Echinoderms & Invertebrate Chordates - Green Local Schools

Echinoderms & Invertebrate Chordates - Green Local Schools

Echinoderms Section 38.1 Echinoderms Examples: sea stars, sand dollars, sea urchins, & sea cucumbers Marine environments Brilliantly colored Radial symmetry

4 Unique Characteristics: 1. Ossicles: calcium carbonate plates that make up exoskeleton 2. Water-vascular system: network of

water-filled canals inside body 3. Tube feet: small, movable extension of w-v system which aid in movement, feeding, respiration, & excretion 4. Pentaradial symmetry: body parts extend from center along 5 spokes Classification

6 classes of echinoderms (only 5 discussed in textbook): Class Crinoidea Class Ophiuroidea Class Echinoidea Class Holothuroidea Class Asteroidea Class Crinoidea

Examples: sea lilies, feather stars Crinoid means lily-like 5 main arms that branch to form up to 200 more arms Filter feeders Mouth faces up Class Ophiuroidea Largest class with examples such as

basket stars & brittle stars Ophiuroidea means snake-tail Live on bottom of ocean Regeneration of broken arms Long, narrow arms allow for quick movement Class Echinoidea Examples: sea urchins & sand dollars

Echinoidea means spinelike Compact, rigid endoskeleton that surrounds internal organs Spines can have barbs or venom Class Holothuroidea Example: sea cucumber Holothuroidea means water polyp Armless

Ossicles are not connected thus soft bodies Tentacles around mouth to capture prey Class Asteroidea Example: sea star (starfish) Asteroidea means starlike Variety of sizes, shapes, and colors Compete with humans for oysters, clams,

etc Sea Stars Section 38.1 continued External Structure Several arms extending from central region

Two rows of tube feet on underneath side of each arm Oral surface: side where mouth is located Starfish = underside Aboral surface: side opposite of mouth

Rough texture due to short spines Pedicellariae: tiny pinchers surrounding of each spine that keep body free of foreign objects Water-Vascular System Network of water-filled canals that are

connected to the tube feet Water movement: Madreporite (sievelike plate on aboral surface) stone canal ring canal (encircles mouth) radial canal (extends to each arm) tube feet

Ampulla: bulblike sac at end of tube feet that allows for movement and suction Feeding & Digestion Prey: mollusks, worms, clams Cardiac stomach: can be turned inside out through mouth during feeding Digestive pathway:

Mouth cardiac stomach pyloric stomach digestive glands in each arm anus Other Body Structures No circulatory, excretory, or respiratory systems! Skin gills: thin walls of tube feet that allow

gas exchange Nervous system = nerve ring (around mouth), radial nerves (length of each arm), eyespots (end of each arm), tentacles Reproduction & Development Separate sexes each arm has sex

organs External fertilization After 2 months of swimming they settle to bottom of ocean and metamorphous into adult Regeneration (asexual)

As long as part of the central region stays in tact

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