Thoughts on Teaching World Music Andrew Killick University of Sheffield [email protected] Why teach world music? Multicultural education agenda? Increase musicianship skills by drawing on a wider range of styles and principles?
Develop understanding of what music is as a phenomenon common to all humanity? Understand ones own music better by comparing it with others? What is world music anyway? All the worlds music? Then why not just say music? Because (in education) music normally
means Western classical music. Other kinds of music get compartmentalised as popular, traditional, world etc. Different modes of study are applied to them, e.g. sociological, anthropological, economic. But all music circulates in the same world! One world of music? Writers of world music textbooks still seem to accept the compartmentalisation (see handout)
There is no book about all the worlds music yet! The Music Tree: an approach to teaching all the worlds music The world now has a shared musical language which can be imagined as a tree. The roots are all over the world. The trunk is in North America. The branches spread out all over the world. Fruit or seeds fall from the branches.
The seeds grow into new trees (from the same soil that nourished the roots). This course starts by tracing the roots The music we already know is world music Example: the basic rock & roll beat The Ramones, Rock n Roll High School, 1979 www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQFEo5pj-V8 Compare this use of drums and cymbals with: John Philip Sousa, The Liberty Bell, 1893
www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6Dd0EaEbqg Rock & roll has a strong backbeat (stress on beats 2 & 4 within 4/4 time). Where did the backbeat come from? Backbeat before rock & roll Rock & roll emerged in 1950s USA. What earlier forms of music had a backbeat? Jazz Blues
Gospel - all forms pioneered by African Americans - continuing a musical heritage traceable to Africa General characteristics of Sub-Saharan African music (1) (Jonathan Stock, World Sound Matters, p. 61) 1. Continuous, varied repetition 2. Overlapping call & response 3. Successive entries of new instruments
African American parallels: 1. Chris Kenner, Land of 1000 Dances, 1962 www.youtube.com/watch?v=a_BCUIFVkio 2. Aretha Franklin, Respect, 1967 www.youtube.com/watch?v=6FOUqQt3Kg0 3. (Next slide) Multi-layered texture of riffs: King Curtis, Memphis Soul Stew, 1967 www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Sm9n-6hy6M (bass riff, beginning with repeated note) (spoken:) Todays special is Memphis soul stew.
We sell so much of this, people wonder what we put in it. Were gonna tell you right now. Give me about a half a teacup of bass. (new melodic bass riff)
Now I need a pound of fatback drums. (add drums) Now give me four tablespoons of boiling Memphis guitar, this is gonna taste all right. (add guitar riff) Now just a little pinch of organ. (add electric organ tremolo) Now give me a half a pint of horn. (sax riff, across the beat) Place on the burner and bring to a boil. Thats it right there. Now beat well. (drums respond) Sub-Saharan African music (2) (with African American parallels) Simultaneous contrasting rhythms
Meade Lux Lewis, Honky Tonk Train Blues, 1927 www.youtube.com/watch?v=ne_U25ryLjc Continuous rhythmic marking by percussion Any popular music with drum kit. Rattling or buzzing timbres Muddy Waters, Hoochie Coochie Man, 1954 www.youtube.com/watch?v=HgAcDLZr6Gs Descending melodic contours Blues and any style with blues influences. African and European rhythm (Gunther Schullers theory)
European metre is hierarchical: different beats of the bar have stronger and weaker degrees of stress. African rhythm is polyrhythmic: different beats are stressed in different layers of the texture so that overall, each beat has equal stress. When asked to play in European metre, African musicians may have tended to make the beats more equal by stressing weak beats hence the backbeat in rock & roll.
European/Euro-American contributions to global popular music Hierarchical metre, especially 4/4 time. Melodies composed of balanced strains with different pitch contours. a random example: For Auld Lang Syne Functional harmony, tonality & modulation. from classical music via older pop styles Songs in strophic and verse/refrain forms. Electr(on)ic technology for amplification, recording, manipulation of sound.
Instruments, e.g. keyboards, guitars; BUT Middle Eastern Origins of European instruments Violin (rebec, Byzantine lr, Arab rabb) Oboe (Arab surnay and relatives) Timpani (nakers, Arab naqqara paired drums) Guitar (lute, lauda, Arabic al ud = wood) Piano (a struck zither, like Turkish kanun) Dissemination of the hammered dulcimer (from New Grove)
Ancestry of the drum kit Bass drum, snare drum, cymbal, traps Jazz drum set standardized 1940s Trap drummer in vaudeville, circus Pedal mechanisms develop c. 1890-1925 Instruments from military marching bands Trace back from America to Europe and from Europe to Turkey Turkish Music by Western classical composers
Mozarts Turkish Rondo (Rondo alla turca) Last movement of Piano Sonata in A Major, K. 331 www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKdVqD75dm4 Beethovens Turkish March from theatre music The Ruins of Athens, Op. 113 www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nd0OjCO9x5Y Turkish percussion = triangle (triangolo), cymbals (piatti), bass drum (tamburo grande). Turkish music from Turkey Ottoman Janissary [Military] Band
www.youtube.com/watch?v=D0Fyf63qI_E Famous percussion instrument makers: Zildjian, now based in USA, started in Turkey http://zildjian.com/About/History/Background The Ottoman Empire (source: www.naqshbandi.org) Aksak Turkish asymmetrical metre
9 beats, grouped 2 + 2 + 2 + 3 Traditional Music from Turkey (on Naxos), track 8 (free metre to 0:40) Ottoman Empire brought this to Bulgarian bagpipe tunes Bosnian Newly Composed Folk Song Dave Brubeck, Blue Rondo Alla Turk www.youtube.com/watch?v=s8E5A27PJHk Another root: Latin America (source: http://go.grolier.com/atlas)
The Latin Beat Compare the standard rock & roll beat e.g. Chuck Berry, Johnny B. Goode, 1958 www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFo8-JqzSCM (fastest notes go 8 to the bar) with the beat of much popular music since about 1970: Disco (The Bee Gees) Funk (George Clinton, Stevie Wonder) Rap (Grandmaster Flash)
- Slower tempo but fastest notes 16 to the bar Joo Gilberto, A Felicidade from film Black Orpheus, 1959 www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdgpPlT2-Vo samba refrain march-like basic beat on loud bass drums; 16-beat rhythm on large number of percussion instruments; call & response between
chorus & trombone bossa nova verse gentle basic beat on low-pitched drum; 16-beat rhythm on shaker only; thinned-out rhythm on fewer instruments; jazz-like melody and harmony; smoother sound: solo voice, acoustic guitar; sustained notes on wind & string instruments
samba refrain interrupts Latin American genres historically popular in Europe & North America Sarabande: possibly Native (South) American origin, taken from colonies to Spain in 16 th c. Habanera: 19th c. Cuban dance form, used in Bizets Carmen and musical My Fair Lady. Tango: Argentinian dance, popular internationally in 1910s. Son, Rumba, Cha Cha Cha, Salsa 20th c.
Cuban dance forms widely disseminated. Bossa Nova: Brazilian new beat music popular in North America from 1950s. Rhythms used in Livin La Vida Loca Ricky Martin, 1999 www.youtube.com/watch?v=ltRgb4SJ1uk basic 16-beat rhythm: 1 x x x 2 x x x 3 x x x 4 x x x standard clave rhythm: X - - X - - X - - - X - X - - reverse clave rhythm: - - X - X - - - X - - X - - X Verse (reverse clave rhythm:)
- - Shes in - - to su- per- sti - -tions, - - Black cats and voo-doo dolls... Refrain (standard clave rhythm:) X - - X - - X - - - X - X - - Up - - side - in - - side - out, shes liv-in la vi(2)da - lo(3) - ca (4) Western musicians use world sounds Love You To The Beatles, 1966
www.youtube.com/watch?v=pxr0Cofbmpk 0:00 sitar strokes sympathetic strings 0:10 unmetered alap-like improvisation 0:34 metered melody begins; tabla, drone 0:39 verse 1 (melisma on me); refrain 1:10 verse 2 (melisma on me); refrain 1:38 sitar solo (goes across the meter) 1:56 refrain; verse 3 (melisma); refrain 2:32 sitar solo to end; faster tempo and world musicians use Western sounds and technologies
West African praise singing traditions, see: AFRICA Salieu Suso: Griot on Naxos, and: www.kora-music.com/e/frame.htm Adapted by musicians of praise singer background, e.g. Salif Keita www.youtube.com/watch?v=GPfOgbxwC3c Conclusion Many world music textbooks refer to musics
in the plural (e.g. May, Musics of Many Cultures; Titon et al., Worlds of Music) In reality, all music exists in the same world Thanks to research and the Internet, we now have the resources to study and teach this
"Shrug sign" with GH elevation. Special Tests:4. Neer. Hawkins-Kennedy. Outcome Measures . SS. 90.6-percent of patients reported pain before loss of motion1. ADL's = washing hair, donning/doffing bra, tucking in shirt (men) Consider timing of symptoms and duration.
učení fyziky ještě jednou, tentokrát v aj. výuka v cizím jazyce, která má komplexní cíle. zlepšit komunikaci žáků v aj (Communication) naučit žáky odbornosti, např. fyziku (Content) zlepšit „kulturní rozhled" žáků (Culture) zlepšit schopnost žáků myslet a učit se (Cognition)
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