Early Childhood Family Education 2014 Statutes and Direction
Parents, Families and Family Engagement Michael Brown Minnesota Department of Education December 2, 2015 Leading for educational excellence and equity. Every day for every one. Overview
Importance of Definitions, Meanings Role of Theory Understanding Families Family impact Models of Family Engagement Family Engagement as a Systemic, Integrated Part of Your Collaborative PreK-3 Work Discussion education.state.mn.us
2 Start with: Definitions and Common Understandings One of the most challenging aspects of family engagement training is the varying methods and definitions used to describe what exactly is meant by family engagement. Dostaler and Cannon (October 2011). Developing a family engagement training strategy. Family Changes in families?
Engagement Different than involvement? What does it include or not include? For example, is parenting education part of family engagement? education.state.mn.us 3 Family Two or more people who are committed to each other and who share intimacy, resources, decision-making responsibilities and values. David Olson, John DeFrain, Linda Skogrand
Marriage and Families: Intimacy, Diversity, and Strengths 7 th ed, p. 5-6. A circle of care and support offering enduring commitment to care for one another related either biologically, emotionally or legally and takes into account those who the client identifies as significant to his/her well-being. Dostaler and Cannon (October 2011). Developing a family engagement training strategy. P. 7 education.state.mn.us 4
Parent Involvement or Engagement Parents who are involved serve the schools agenda by doing the things educators ask or expect them to do volunteering at school, parenting in positive ways, and supporting and assisting their children at home with their schoolwork while knowledge, voice and decision-making continue to rest with the educators (Pushor, 2001). education.state.mn.us 5
And even when schools and programs do engage families, they typically focus on asking parents to support the work of the school or program through activities such as serving on committees, helping with homework, fundraising, and volunteering to lead programs. education.state.mn.us
6 Family Engagement Family engagement means building relationships with families that support family well-being, strong parent-child relationships, and ongoing learning and development of parents and children alike. It refers to the beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and activities of families that support their childrens positive development from early childhood through young adulthood. Family engagement happens in the home, early childhood program, school, and community. It is a
shared responsibility with all those who support childrens learning. (OHS, PFCE Framework) education.state.mn.us 7 Influences What influences our work with families? Beliefs, experiences, etc. Skills, attitudes, dispositions Theory (cognizant or not) Other __________________ Other __________________ What influences our work when we create
family engagement plans, strategies, etc.? education.state.mn.us 8 Ecological Theory: Development in Context education.state.mn.us 9 Theoretical Influences: Social Capital It is a multilevel and multi-component
concept generally defined as a relational resource, such as personal and community networks, sense of belonging, civic engagement, norms of reciprocity and trust, which determines the quality of life, including our well-being and good health Health Promotion International, Vol. 29 No. 2 education.state.mn.us 10 Theoretical Influences:
Family Capital The familys role in constructing social capital: Financial capital (wealth or income) Human capital (parents education and cognitive resources they can share with children) Social capital (relations between children and parents which reflects the time, effort, resources, and energy parents invest in their children) Belcher et al., (2011). Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families. education.state.mn.us 11
Fostering and Measuring Skills: Interventions That Improve Character and Cognition James J. Heckman and Tim Kautz Both cognitive and character skills are crucial to success in economic and social life. Character skills include perseverance (grit"), selfcontrol, trust, attentiveness, self-esteem and selfefficacy, resilience to adversity, openness to experience, empathy, humility, tolerance of diverse opinions, and the ability to engage productively in society. Absence of quality parenting (stimulation, attachment, encouragement, and support) is the true measure of child poverty.
education.state.mn.us 12 Heckman An effective strategy for promoting human development should be based on three factually based insights: 1. The powerful role of families in shaping skills; 2. The multiplicity of skills required for successful functioning in society. A core set of skills promotes success in many aspects of life. Different tasks require different skills in different levels and proportions. People tend to pursue the tasks where their skills give them comparative advantage;
3. The technology of skill formation: that skills together with investment beget further skills. education.state.mn.us 13 Talent Development Research on the topic of talent development has linked it to four factors: 1. Early experience 2. Coaching 3. Practice 4. Motivation Parents play a central, if not critical, role in
enacting all four factors. Witte et al., (2015). Roeper Review, 37(2), 84-96 education.state.mn.us 14 Developmental Relationships Search Institute Developmental relationships are close connections through which young people develop the character strengths to discover who they are, gain the ability to shape their own lives, and learn how to interact with and
contribute to others. These relationships are characterized by five essential actions, each of which is described from the perspective of a young person: education.state.mn.us 15 Developmental Relationships 1. Express Care: Show that you like me and want the best for me. 2. Challenge Growth: Insist that I try to continuously improve.
3. Provide Support: Help me complete tasks and achieve goals. 4. Share Power: Hear my voice and let me share in making decisions. 5. Expand Possibility: Expand my horizons and connect me to opportunities. education.state.mn.us 16 Other Key Terms Family-Centered Approach
Family Strengths empowerment Diversity Cultural Competence Collaboration vs Compliance Other _______________ education.state.mn.us
17 Example of View of Family Engagement education.state.mn.us 18 Understanding Families The changing family: Size, structure, diversity Role of women and men in the workplace Rise of single parenthood
Rising cost of living for families Downward mobility Pressure from digital technologies education.state.mn.us 19 Strengthening Ties Most of the social and economic policies in the U.S. do not explicitly address, or take into account, the growing importance of families as
sources of human capital and determinants of individual success. (p. 2) Among the 60 percent of the population that lacks a college degree, family formation and family stability have declined drastically. (p. 3) education.state.mn.us 20 Strengthening Ties American marriage today is becoming a classbased and class-propagating institution. In upscale America, marriage is thriving: most people marry, fewer than 10 percent of children
are born to unmarried mothers, and most children grow up through age eighteen living with their two married parents. Among the more privileged, marriage clearly functions as a wealthproducing arrangement, a source of happiness over time, and a benefit to children (p. 4) education.state.mn.us 21 Research Says Families are Important Research shows that parents have the greatest influence on childrens language and literacy development.
A Governors Guide to Early Literacy: Getting all Students Reading by Third Grade, p. 14. Over 50 years of research links the various roles that families play in a childs educationas supporters of learning, encouragers of grit and determination, models of lifelong learning, and advocates of proper programming and placements for their child education.state.mn.us 22
with indicators of student achievement including student grades, achievement test scores, lower drop-out rates, students sense of personal competence and efficacy for learning, and students beliefs about the importance of education. Karen Mapp and Paul Kuttner, p. 5. Partners in Education: A Dual Capacity-Building Framework for FamilySchool Partnerships. education.state.mn.us 23
Benefits (MI Dept of Ed) 1. Students achieve more, regardless of socioeconomic status, ethnic/racial background or the parents' education level. 2. Students have higher grades and test scores, better attendance, and complete homework more consistently. 3. Students have higher graduation rates and greater enrollment rates in post-secondary education. 4. Educators hold higher expectations of students whose parents collaborate with the teacher. education.state.mn.us
24 Benefits 5. Student achievement for disadvantaged children not only improves, but can also reach levels that are standard for middle-class children. In addition, the children who are farthest behind make the greatest gains. 6. Children from diverse cultural backgrounds perform better when parents and professionals collaborate to bridge the gap between the culture at home and at the learning institution. 7. Student behaviors such as alcohol use, violence, and antisocial behavior decrease as
parent involvement increases. education.state.mn.us 25 Benefits 8. Students will keep pace with academic performance if their parents participate in school events, develop a working relationship with educators, and keep up with what is happening with their child's school. 9. Junior and senior high school students whose parents remain involved make better transitions, maintain the quality of their work,
and develop realistic plans for their future. Students whose parents are not involved, on the other hand, are more likely to drop out of school education.state.mn.us 26 According to research, the most accurate predictor of a student's achievement in school is not income or social status, but the extent to which that student's family is able to: 1. Create a home environment that encourages learning.
2. Communicate high, yet reasonable, expectations for their children's achievement and future careers. 3. Become involved in their children's education at school and in the community MI Dept of Education, Collaborating For Success Parent Engagement Toolkit, p. 6 education.state.mn.us 27 Parent and Family Involvement:
A Guide to Effective Parent, Family, and Community Involvement in North Carolina Schools A study published in 2007 in the Journal of Human Resources indicates that schools would be wise to invest in parent involvement. This report points out that regular parent involvement at home increases student achievement at a rate equal to a $1000 increase in per-pupil spending. When parents are empowered to talk with their child about his or her interests, studies, and school classes, children succeed. The research then suggests that investing in parent involvement pays. (p. 7)
education.state.mn.us 28 In Conclusion Families matter for virtually every child and youth outcome. Pekel et al., 2015 education.state.mn.us 29
The Pursuit of Happyness (2006) Don't ever let somebody tell you education.state.mn.us 30 Wanda Pratt https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YV7sbaHWlaQ education.state.mn.us 31
Kevin Durant NBA Player of the Year education.state.mn.us 32 The Importance of Parents: What We Say Parents are childrens first and most important teacher. Sometimes the statements are not as bold:
Parents are a childs first teacher. education.state.mn.us 33 What is a Teacher? A person who teaches, especially in a school. Oxford English Dictionary
What does one have to do to teach in a school? Why the requirements? Skills, knowledge, traits, dispositions, etc. Does teacher quality matter? What is the expected outcome of teaching? education.state.mn.us 34 Learning What is learning?
knowledge or skill acquired through experience, study, or being taught. Add beliefs and attitudes? How is adult and child learning similar/different? How do we know when a parent has learned something? What is important for parents/families to know? education.state.mn.us 35 Parents and Teaching How does a parent learn to teach? What is our role in helping parents enhance their
teaching/parenting skills? education.state.mn.us 36 Dr. Karen Mapp on the Recipe for School Improvement education.state.mn.us 37 Stanton Elementary Hosts Family
Engagement Roundtable education.state.mn.us 38 Explore Family Engagement Models These are examples: Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler Model of Parental Involvement Parent, Family, and Community Engagement (PFCE) Framework Epsteins Model for Parental Involvement CRAF-E4
education.state.mn.us 39 Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (HDS) Model Parents decision to become involved is based on three general factors: Parents beliefs that participating in their childrens learning is a part of their responsibility (i.e. parental role construction) and their evaluation of their capabilities in that regard (i.e. parenting self-efficacy), Parents perception of invitations or demands from schools and teachers and from their children to be
involved, and Demands on parents time and energy that may conflict with involvement activities (e.g., caring for other children, extended family responsibilities, demanding or inflexible work schedules). - from Park & Holloway, p. 107 education.state.mn.us 40 Parenting Roles Study on fathers looking at role identities: provider, teacher, protector, disciplinarian, caretaker, supporter, and co-parent.
Olmstead et al. (2009) Fathering, Vol. 7, No. 3, 249-268. How do we learn/understand our roles? (note, they can be implicit or explicit) What are different roles for various family members? education.state.mn.us 41 Parenting Self-Efficacy Research suggests that parents self-efficacy beliefs
can be central to their parenting practices. With poor parental self-efficacy, there is an increased susceptibility towards learned helplessness and thus a poor motivation to address difficulties It is a fragile experience that can be disrupted by maternal mood, particularly postnatal depression It can be enhanced by stronger informal social support education.state.mn.us 42
Parenting Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy is a predictor of optimistic, authoritative and consistent interaction in parent-child interactions Parenting self-efficacy influences parenting competence and adjustment; and it may be more difficult for parents with low self-efficacy to manage effectively challenging situations Iran J Psychiatry 2012; 7: 57-60 education.state.mn.us
43 Parenting self-efficacy refers to parents perceived ability to positively influence the behavior and development of their children A large body of literature links PSE to markers of parental competence such as sensitivity, consistency, and the use of non-punitive discipline with children ranging from infancy to adolescence Journal of Applied Communication Research, 42:4, 409-431, education.state.mn.us 44
Parent, Family and Community Engagement Framework education.state.mn.us 45 PFCE Framework (Program Impact Areas) PROGRAM ENVIRONMENT: Families feel welcomed, valued, and respected by program staff. FAMILY PARTNERSHIPS: Families work with staff to identify and achieve their goals and aspirations.
TEACHING AND LEARNING: Families are engaged as equal partners in their childrens learning and development. COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Communities support families interests and needs and encourage parent and family engagement in childrens learning. education.state.mn.us 46 PFCE (Outcomes) FAMILY WELL-BEING: Parents and families are safe, healthy, and have increased financial
security. POSITIVE PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS: Beginning with transitions to parenthood, parents and families develop warm relationships that nurture their childs learning and development. FAMILIES AS LIFELONG EDUCATORS: Parents and families observe, guide, promote, and participate in the everyday learning of their children at home, school, and in their communities. education.state.mn.us 47
PFCE (Outcomes) cont. FAMILIES AS LEARNERS: Parents and families advance their own learning interests through education, training and other experiences that support their parenting, careers, and life goals. FAMILY ENGAGEMENT IN TRANSITIONS: Parents and families support and advocate for their childs learning and development as they transition to new learning environments, including EHS to HS, EHS/HS to other early learning environments, and HS to kindergarten through elementary school. education.state.mn.us
48 PFCE (Outcomes) cont. 2 FAMILY CONNECTIONS TO PEERS AND COMMUNITY: Parents and families form connections with peers and mentors in formal or informal social networks that are supportive and/or educational and that enhance social well-being and community life. FAMILIES AS ADVOCATES AND LEADERS: Parents and families participate in leadership development, decision-making, program policy development, or in community and state organizing
activities to improve childrens development and learning experiences. education.state.mn.us 49 Epsteins Six Types of Involvement education.state.mn.us 50 CRAF-E4 Culturally Responsive, Anti-bias Framework of
Expectation, Education, Exploration, and Empowerment. This framework was designed to help early childhood practitioners engage with racially and ethnically diverse families in a manner that adopts the principles of cultural responsiveness and antibias. education.state.mn.us 51 CRAF-E4 Principle 1. Inviting families to participate in decision
making and goal setting for their child. Principle 2. Engaging families in two-way communication. Principle 3. Engaging families in ways that are truly reciprocal. Principle 4. Providing learning activities for the home and in the community. education.state.mn.us 52 CRAF-E4 Principle 5. Inviting families to participate in
program-level decisions and wider advocacy efforts Principle 6. Implementing a comprehensive program-level system of family engagement. education.state.mn.us 53 Strategies: Know Where to Find Information For example, visit the Family Engagement page on the MN PreK-3 webpage:
education.state.mn.us 54 Strategies: Review Plans from Other Organizations For example: Visit the San Francisco Unified School District website: education.state.mn.us 55
Strategies: Incorporate Recommendations Search Institute 1. Listen first to families rather than just developing and sending messages that dont resonate or motivate. 2. Focus on building relationships with families, rather than only providing programs. 3. Highlight families strengths, even amid challenges, rather than adopting and designing approaches based on negative stereotypes.
education.state.mn.us 56 Incorporate Recommendations Based on Research/Best Practice Search Institute, cont. 4. Encourage families to experiment with new practices that fit their lives, rather than giving them expert advice on what they need to do. 5. Emphasize parenting as a relationship more than a set of techniques. 6. Broaden coalitions focused on young peoples success to actively engage families as a focal point
for strengthening developmental relationships. education.state.mn.us 57 Strategies: Use Visuals to Convey Message education.state.mn.us 58
Strategies: Utilize Implementation Science For example, the National Implementation Research Network http://nirn.fpg.unc.edu/ education.state.mn.us 59 Contact [email protected]
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