Ecology and Energy Flow - Springfield School District

Ecology and Energy Flow - Springfield School District

Ecology and Energy Flow QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Vocabulary Ecology: the study of the interactions among organisms and their environments between biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) things

Biosphere: the region of the Earth where life exists, including; Biotic components (plants, animals, etc.) and Abiotic components (land, water, air/atmosphere) Levels of Organization in the Biosphere (from smallest to largest) Species: organisms that can breed & produce fertile offspring Population: group of the same species that live in the same area Community: populations of different species living in the same area

Ecosystem: all living things in an area plus their nonliving, physical environment Biome: group of ecosystems with the same climate Energy Flow QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Sunlight is the main source of energy for life on Earth Autotrophs/producers: use the suns energy to produce their own food

Plants, some algae & some bacteria Heterotrophs/consumers: eat other organisms for food Animals, fungi QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime and a

TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Types of Heterotrophs Herbivores: eat plants QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Carnivores: eat animals Omnivores: eat plants & animals

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Types of Heterotrophs Detritivores: eat dead QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. remains of plants & animals Earthworms Decomposers: break

down organic matter QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Bacteria and fungi Energy flows in one direction: SUN >>autotrophs >>heterotrophs Food chain: Shows one path QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. of energy flow through an

ecosystem Food web: Shows ALL the food chains in an ecosystem QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Trophic Levels Steps/levels of energy in QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. the ecosystem

1st level = primary producers 2nd level = primary consumers (usually herbivores) 3rd level = secondary consumers (usually omnivores or carnivores) And so on. . . Arrows point in the direction of energy flow What is a primary QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor

are needed to see this picture. consumer? What is a secondary consumer? What is the main source of energy? What is the primary producer? Community Interactions Vocabulary Habitat: the area where an organism lives, including

biotic and abiotic factors Niche: full range of physical and biological conditions an organism lives in plus how it uses them, includes: Place in the habitat Place in the food web Range of temperature needed for survival Physical conditions necessary for survival When and how reproduction occurs Resource Partitioning Within an ecosystem, there is competition for resources

Water, nutrients, light, food, or space By occupying different niches, organisms avoid competition Example: Spruce tree habitat/different species of warblers QuickTime an TIFF (Uncompressed) de are needed to see thi

Community Interactions Competition Same or dif erent species attempting to use the same resources Predation One organism kil ing/eating another one Symbiosis Two species living closely together Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism Mutualism +/+ Both species benefit from the interaction Honeybees/plants

Remora/shark Sea anemone/clown fish Humans/intestinal bacteria QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decom are needed to see this pict QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Commensalism +/0 One species benefits while the other is unaffected Barnacle/whale Orchids/trees QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) dec are needed to see this p Parasitism +/-One organism benefits by harming

the other Tapeworms/human Flea/dog Lice/human QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime anddecompres a TIFF (Uncompressed) are needed to see this picture.

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