the left to make a circle graph. The table shows the number of students surveyed who voted for each of the classes as their favorite.the total The first step is to determine Subject Number Voting For

Math 22 Science 47 number of students surveyed. So . Social Studies 38 22+47+38+19+24+44 = 194. Language Arts 19 Literature

24 Health 44 Now divide each piece of data by the total to get the percentage for each category. For example 22 194 = 11% The 11% is the number we will use in the graph. Continuing Circle Graph The percentages for each section should be as follows: Math 11% Science 24% Social Studies 20% Language Arts 10% Literature 12% Health 23% This is a really good spot to check your work so far. If youve done everything right your

percentages should total very close to 100. So 11+24+20+10+12+23 = 100. Sometimes you might get 99 or 101 due to rounding, but this is obviously correct. Now multiply each percentage by 360 to determine the number of degrees in the circle go with that category. For example 11% 360 = 39.6 degrees, which I am going to round to 40. Completing the Circle Graph The degrees for each section should be as follows: Math 40 Science 86 This is another good spot to check your math. If youve done it correctly, your total should be very close to 360. So 40+86+72+36+43+83 =

Social Studies 72 360. Here again, if youre off by 2 degrees or less its just Language Arts 36 due to rounding. If its more Literature 43 than that youve got a Now use a protractor to make the graph mistake somewhere. Health 83 and you should get something like this. Circle Graph 8th Grade Students' Favorite Classes 11% 23% Math Science 24% Social Studies Language Arts

Literature 12% Health 10% 20%

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