Earth Science

Earth Science

Earth Science Chapter 1-2, 1-3 & 1-4 The Earth System Earth System: 4 main parts 1. Atmosphere 2. Hydrosphere 3. Lithosphere 4. Biosphere Atmosphere

The layer of gases that surround and form an envelope around the Earth. Consists of several gases Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% CO2, H2O, others 1% Lithosphere

Earth's solid, rocky outer layer The continents, islands and ocean floors Hydrosphere All of the water present on the planet Oceans, lakes, streams, ice caps, snow, glaciers, etc.

Biosphere That area of the land, water and air that contains life! The Earths Surface Topography: The shape of the land. The

topography of an area includes the area's elevation, relief, and landforms.

Elevation - Relief Elevation -height above sea level Relief - difference between the highest and the lowest points of an area Landforms 3 main types: plains, mountains & plateaus.

Plains: made up of flat or gently rolling land with low relief Mountains: made up of high elevation and high relief. Plateaus: high elevation and a more or less level surface Earths Grid Equator & Prime Meridian Prime Meridian goes thru Greenwich, England

Equator is half way between the north & south pole Latitude & Longitude Latitude: the distance north or south of the equator Longitude: the distance east or west of the prime meridian Both latitude &

longitude are measured in degrees Latitude & Longitude Topographic Maps

They provide information on the elevation, relief, and

slope of the ground surface You must familiarize yourself with the map's scale and symbols and interpret the map's contour lines. closely spaced contour lines indicate steep slopes.

closed loop with no other contour lines inside it indicates a hilltop. V-shaped contour lines pointing uphill indicate a valley. Reading a Topo Map

Contour lines Thin lines Contour interval Spaces between Index contour Thick lines

Making a Topo Map

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