Dyslexia and ESOL Families By Olga Lapteva Why dyslexia? Why ESOL? Focus of this presentation Culturally responsive teaching The dependent
learner vs. the independent learner Know the brain Know the language Vowels, vowels, vowels! Culture is the way that every brain makes sense of the world (Hammond, 2015). Culture is the software
for brains hardware. Surface culture: observable and concrete (food, dress, music, holidays) Shallow culture: unspoken rules about everyday social interaction and norms (nature of friendship, concept of time, rules about eye contact etc.) Deep culture: tacit knowledge and unconscious assumption that govern our worldview. Challenges at this level can trigger the brains fight or flight response (two people from different cultures can look at the same event and attach different meaning based on
their deep culture). (Piaget, 1926) Cultural archetypes and parameters to consider:
Individualism vs. collectivism Roles of man and woman Views of time and space Concept of class and status Values Verbal language vs. non-verbal language Rituals Beliefs about health Kestler, 2014
Recognize YOUR implicit bias Refers to the unconscious attitudes and stereotypes that shape our responses to certain groups. See the the handout The Mindful Reflection Protocol by Barbara Dray and Debora Wisneski Brain rules, bringing it all together Welcome wrinkles and fat (neuroplasticity and
myelination)! The brain is a social organ (Hanson, 2013; Zull, 2002) Humans vigorously avoid social rejection (Freud). Humans strongly protect their ego from vulnerability (Freud). The development of self-esteem is closely related to achieving something in life (Erikson). Industry or Inferiority (6-12yo)? The development of language and reasoning [insight] are directly correlated (Vygotsky). Language shapes thought (Boroditsky, 2011) The dependent learner vs. the independent learner
Culturally and linguistically diverse students are far more often dependent learners ((Means&Knapp, 1991; Ritchhart, 2002) ELL student may start school with a small learning gap but as they progress the learning gap grows dramatically because we: Underestimate what students are intellectually capable of doing We postpone more challenging and interesting work until we believe they have mastered the basics Focus only on low-level basics, and depriving students of a meaningful and motivating context for learning and practicing higher order thinking
native language Thought and Language by Vygotsky (1962) primitive concepts complex concepts
foreign language primitive concepts complex concepts What literacy skills transfer across languages? Phonological awareness at the phoneme level with phonemes that exist in both languages (Raynolds, Lopez-Velasquez, Olivo-Valentin, 2016)
Syntactic awareness, the ability to reflect on the grammatical structure of a language transfers from L1 to L2 Knowledge of writing conventions Knowledge of reading comprehension strategies (Linan-Thompson, 2014) Dyslexia across Languages Dyslexia is neurobiological in origin and is therefore intrinsic to the individual. The same percentage of English learners will have these neurobiological differences as
native English speakers. Dyslexia is expressed differently in different languages depending on that languages orthographic structure. In languages with a deep orthography, such as English, children often need at least three years to learn basic decoding. (No 1:1 correspondence between letters and sounds) What do we do today to identify Dyslexia among ELLs? Phonemic awareness (ability to manipulate sounds) must be assessed. (Brown,2008)
Rapid automatic naming or RAN is a predictor of reading difficulties in ELLs (Frith, Wimmer, & Landeri, 1998) RAN tests the students ability to rapidly name items, letters, or numbers that are presented to them visually, could be used with kids that are not literate in native language Symbol - Sound - Articulation Respiration, phonation and articulation To create speech, around a 100 different muscles in the chest, neck, jaw, tongue, and lips must work together People have trouble with sounds that don't exist in the language. By the time you are a year old, you have learned to ignore most distinctions among sounds that don't matter in your own language. The older you get, the harder it becomes to learn the sounds that are
part of a different language. What to do? Culturally responsive teaching Safe environment (considering all brain rules) Parents should be encouraged to continue educate their kids in native language Direct instructions of fundamental structure of language Sound/symbol relationships with the physical cue to indicate which muscles are
involved in sound production (articulation) Teach your students to be independent learners Give explicit directions to parents Vowels, vowels, vowels! a: Place hand under the chin and drop your jaw e: Have the children smile, or pull back
on the side of their mouths i: Scrunch up nose and point with your index finger o: Circle your mouth with your finger u: Give the thumbs up signal for up or push in on stomach https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =GQa9w__GqLc Lets try to read this:
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