What is Mythology? Long ago, the Greeks and the Romans believed in stories we now call myths. These stories featured gods and goddesses who the Greeks worshipped and prayed to; they also featured great heroes. From these myths, we can learn about the beliefs of these ancient people. Purposes of Myths
Scientific explained events in nature Literary entertained with good storytelling Religious gave meaning to life; explained the role of gods in everyday life TWO NAMES, POWERS THE SAME Many gods and goddesses have both Greek and Roman names. That is because the ancient Romans adopted a great deal of
Greek mythology and made it their own. Often, they changed the names of the particular gods and goddesses. The 12 Olympians The 12 great gods (who defeated the Titans) were ruled by Zeus and lived on Mt. Olympus
These 12 were known as the Olympians (Olympic games were in their honor) Mt. Olympus was a great mountain in Greece (not heaven). Qualities of Greek Gods They had human emotions and weaknesses They were immortal with supernatural
powers However, they were also vulnerable and could be hurt Zeus (Jupiter) God of Gods Lord of the Sky and the leader of all the gods, the rain god, and cloud gatherer. Thunderbolt, Eagle Wore an aegis: used to represent a protective
shield He was the most powerful, but was not all knowing. He could be outwitted or deceived. His wife was the Goddess Hera, but he had various lovers and affairs. Some say that this can be explained by his worship at many towns, where the people would merge the towns god with Zeus, making that gods wife a lover of Zeus as well.
Zeus Children Poseidon (Neptune) God of the Sea Trident Powerful, secretive Vengeful, usually argumentative with other gods Controlled the seas and its waves and storms with his trident. Introduced horses to mankind and had a special
connection with bulls and horses. Was sometimes called the Earth Shaker. Hades (Pluto) God of the Underworld dark bearded, crown, scepter, key, helmet of invisibility, chariot Was in charge of the Underworld (the realm of the dead) and the dead themselves (but not of
Death). God of wealth and precious metals in the Earth. Barely ventured out of the underworld and onto Earth or Olympus (was not welcome there). Hera (Juno) Goddess of Marriage Protector of Married Women
Zeus wife and sister Daughter of Cronus & Rhea Peacock, cow, pomegranate Powerful, bold, jealous The beautiful protector of marriage and married women. Avenged infidelity often Hestia (Vesta) Goddess of Home and Hearth Hearth fire
Good-natured, loving Does not appear in many myths Daughter of Cronus & Rhea Seven Vestal Virgins oversee her fire Virgin Goddess Ares (Mars) God of War Spear, vulture, dog Boastful, loud, cruel
Terrorized mortals Son of Zeus and Hera, but neither parent liked him. Thought to have been a bloodstained, murderous coward. Athena (Minerva) Goddess of War & Wisdom Owl, olive, wisdom, crafts
Wise, even-tempered, fierce in battlestrategic war Sprung from Zeus skull fully armed The Battle Goddess/Goddess of the City, the protector of civilized life, handicrafts, and agriculture Was fierce, ruthless, and defensive of state. Zeus favorite child and was trusted with his most valuable possessions, such as the thunderbolt. Virgin Goddess
Hermes (Mercury) God of Travelers, Thieves, & Shepherds Son of Zeus & Maia Winged sandals and hat, caduceus Witty, happy, clever, friendly, helpful Chief messenger, not the most honest god The messenger of the gods, famously known for his winged shoes and winged hat.
Was said to be the most shrewd and cunning, and a master thief and a guide of the dead. Apollo God of Light & Purity Son of Zeus and Leto Twin brother of Artemis Healing arts, music Played beautiful music on his lyre. The God of Light and Truth (and
always told the truth.) Lord of the Silver Bow/Archer God Artemis (Diana) Goddess of the Hunt & Moon Daughter of Zeus & Leto Twin of Apollo Virgin goddess Cypress tree, wild animals, deer Aloof, majestic, nature-loving,
quick to anger, athletic Skilled archer, lived among virgin nymphs Lady of Wild Things Hephaestus (Vulcan) God of Fire & Forge Sometimes told as the son of Zeus and Hera, and other times to only Hera.
Fire, quail, hammer, forge Ugly and lame Helped by Cyclopes in underground forges Wife is Aphrodite Aphrodite/Venus Goddess of Love Dove, rose, apple Seductive, irresistible, sometimes treacherous
The foam-risen goddess Hephaestus won her hand, not heart, shes in love with Ares Led Paris to Helen Why Study Greek Mythology? Mythology has influenced our modern world. Mythology in the Movies Troy
Hercules Clash of the Titans Harry Potter The Lightning Thief Pirates of the Caribbean Cultural Influences Psychology Oedipus Complex Narcissus (Narcissism-excessive love for yourself)
Royal Air Force (RAF) bravely battled the German . Luftwaffe. - Then the Germans decided to bomb London and other cities, instead of military targets. Operation Sea Lion. German bombers began bombing London on September 7, 1940.
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Stoichiometry. Molar mass, Percent composition, Moles, Conversions, Empirical formulas, Molecular formulas. The Mole. SI unit for amount. A counting unit for measuring large quantities of small items . Atoms. molecules . Particles. 1 mole = 6.022 x 10 23 atoms...
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