Early Earth & the Origin of Life (Ch. 26) *The history of living organisms and the history of Earth are inextricably linked: Formation and subsequent breakup of Pangaea affected biotic diversity
The first photosynthetic organism released oxygen into the air and altered Earths atmosphere Endosymbiotic Theory certain organelles originated as free-living bacteria that were taken inside another cell as endosymbionts through endocytosis
Evidence structural mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure both have double membranes genetic mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria Mitochondria and chloroplasts have bacteria-like RNA and
ribosomes (70S as opposed to 80S in eukaryote cytoplasms) that enable them to make their own proteins and divide independently of the host cell functional mitochondria & chloroplasts move freely within the cell mitochondria & chloroplasts reproduce independently from the cell
Lynn Margulis Homo sapiens have changed the land, water, and air on a scale and at a rate unprecedented for a single species Figure 2. Sea level is changing. Observing stations from around the world report year-to-year
changes in sea level. The reports are combined to produce a global average time series. The year 1976 is arbitrarily chosen as zero for display purpose. Figure 1. Global warming revealed. Air temperature measured at weather stations
on continents and sea temperature measured along ship tracks on the oceans are combined to produce a global mean temperature each year. This 150-year time series constitutes the direct, instrumental record of global
History of Life on Earth: Life on Earth originated between 3.5 and 4.0 billion years ago Because of the relatively simple structure of prokaryotes, it is assumed that the earliest organism were prokaryotes
*this is supported by fossil evidence (spherical & filamentous prokaryotes recovered from 3.5 billion year old stromatolites in Australia and Africa) Layers of blue-green algae
Major Episodes in the History of Life: first prokaryotes- 3.5 to 4.0 billion years ago photosynthetic bacteria- 2.5 billion years ago
first eukaryotes- 2 billion years ago ~The oldest unequivocal remains of a diversity of microorganisms occur in the 2.0 BYO Gunflint Chert of the Canadian Shield
~This fauna includes not only bacteria and cyanobacteria but also ammonia consuming Kakabekia and some things that resemble green algae and fungus-like organisms
plants evolved from green algae fungi and animals arose from different groups of heterotrophic unicellular organisms first animals (soft-bodied invertebrates)- 700 million years ago first terrestrial colonization by plants and fungi475 million years ago
plants transformed the landscape and created new opportunities for all of life forms Prebiotic Chemical Evolution: Earths ancient environment was different from today:
-very little atmospheric oxygen -lightning, volcanic activity, meteorite, bombardment, UV radiation all more intense Oparin / Haldane hypothesis (1920s): the reducing atmosphere and greater UV radiation on primitive Earth favored reactions that built
complex organic molecules from simple monomers as building blocks Miller / Urey experiment (1953): Simulated atmospheric conditions hypothesized to be on early Earth by constructing an apparatus containing H2O, H2, CH4, and NH3. Results: They produced amino acids and other organic
molecules. Additional follow-up experiments have produced all 20 amino acids, ATP, some sugars, lipids and purine and pyrimidine bases of RNA and DNA. Origin of Life - Different Hypotheses: *No one knows how life actually began on Earth; experiments indicate key
steps that could have occurred. Panspermia: some organic compounds may have reached Earth by way of meteorites and comets meteorite Sea floor / Deep-sea vents: hot water and minerals emitted from deep sea vents may have
provided energy and chemicals needed for early protobionts Simpler hereditary systems (self-replicating molecules) may have preceded nucleic acid genes. Chemical evolution may have occurred in four stages: 1) abiotic synthesis of monomers
2) joining of monomers into polymers (e.g. proteins, nucleic acid) 3) formation of protobionts (droplets formed from clusters of molecules) 4) origin of heredity (likely that RNA was first) Abiotic Synthesis of Polymers
Researchers have produced amino acid polymers by dripping amino acid solutions onto hot sand, clay, or rock Form spontaneously without enzymes or ribosomes Polymers are all different (dont get the same one each time) May have acted as weak catalysts for reactions
on early Earth??? Protobionts: collections of abiotically produced molecules (membrane bound) able to maintain an internal environment different from their surroundings and exhibiting some life properties such as metabolism and excitability (experimental evidence
suggests spontaneous formation of Protobionts; some have membrane potential/ excitability) RNA RNA can carry out enzyme-like functions (ribozymes)
Some can make up short segments of RNA Some can remove segments of themselves Some can act on different molecules (tRNA) Reactions are slow possible formation of protobionts; self-repliating
RNA as early genes The Major Lineages of Life: the old 5 Kingdom System Living organisms Prokaryotic (Monera)
(Animalia) A. B. C. D. How was the atmosphere of the early earth different than it is today?
The early earths atmosphere contained mostly carbon monoxide The early earths atmosphere had more oxygen than it has today The early earths atmosphere contained more single celled organisms than it does today The early earths atmosphere did not contain oxygen
In the 4-stage hypothesis for the chemical evolution of life, which of the following is the correct sequence? A. Synthesize monomers; join monomers; form protobionts; system of heredity B. Form protobionts; synthesize monomers; join monomers; system of heredity C. System of heredity; join monomers; synthesize monomers; form protobionts D. Synthesize monomers; join monomers; system of heredity; form
protobionts What is a protobiont? A. B. C. D. A self-replicating early life form that uses RNA for heredity
A group of monomers that join/bond when temporarily bonded to materials such as clay or volcanic rock Early enzymes that were able to join basic amino acids together Collection of abiotically produced molecules that can maintain an internal environment and exhibit some life properties What is the name of the alternate hypothesis for the seeding
of organic compounds on earth by meteorites & comets? A. Deep Sea Vent Hypothesis B. Panspermia C. Impact Hypothesis D. Early Earth Seeding Hypothesis In the old 5 Kingdom system used to classify all life, what are the names of the Kingdoms? A. Bacteria; Plantae; Animalia; Fungi; Protista
B. Bacteria; Plantae; Animalia; Fungi; Monera C. Plantae; Animalia; Bacteria; Monera; Protista D. Plantae; Animalia; Fungi; Monera; Protista
Public Sources & Intermediaries. US$ 137 Billion, or 42%, of total $331 Billion climate finance flows in 2014 (Source: CPI Global Landscape of Climate Finance, 2014). Ministries & Government Agencies. Bilateral Aid agencies
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