Earth & Space Science Chapter 4

Earth & Space Science Chapter 4

Earth & Space Science Chapter 4 Minerals Mineral Characteristics

Naturally occurring Inorganic (has never been alive) Solid Specific chemical composition (can be an element

or a compound) Atoms are arranged in a regular crystal structure Name some minerals. Is coal a mineral? Salt? Sugar? Glacial ice? Natural gas? Diamond? How Minerals Form Molten magma cools and crystallizes

If cooling is slow, large crystals form If cooling is fast, small crystals form Minerals can form from solutions Water can evaporate, leaving mineral crystals behind Minerals can precipitate from a saturated

solution Mineral Identification Luster (metallic or nonmetallic) Mineral Identification Color (not always reliable for identification)

Mineral Identification Streak color (scrape against a ceramic tile) Mineral Identification Hardness (how easily it is scratched)

Mineral Identification Cleavage/fracture (does it break evenly or with jagged edges Mineral Identification Texture How does it feel? (smooth, rough, glassy,

soapy, greasy) Feel these minerals: Quartz (smooth/glassy) Graphite (greasy) Talc (soapy) Mineral Identification

Crystal structure Mineral Identification Specific Gravity/Density California in 1849. How would you tell the difference between

gold and pyrite (fools gold)? Special Properties

Taste (halite) Smell (sulfur) Magnetism (magnetite) Double refraction (calcite-Iceland spar) Effervescencebubblesin acid

(calcite/carbonates) Fluorescenceglow in the dark (fluorite) Iridescencecolor changing (labradorite, bornite) Mineral Groups Sharing similar chemical composition: Silicates: quartz, feldspar, mica

Carbonates: calcite, dolomite, azurite Metal oxides: hematite, magnetite Others: Sulfides: pyrite Halides: halite Native elements: copper, silver, etc.

Economically Important Minerals Ore: a mineral that contains a useful substance that can be mined profitably Hematite (iron) Bauxite (aluminum) Gem: a mineral prized for its rarity and beauty

Ruby Emerald Diamond

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