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THE DRIVERS EDGE INTERACTIVE slides and videos on s s l le lides a i t Par f 64 s o 20 Unit 8 Vehicle Components and Vehicle Components and Systems Purpose: Become acquainted with a vehicles main systems and components in terms of their purpose, safe and legal use, maintenance, and certain economic considerations. Includes vehicle purchase issues. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components Vehicle frame and body: The purpose of a vehicles frame is to support the body, engine, and other

components. Vehicle Frame The frame itself is supported by the wheels and tires through the vehicles suspension system. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The engine: When you start your car: (a) power from your battery is used to operate a small electric motor called the starter motor, (b) the starter motor turns the flywheel and crankshaft of the engine so that the engine can attain sufficient momentum and speed to start and run on its own, (c) delivering rotational power to the crankshaft which supplies power to the remainder of the power train. Battery Spark Plug Crankshaft

Engine Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The engine: This power is ignited by exploding gas inside cylinders which drives pistons up and down, through connecting rods. Inside the pistons a mixture of compressed air and gas is delivered to the cylinders by a carburetor and intake manifold or a fuel injection system. The moving parts of the engine must be lubricated. Oil which accumulates in your engines oil pan is pumped by the oil pump through an oil filter and then through tubes that deliver the oil to the moving parts to be lubricated. Oil and Oil Filter Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The engine:

But some engine are also fully powered by electricity Charging Station Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The fuel system: Fuel and air is delivered to the engine through components which include: (a) the fuel tank which is used to store the gas, (b) a fuel pump which pumps the gas from the tank through a fuel line and furl filter to a carburetor or fuel injection system. This fuel injection system or carburetor delivers the proper mix of air and gas to the cylinders by means of an intake manifold after passing through an air cleaner. Question: What is the name of the system that moves the gasoline to the engine? Vehicle Components

and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The power train system: A vehicles power train consists of components that generate and transmit power to the wheels. In a rear wheel vehicle automatic vehicle, it includes: (a) the engine which generates the force, (b) the transmission which adjusts and controls the engines RPM and changes the gears, (c) the drive shaft which transmits forces from the transmission to the rear of the vehicle into the differential which allows the axels and back wheels to turn. In a front wheel drive vehicle, the power is transmitted from the engine through a combination transmission-differential and then to the front wheels. Differential Drive shaft Transmission

In a four-wheel drive vehicle, power is transmitted from the Question: What is the name of transmission tothat a transfer case the system transmits which can transmit power to power to the wheels? either the rear wheels only or to both the rear and front wheels. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The exhaust system: After gas is exploded in one of the cylinders it is released into an exhaust manifold which collects it and passes it to a catalytic converter which chemically reduces the quantity of harmful pollutants.

The gases are then passed by exhaust pipes through a muffler and resonator which reduce the noise. The gasses are then moved to the tailpipe which vents the hot air away from the vehicle. Muffler Exhaust Pipes Keep your exhaust system in good working noticing Question: Whatorder is theby name of the changes in noise, fumes, and system that removes the emission rattling. allenvironment? signal problems. gases These

into the Eventually all vehicles need replacement exhaust components. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The cooling system: Heat caused by the friction of moving engine parts and the explosion of gasoline is removed through the vehicles cooling system. In this system, heat is absorbed by coolant flowing through passages inside the engine. The coolant is a mixture of water and chemicals that protect the cooling system from corrosion, lubricate the water pump, and prevent freezing. It is stored in the radiator which transfers the heat to the outside environment. The radiator is cooled by a fan, and most have a recovery tank to capture coolant as it expands due to the heat, and returns it to the radiator when it cools.

Radiator This coolant also allows your engine to heat up Question: What is the name of its proper operating thetosystem that prevents the temperature is engine from and overheating? controlled by a heat sensing valve called a thermostat. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components Electricity is distributed throughout your vehicle by various electrical circuits for lighting, computers, radio, interior cooling, heating, etc. The electrical system:

The battery is your vehicles primary source of electrical power. When you turn on your ignition switch to start your car, electricity is used to close another switch called a solenoid that transmits the large amount of current needed to turn the starter motor. Once your engine is running, power is generated by the alternator, which These circuits have fuses also keeps your battery charged. to disable a circuit that is Question: is the name of drawingWhat too much current Then there is a voltage regulator, theso system startsathe as tothat prevent firemotor? and distributor, and coil which controls the amount of electricity needed by protect the components that the circuit serves.

the spark plugs. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The steering system: A vehicles steering wheel is attached to a steering column or shaft which terminates in the steering box. Inside the steering box, the turning motion of the column is translated into lateral motion which is passed on to the wheels through a series of components which include ball joints, the steering arm, and steering knuckle. In power steering systems, turning the steering wheel actuates a hydraulic system which amplifies the force necessary to rotate and move the linkages leading to the wheels. With power steering there should be no free play in the wheel; and no more than 2 inches with cars without power steering. When you turn the steering wheel in a power steering system, the hydraulic fluid is compressed inside a cylinder.

This compressed fluid is then transmitted by Question: What is the name of hydraulic to a piston the system lines that makes it which amplifies the force possible to turn the car? making it easier to turn the wheels. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The suspension system: The purpose of your vehicles suspension system is to connect the wheels to the frame and body and keep the movement of your wheels from being transmitted fully to the body of the vehicle.

This allows you to maintain control of the car in turns, when you hit potholes, and on rough roads. It makes riding in the car more comfortable. There are are different designs for suspension systems involving various linkages, struts, joints, torsion bars, and so on. Coil Springs and Shock Absorbers Question: What is the name of As the up and down movement of your wheels is absorbed by ease the the system that helps jarring effect of potholes? springs in your suspension system, yourthe shock absorbers keep the springs from continuing to bounce.

Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The suspension system: The purpose of your vehicles suspension system is to connect the wheels to the frame and body and keep the movement of your wheels from being transmitted fully to the body of the vehicle. This allows you to maintain control of the car in turns, when you hit potholes, and on rough roads. It makes riding in the car more comfortable. While thinking about the suspension, can anyone explain how potholes are formed, which inflict significant strain on the suspension? Coil Springs and Shock Absorbers Lets now consider your vehicles braking system. As the up and down movement of your wheels is absorbed by the

springs in your suspension system, your shock absorbers keep the springs from continuing to bounce. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The suspension system: The purpose of your vehicles suspension system is to connect the wheels to the frame and body and keep the movement of your wheels from being transmitted fully to the body of the vehicle. This allows you to maintain control of the car in turns, when you hit potholes, and on rough roads. It makes riding in the car more comfortable. Hydraulic fluid is stored in a brake reserve normally located in the engine compartment. Question: What is the name of the system that stops the car? As the up and down movement of your wheels is absorbed by the springs in your suspension system, your shock absorbers keep

the springs from continuing to bounce. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The braking system: There are two types of brakes: (a) drum brakes and (b) disc brakes Drum brakes slow your vehicle by the friction of a brake shoe pushing against the drum which is rotating with the wheel. Disc brakes slow your car by the friction of a caliper pressing against a disc which is rotating with the wheel. Your parking brake uses a cable to engage the brakes or clamp down on the drive shaft, and will function even if your service brakes fail. Both drum and disc brakes convert friction force to heat and if the brakes get too hot, they cease to work because they cannot dissipate enough heat. For both types of brakes, your stopping time is roughly proportional to the square of your speed. So, if you double your speed you increase your stopping distance by four times!

Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The braking system: Brakes will only slow your car while there is friction between the moving parts of your brakes. If the wheels are locked as in the case of a skid, the drums or discs are not moving and there will be no friction. The purpose of the antilock braking system is to prevent the brakes from locking by first sensing that they are locking then automatically, rapidly releasing and applying pressure. If you do not have antilock brakes, you can avoid having your brakes lock manually, rapidly releasing and then reapplying pressure to your brake pedal. With ABS: wheels do not lock upyou have steering control. Lets now consider driver

controls Without ABS: wheels lock upno steering control. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components Vehicle maintenance: fuel system: Leaks in your fuel system can cause fires and expose you to toxic gases. The leaks can occur in the fuel tank, fuel lines, fuel pump, carburetor, fuel injector lines and even by not having your gas cap secured attached. If you smell gas you should immediately stop the car, turn off the engine and determine the problem. Your fuel system should be checked for leaks as part of regular maintenance. Lets now consider lights, gauges and chimes in more detail. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components

The instrument panel: lights, gauges and chimes: Certain gauges and lights are more important than others. An easy way to remember the most important one is to learn: boil, oil, and coil. The first and most important is the temperature or boil. When this warning light is on or the gauge moves into the red, it means the temperature of the engine is too high and the engine will overheat soon. The proper response is to pull over and turn off the engine so it can cool down. It would be good to then get your cooling system checked. Question: What should you do if this needle goes into the red zone? Red zone Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components The instrument panel: lights, gauges and chimes: Certain gauges and lights are more important than others. An easy way to remember the most important one is to learn: boil, oil, and coil.

Next, is the oil gauge or warning light. It signifies that the oil level is low. Without oil, the parts that need lubrication would heat up, expand and not move freely. This will cause permanent damage to the engine. Question: What should you do if this needle gets any lower? Its a good idea to frequently check your oil level anyway. The proper response is to check and add oil to the recommended level. The vehicle should be checked out to find out why the oil level was low. Vehicle Components and Systems Vehicle Systems and components Lets now consider the legal use of safety equipment. The instrument panel: lights, gauges and chimes: Certain gauges and lights are more important than others. An easy way to remember the most important one is to learn: boil, oil, and coil.

Coil relates to the battery or alternator light or voltage gauge. If trouble is indicated, it means the battery is not being charged. This is the least urgent of the three warnings. The problem will eventually bring things to a stop, but it does not require immediate or emergency attention. Question: What should you do if this needle drops into the red zone? Generally the needle of a well charged battery will be in the center of the gauge. Red zone The proper response is to get the system checked out. It could be a bad battery, alternator, or other related electrical problem.

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